2. Troy Weight. 24 grains (g) make 1 penny-weight, marked 20 penny-weights, 1 ounce, 12 ounces, 1 pound, 3. Avoirdupois Weights 16 drams (dr.) make 16 ounces, 28 pounds, 1 quarter of a hundred weight, 4 quarters, 20 hundred weight, 1 pound, 1 hundred weight, T By this weight are weighed all coarse and drassy goods. grocery wares, and all metals except gold and silver. This measure is applied to grain, beans, flas-seed, eats, oysters, coal, &c wil. All brandies, spirits, mead, vinegar, oil, &c. are measured by wine measure. Note.-231 solid inches, make a gallon. 8. Long Measure. 3 barley corns (b. c.) make 1 inch, marked 12 inches, 69 statute miles, int. 1 foot, ft. 1 yard, yd. 1 rod, pole, or perch, rd. 1 furlong, fur. 1 league, lea. 1 degree, on the earth. 360 degrees, the circumference of the earth. The use of long measure is to measure the distance of places, or any other thing, where length is considered, without regard to breadth. N. B. In measuring the height of horses, 4 inches make 1 hand. In measuring depths, six feet make 1 fathom, or French toise. Distances are measured by a chain, four rods long, containing one hundred links. 9. Land, or Square Measure. 144 square inches make 9 square feet, 50 square yards, or 272 square feet, 40 square rods, 4 square roods, 640 square acres, 10. Solid or Cubic 1728 solid inches make 1 square foot. 1 square yard. 1 square rod. 1 square rood. Measure. 1 solid foot. 1 ton or load. 1cord of wood. All solids, or things that have length, breadth and depth, are measured by this measure. N. B. The wine gallon contains 251 solid or cubic inches, and the beer gallon, 282. A bushel contains 2150,42 solid inches. 13 months, 1 day and 6 hours, 1 Julian year, yr. Thirty days hath September, April, June, and November February twenty-eight alone, all the rest have thirty-one. N. B. In bissextile, or leap year, February hath 29 days. So degrees, 1 minute, 1 degree, sign, S. signs, or 560 degrees, the whole great circle of th , Explanation of Characters used in this Book Equal to, as 12d. 1s. signifies that 12 ponce are equal to 1 shilling. More, the sign of addition, as 5+7=12, signifies that 5 and 7 added together are equal to 12. Minus, or less, the sign of subtraction, as 6-/signifies that 2 subtracted from 6, leaves 4. x Multiply, or with, the sign of Multiplication; 4x3=12, signifies that 4 multiplied by 3, is equal to 12. The sign of Division; as 8-2-4, signifies that S divided by 2, is equal to 4; or thus, 4, each of which signify the same thing, :: Four points set in the middle of four numbers, denote them to be proportional to one another, by the rule of three; as 2:4: :8:16; that is, as 2 to 4, so is 3 to 16. ✔Prefixed to any number, supposes that the square root of that number is required. Prefixed to any number, supposes the cube root of the number is required. Denotes the biquadrate root, or fourth power, 2% ARITHMETIC. ARITHMETIC is the art of computing by numbers, and has five principal rules for its operation, viz. Numevation, Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, and Divi' sion. NUMERATION. Numeration is the art of numbering. It teaches to express the value of any proposed number by the following characters, or figures: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 0—or cypher. Besides the simple value of figures, each has a local value, which depends upon the place it stands in, viz. any figure in the place of units, represents only its simplé value, or so many ones, but in the second place, or NOTE.-Although a cypher standing alone signifies nothing; yet when it is placed on the right hand of figures, it increases their value in a tenfold proportion, by throwing them into higher places. Thus 2 with a cypher annexed to it, becomes 20, twenty, and with two cyphers, thus, 200, two hundred, 2. When numbers consisting of many figures, are given to he read, it will be found convenient to divide them into as many periods as we can, of six figures each, reckoning from the right hand towards the left, calling the first the period of naits, the second that of millions, the third billions, the fourth ilers, &c. as in the following number: 80 7 3 6 2 5 4 6 2 7 8 9 0 1 2506792 4. Period of 3. Period of | 2. Period of |1. Period of Trillions. 3073 Billions. 625462 Millions. 789012 Units. 506792 The foregoing number is read thus-Eight thousand and seventy-three trillions; six hundred and twenty-five thou And, four hundred and sixty-two billions; seven hundred and hty-nine thousand and twelve millions; five hundred and six thousand, seven hundred and nmety-two. N. B. Billions is substitute 1 for millions of millions. llions for millions of melions of millions. Quatrillions for millions of millleus of millions of millions. kc. |