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SOLID, OR CUBIC MEASURE.
72. This is used in measuring all bodies where we nave regard to length, breadth, and thickness, such as earth, stone, timber, &c.
A Cube is a solid bounded by six equal squares, regembling a common tea-chest.
If the sides of a cube are each one inch long, it is called a cubic inch. If each side is one foot, it is called a cubic foot. If a side is one rod, it is called a cubic rod.
In the adjoining figure we have endeavored to represent a cube, each side of which is 3 feet, or one yard, and con. sequently it is one cubic yard.
The top, which is equal to the base, contains 3X3=9 square feet; hence, if this was only one foot in height, it would contain 9 cubic feet; but as it is 3 feet in height, it must therefore contain 3 times 9=27 cubic feet. Hence, one cubic yard is equivalent to 3x3 x3=27 cubic feet.
In the same way one cubic foot is equivalent to 12x 12x12=1728 cubic inches.
1728 solid inches S. in. make solid foot, S. f. 27 solid feet
“ 1 solid yard, S. yd. *40 feet of round timber or ) « 1 ton,
Ton. 50 feet of hewn timbers 128 solid feet
6 1 cord of wood, C.
. A ton of round timber is so much as, when hewed, shall make 40 cubic feet
A pile of wood 4 feet wide, 4 feet high, and 8 feet long, will make one cord. One foot in length of such a pile is sometimes called a cord foot. It contains 16 solid feet; consequently 8 cord feet make one cord,
For what is Solid Measure used? What is a Cube? In a cubic yard how many oubic feet? In a cubic foot how many cubic inches? How many cubic feet of pound timber make a ton? How many of hewn timber? How many cubic feet make a cord of wood ? Explain what is meant by a cord foot.
73. By this are measured all liquids except beer.
What liquids are measured by Wine Measure? Repeat the Table How many cubic inches in the wine gallon ?
The beer gallon contains 282 cubic or solid inches. What is measured by Beer Measure ? Repeat the Table. How many cubic inche in the beer gallon ?
75. By this are measured all dry wares, as grain seeds, roots, fruits, salt, coal, sand, oysters, &c.
* In the United States 32 bushels=1 chaldron.
By the English statute the dry gallon must contain 2680 cubic or solid inches. The corn or Winchester bushel must contain 21502 cubic or solid inches. This measure is of a cylindric form, 8 inches deep and 187 inches in diameter.
By an act of Parliament, which took effect the 1st of January, 1826, the imperial gallon of 277.274 cubic inches was adopted as the only gallon. This gallon was to consist of 10 pounds, avoirdupois, of distilled water.
Note. If we divide 1728, the number of cubic inches in one cubic foot, by 277.274, the number of cubic inches in the gallon, we shall obtain 6.2321 for a quotient, which is the number of gallons in one cubic foot. Multiplying 6.2321 by 10, the number of pounds in one gallon, we obtain 62-321 for the number of avoirdupois pounds in one cubic foot of water. In one avoirdupois pound there are 7000 grains, and in 10 pounds there are 70000 grains. But 10 pounds is the weight of one gallon, which contains 277:274 cubic inches. Hence, dividing 70000 by 277:274, we find 252-458, the weight in grains of one cubic inch of water.
· According to the Revised Statutes of the state of New York, a cubic foot of distilled water, when estimated under prescribed circumstances, is to consist of 621 pounds, or 1000 ounces avoirdupois weight. Eight pounds of such water is to constitute the gallon for liquid measure, and ten pounds is to make the gallon for dry measure.
What articles are measured by Dry Measure} Repeat the Table. How many cubic inches in the dry gallon, according to the English statute? How many cubic inches in a bushel ? What is the form and dimensions of the Winchester bushel measure? How many cubic inches in the English imperial gallon? The imperial gallon contains how many pounds of distilled water ? One cubic foot of water weighs how many avoirdupois pounds? How many Troy pounds ? One cubic inch of water weighs how many grains ? How many pounds of water constitute the dry gallon, according to the Revised Statutes of New York? How many pounds make the liquid gallon ?
DAYS. 1 month, January, .... 31 7 month, July,..... 31 2 “ February, .... 28 or 29 8 " August,
31 March, ..... 31
September, ... 30 4 « April, . ..... 30
| 10 u
October, . .... 31 5 " May,. . . . . 31 11 “ November, .. 30 June, . . . . . . 30
365 or 366
If the year exceeded 365 days by 6 hours exactly, then once in four years these hours would amount to another day. Hence, once in four years, an additional day is given to the month of February; and such years are called