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2. A Cube is a solid body bound

Cubic Inch. ed by six equal squares. It is often called a hexaedron Hence,

A Cubic Inch is a cube, each of whose sides is a square inch, as represented by the adjoining figure.

A Cubic Foot is a cube, each of whose sides is a square foot, &c.

3. In estimating the capacity or tonage of ships, 42 cubic feet are allowed for a ton.

4. By a ton of round timber is meant, such a quantity of timber in its rough or natural state, as when hewn, will make 40 cubic feet.

Note.-For an easy method of forming models of the cube and other regular solids, see Thomson's Legendre's Geometry, p. 222.

WINE MEASURE.

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155. Wine Measure is used in measuring wine, alcohol, molasses, oil, and all other liquids except beer, ale, and milk. 4 gilis (gi.)

make 1 pint,

marked

pt. 2 pints

1 quart, 4 quarts

1 gallon,

gal. 31) gallons

1 barrel, 42 gallons

1 tierce,

tier. 63 gallons or 2 barrels 1 hogshead," hhd. 2 hogsheads

1 pipe or butt,

pi. 2 pipes

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tun. Obs. The standard unit of Liquid Measure adopted by the Government, is the English Wine Gallon of 231 cubic inches, equal to 81000 pounds avoirdupois of distilled water at the maximum density, which is about 410 Fahrenheit.*

1 tun,

Quest.- Obs. What is a cube? What is a cubic inch? A cubic foot ? Draw a cubic inch upon the black board. How many cubic feet make a ton of shipping ? What is meant by a ton of round timber? 155. What is Wine Measure? Recite the Table. Obs. What is the standard unit of Liquid Measure of the United States? How many cubic inches in a wine gallon?

*Olmsted's Philosophy. Also, Hasler on Weights and Measures, p. 102.

35. In 4 pints, how many gills ? In 6 pts. ? In 12 pts. ?

36. In 5 quarts, how many pints? In 6 qts. ? In 9 qts. ? In 13 qts. ?

37. In 4 gallons, how many quarts ? In 6 gals. ? In 10 gals.? In 12 gals. ?

38. In 3 hogsheads, how many barrels ? In 7 hhds. ? 39. How many quarts in 8 pints? In 11 pts. ? In 15 pts. ? In 18 pts. ?

40. How many gallons in 16 quarts ? In 22 qts. ? In 32 qis. ?

BEER MEASURE.

156. Beer Measure is used in measuring beer, ale, and milk. 2 pints (pts.) make 1 quart,

marked

qt. 4 quarts 1 gallon,

gal. 36 gallons

1 barrel,

bar. or bl. 14 barrels or 54 gals. I hogshead,

hhd.

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Obs. The beer gallon contains 282 cubic inches. In many places milk is measured by wine measure.

41. In 3 quarts, how many pints? In 7 qts. ? In 15 qts. ?

42. In 4 gallons, how many quarts ? In 6 gallons ? In 20 ?

DRY MEASURE.

157. Dry Measure is used in measuring grain, fruit, salt, &c. 2 pints (pt.) make 1 quart,

marked qt. 8 quarts

1 peck,

pk. 4 pecks or 32 qts. 1 bushel,

bu. 32 bushels

I chaldron,

ch.

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Obs. 1. In England, 36 bushels make a chaldron.

Quest:-156. What is Beer Measure? Recite the Table. 157. What is Dry Measure? Repeat the Table.

2. The standard unit of Dry Measure adopted by the Government, is the Winchester Bushel of 2150 cubic inches, equal to 776377 pounds avoirdupois of distilled water, at the maximum density. The Winchester bushel is so called because the standard measure was formerly kept at Winchester, England.

43. In 4 quarts, how many pints? In 6 qts. ? In 10 qts. ? In 14 qts. ? In 18 qts. ?

44. How many quarts are there in 3 pecks ? In 5 pecks?

45. How many pecks in 3 bushels ? In 5 bu.? In 10 bu.?

46. How many quarts in 6 pints? In 10 pts. ? In 15 pts.?

47. How many bushels in 8 pecks? In 16 pks. ? In 20 pks. ?

TIME.

158. Time is naturally divided into days and years ; the former are caused by the revolution of the Earth on its axis, the latter by its revolution round the sun.

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Obs. 1. A Solar year is the exact time in which the earth revolves round the sun, and contains 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes, and 48 seconds.

2. Since the civil year contains 365 days and 6 hours (nearly, it is plain that in four years a whole day will be gained, and therefore every fourth year must have 366 days. This is called Bissextile, or Leap Year. The odd day is added to the month of February ; every Leap year, therefore, February has 29 days.

Quest.-Obs. What is the standard unit of Dry Measure adopted by the government? 158. How is time naturally divided ? Recite the Ta. ble. Obs. What is a solar year? How is Leap year occasioned? To which month is the odd day added ?

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3. The following are the names of the 12 calendar months into which the civil year is divided, with the number of days in each.

January, (Jan.) first month, has 31 days.
February, (Feb.) second

28
March,
(Mar.) third

31
April, (Apr.) fourth

30
May, (May) fifth

31
June,
(June) sixth

30
July, (July) seventh

31 August, (Aug.) eighth

31 September, (Sept.) ninth

30 October, (Oct.) tenth

31 November, (Nov.) eleventh 30 December, (Dec.) twelfth

31 The number of days in each month may be easily remembered from the following lines :

“ Thirty days hath September,

April, June, and November;
February twenty-eight alone,
All the rest have thirty-one ;
Except in Leap year, then is the time,

When February has twenty-nine." 48. How many days in 3 weeks? In 4 wks. ? In 5 wks. ? In 7 wks. ? In 9 wks.?

49. How many weeks in 14 days ? In 21 days ? In 32 days ? In 35 days ? Ip 40 days ?

CIRCULAR MEASURE OR MOTION.

159. Circular Measure is applied to the divisions of the circle, to latitude and longitude, and the motion of the heavenly bodies.

60 seconds (") make 1 minute, marked'
60 minutes

1 degree,
30 degrees

1 sign, 12 signs, or 360° “ 1 circle,

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QUEST.–159. What is Circular Measure? Repeat the Table.

900

Obs. 1. The circumference of every circle is divided, or supposed to be divided, into 360 equal parts, called degrees, as in the subjoined figure.

2. The ininute is the same as a geographical mile, 60 of which make a degree. (Art. 151.)

3600

1800

2700

50. In 2 degrees, how many minutes ? In 3 degrees ?

51. In 2 signs, how many degrees ? In 3 signs, how many ? In 4 signs, how many ?

52. How many signs in 60 degrees? In 90 degrees ?

MISCELLANEOUS TABLE.

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12 units

make 1 dozen, (doz.) 12 dozen or 144

1

gross. 12 gross or 1728

1 great gross. 20 units

1 score. 56 pounds

1 firkin of butter. 112 pounds

1 quintal of fish. 30 gallons

1 bar. of mackerel in Masy. 200 pounds of shad or salmon“ 1 bar. in N. Y. and Conn. 196 pounds

1 bar. of flour. 200 pounds

1 bar. of pork.

1 stone.
14 pounds of iron or lead
214 stone

1 pig:
8 pigs

1 fother. 24 sheets of paper

1 quire. 20 quires

1 ream. A sheet folded in two leaves, is called a folio. A sheet folded in four leares, is called a quarto, or 4to.

A sheet folded in eight leaves, is called an octavo, or 8vo. • A sheet folded in twelve leaves, is called a duodecimo, or 12mo.

A sheet folded in eighteen leaves, is called an 18mo.

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Quest.- Obs. How is the circumference of every circle divided ? To what does the minute answer?

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