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In each of the following examples find by inspection the difference between the two amounts given :

1. $1, $ .75 11. $ 10, $ 7.05 21. $20, $ 17.60 2. $2, $ 1.10 12. $ 10, $ 6.90 22. $20, $ 17.90 3. $2, $ .85 13. $ 10, $ 4.30 23. $ 25, $ 21.40 4. $ 3, $ 1.90 14. $ 10, $ 3.40 24. $30, $27.15 5. $ 3, $ 2.15 15. $ 10, $ 7.80 25. $30, $28.80 6. $ 4, $ 2.30 16. $ 15, $ 12.30 26. $ 40, $ 37.10 7. $4, $ 3.15 17. $ 15, $ 5.80 27. $ 40, $ 37.60 8. $ 4, $ 3.60 18. $ 15, $ 11.10 28. $ 50, $ 42.35 9. $5, $ 1.40

19. $ 15, $ 13.10 29. $50, $ 47.20 10. $5, $ 3.60 20. $20, $ 17.10 30. $50, $41.15

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Exercise Perform the following indicated subtractions : 1. 2.

3. 7584 6748

7556 5645 3769

5642

4. 8864 6468

5. 9530 6678

6. 7765 3456

7. 6728 4635

8. 5460 3254

9. 6549 4346

10. 5643 2647

11. 8790 4769

12. 7597 7432

13. 6685 4820

14. 5453 3759

15. 8674 6427

16. 5842 3425

17. Find the amount by which the 1916–1917 total American wheat crop was less than the 1915–1916 crop, using the following figures :

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AGRICULTURAL BUILDING, WASHINGTON, D. C. 18. Using the following figures, find the distance saved between San Francisco and New York if the Panama route is taken : From San Francisco to New York via Straits of Magellan 13,083 mi. From San Francisco to Liverpool via Straits of Magellan 13,630 mi. From San Francisco to New York via Panama

5,300 mi. From San Francisco to Liverpool via Panama

7,954 mi. Find the distance saved between San Francisco and Liverpool under the same conditions. In each case find the number of days saved if a vessel makes on an average 360 miles a day.

CHAPTER II

MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION

Multiplication is the process of taking one number as many times as there are units in another. The number taken or multiplied is called the multiplicand. The number showing how many times the multiplicand is taken is called the multiplier. The result obtained by multiplying is called the product.

EXAMPLES

7 multiplicand
5 multiplier
35 product

632 multiplicand

57 multiplier
4424
3160
36024 product

Check. Divide the product by the multiplier. The result is the multiplicand.

Certain special methods of multiplication are given on succeeding pages. As a preliminary, the following oral and written exercises are suggested :

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6.

7.

9.

10.

8534
453

7597
564

8.
4378
434

6464
464

7474
646

11.

12.

13.

15.

8686
468

6854
658

7895
206

14.
7856
725

4739 978

16.

17.

6783
842

6496
4536

18.
8745
7586

19. 7490 4326

20. 4836 4262

21. At $275 a month, what will a man's yearly salary amount to?

22. A school librarian purchased 24 dictionaries at $ 9.75 each. What did they all cost ?

23. If a cubic foot of ice weighs 58 pounds, what will 1492 cubic feet of ice weigh ?

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24. Two vessels are 8888 miles apart and are sailing toward each other, one at the rate of 144 miles, the other at the rate of 166 miles a day. How far apart will they be at the end of three weeks ?

25. Two vessels are 8888 miles apart and are sailing in opposite directions, one at the rate of 144 miles, the other at the rate of 166 miles per day. How far apart will they be at the end of a week ?

26. What will 34 automobiles cost at $ 1375 a piece ?

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