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the crew of the other vessel on board, and in all, in a crusade against the traffic on the coast of probability assists, should occasion require, to Africa. decoy the cruizers from the vessel taking the So thoroughly convinced have the Committee slaves.” The plans of the slave-traders are so been, by the facts which have come under their skilfully arranged with respect to the adventures, notice, that the slave-trade cannot be suppressed they state, that “the capture of four vessels by the cruising system, that they have felt it 10 would not subject them to loss, provided that be their duty to recommend to the government the fifth was successful in landing the slaves in the necessity of substituting for it other, and, as Brazil.”
they believe, more practical modes for attaining Under these circumstances, with a brisk de that great end. mand for slaves, and consequently high prices, the profits of this inhuman traffic must be im. mense. One large trafficker in human flesh,
FRIENDS' REVIEW. Manoel Pinto de Fonseca, publicly declared in Rio, that his profits in the African trade alone, PHILADELPHIA, ELEVENTH MONTH 27, 1847. for the year 1844, amounted to £150,000.
The Paqueta de Rio, a brigantine, under Bra- Our readers will find in the present number a zilian colours, of seventy-five tons only, was brief notice of a 'religious visit recently paid by two captured on the 26th of October, 1846, with 556 Friends to the Shetland Islands. From this account slaves on board, off the river Sherbro. The captain of this vessel, as we learn from private
we may discover the feelings with which the sources, was to have had sixty dollars per head simple and neglected inhabitants of those islands freight. Presuming the deaths to have been receive the visits, few and far between, of the one-third of the whole on the voyage, there ministers of the gospel. would have remained 371; these, at sixty dollars
These islands, about forty in number, lie nearly each, would have given £4,637 10s. 6d. for 100 miles N. N. E. from the Scottish coast. Being freight. Allowing £637 10s. 63. for water, rice, near the parallel of 60° north, and surrounded by firewood, &c., there would have remained a clear the ocean, their summers are moist and cold; and profit to the captain of £4,000.
during three weeks in midsummer the sun is alThe profit on the cargo would have been most continually above the horizon; yet, in return, nearly as follows:- The price paid for a slave there is an equal period in winter in which that on the coast is about £4; say, for 556 slaves, £2,224. The price for a prime slave in Brazil luminary is nearly always out of view. The islands is from 400 to 500 dollars—the average price
are mountainous, affording retreats for numerous
The inlets on the may be taken at 240 dollars, or £50 each. This tribes of the feathered race. will give for 371 slaves £18,550 ; deduct cost coast furnish many harbours for fisheries, the proand freight, £6,861, and the balance will show a ducts of which constitute the principal article of clear profit of £11,689, or nearly 200 per cent. their trade. The English language, with some on the adventure!
mixture of Norwegian, is generally spoken. The So long as such enormous gains are made, at people are represented as orderly, frugal and hoscomparatively small risks, it is impossible, the pitable, yet considerably tainted with superstition. Committee believe, to put down the traffic by a marine police.
The accounts from the coast up to last No- From private letters and verbal information, vember, show that nearly forty slavers had been we learn that the late Yearly Meeting of North captured during a few months, and sent to St. Carolina was harmoniously and satisfactorily conHelena, for trial in the Vice-Admiralty Court. ducted. The epistles from other Yearly Meetings And this, notwithstanding the annual expenditure of £600,000.
were all read and answered as usual. The minutes It is the matured judgment of the Committee,
were committed to the press, but no copy has yet that nothing short of the universal abolition of come to hand; we therefore cannot give the partislavery will ever uproot and destroy the slave- culars. trade; and that, were her Majesty's government to direct their attention to practical measures, At a political meeting held 13th inst. at Lexing. such as the liberation of all slaves illicitly intro- ton, Kentucky, Henry Clay produced a number of duced into Brazil and the Spanish colonies, contrary to the solemn obligations of treaties, and, resolutions, relating chiefly to the Mexican War, above all, to the development of the resources of and supported them by a speech of two hours and British India, by removing those obstacles which a half. A copy of these resolutions, with an abnow prevent the extensive cultivation of the soil, stract of the speech, was conveyed by express to they would do more to accomplish this great ob- Cincinnati, a distance of at least eighty miles, in ject of national justice and Christian philanthro- about five hours. From the latter place the com. py, than by employing the whole British navy Imunication was telegraphed through Pittsburg, &c.,
COMMITTEE OF THE
to this city, where it was published in the Pennsyl- , injuring the houses, shipping and crops. Several vania Enquirer on the morning of the 15th. If the lives are said to have been lost. meeting had been held on any other day of the week, the notice of it would probably have appeared on the following day, in this city, New York,
The cholera is reported to be advancing westBaltimore and Washington ; for it reached those ward through Southern Russia, sweeping off thouplaces in six or seven hours after leaving Lexing. sands in its course. It is said to have made its ton.
appearance at Moscow and Warsaw. Three emiThere are certainly very few, if any, emergen- nent physicians have been deputed by the French cies which could justify the abuse of men and government to visit those countries and investigate animals, occasioned by this rapid transit through the character of this disease. the first eighty miles. It is difficult to conceive that this intelligence would have been less interesting or valuable if it had been received one or two days
THE WESTERN FRIEND.-A weekly periodical later. We cannot believe that our gracious Cre- with this title, published by Pugh & Pettit, of Cincinator intended, when he gave man his dominion nati, Ohio, has appeared within the passing month, over the inferior races, that their energies should be the first number of which has been received at this
office. thus severely taxed. We must, however, regard the transmission by telegraph as one of the astonishing achievements of modern science. Yet science can
CONTRIBUTIONS TO IRELAND. do nothing more than bring into effective action
By the following letter, received by the Acadia, the powers of nature. The philosopher merely it will be seen that our kind almoners in Dublin discovers, he does not produce, the springs and are still actively engaged in their good work of principles of action, which the Creator has inter- relieving the destitution of their fellow countrywoven into the system of nature for the conveni- men. They have husbanded their resources ence and use of the creatures he has formed. with care, that the distress of the coming winter When the ancients observed that light bodies were may be alleviated: alternately attracted and repelled by excited CENTRAL RELIEF amber, and that a certain black stone attracted
OF FRIENDS, iron, who could have imagined that those indi
43 Fleet street, Dublin, cations of natural powers would eventually lead to
2d of 11th month, 1847. the discovery of the means by which the lightning
Thomas Pim COPE: Respected Friend.-We may be silently drawn from the clouds, and the have now to acknowledge thy kind letters of words of an orator be transmitted with the velocity 30th of 9th month and 6th ult., covering bill of of lightning itself? And who can decide what lading, etc., of 100 sacks Indian corn and 115 unknown powers may yet remain to be developed barrels breadstuffs, per Wyoming for Liverpool, by the industry and ingenuity of future en- being an additional contribution through thy quirers ?
hands, from our indefatigable fellow labourers in Though we could willingly have waited a few the United States in aid of the suffering poor of days for the report of this political meeting, it is satisfactory to find such men as H. Clay urging the
We continue to receive from various parts of
this island, especially from some of the remote enquiry, for what purpose the people of the United
districts of the west, deeply affecting details of States are wasting the treasures and pouring out the increasing destitution of the people. We the blood of their own citizens, and spreading cannot but regard it as a happy circumstance, havoc and desolation over a neighbouring nation. that for some months past we have so far held Certainly war is a game, which, if the people were back from distributing the supplies so bountifully wise, neither kings nor presidents would play at. poured in upon us from America, as to have still
at our disposal a very considerable reserve, A general movement seems to be in progress in will form a truly important and seasonable aid
which, with the shipments still coming forward, the British sugar islands, the object of which is to for the coming winter. We hope ere long to be procure a repeal of the tariff regulation which ad- prepared with full details of our operations to mits the slave-grown sugars of other countries on lay before our constituents at home and abroad, similar terms with the free labour productions of referring to which we are the British colonies.
Thy sincere friends,
Secretaries. A destructive hurricane swept over the islands
JONATHAN of Trinidad and Tobago on the 11th ult., greatly
For Friends' Review.
For Friends' Review,
ness were required to sift out the truth from a SOCIETY OF FRIENDS IN ENGLAND. mass of traditional and legendary error. of his
success in this great achievement the English ReIn the year 1822 an account of the meetings viewers speak in the highest terms ; of his diffiin Great Britain was published by direction of culties, we would let him give his own manly the Yearly Meeting of London. That meeting yet modest statement. then consisted of twenty-six quarterly meetings, “Before closing these remarks, I may be perthe half-year's meeting of Wales, and the general mitted to add a few of a personal nature. In seremeeting of Scotland. These included one hun ral foreign notices of my writings, the author has dred and one monthly meetings, and four hundred been said to be blind, and more than once I have and four meetings for Divine worship, exclusive had the credit of having lost my sight in the comof Ireland and the meetings on the continent of position of my first history. When I have met Europe. By recent information, it appears that with such erroneous accounts, I have hastened to the Meeting for Sufferings in London is preparing correct them. But the present occasion affords a revised account of the meetings at present ex- me the best means of doing so; and I am the more isting in Great Britain, with the times at which desirous of this, as I fear some of my own rethey are held. This statement, when completed, marks, in the Prefaces to my former" histories, will probably be published, and furnish the have led to the mistake. means of ascertaining whether the numbers of “While at the University, I received an injury the society there have increased or diminished in one of my eyes, which deprived me of the sight within the last twenty-five years. It may, how- of it. The other, soon after, was attacked by inever, be observed, that the emigrations of young flammation so severely, that, for some time, I lost and middle aged Friends from that country to the sight of that also ; and though it was subsethis, within that period, must have a sensible in- quently restored, the organ was so much disorderfluence on the apparent augmentation or decline ed as to remain permanently debilitated, while of their numbers The account above noticed, twice in my life, since, I have been deprived of when received, will probably appear in the Re- the use of it for all purposes of reading and wriview.
ting, for several years together. It was during one of these periods that I received from Madrid the
materials for the · History of Ferdinand and IsaEXTENT OF INDIANA YEARLY MEETING.
bella ;' and in my disabled condition, with my
Transatlantic treasures lying around me, I was It seems that we have a very inadequate con- like one pining from hunger in the midst of abunception of the numbers assembled at the time of dance. In this state, I resolved to make the ear, this meeting. A letter from a friend who was if possible, do the work of the eye. I procured present, expresses the belief, that at the meeting the services of a secretary, who read to me the on first-day morning, at the time of the last annual various authorities ; and in time I became so far assembly, there was the greatest collection of familiar with the sounds of the different foreign people, horses and vehicles, that was ever brought languages, to some of which, indeed, I had been together at a meeting of Friends since the rise of previously accustomed by a residence abroad, the society. The house is estimated to hold that I could comprehend his reading without 3000 persons; and a large part of the assembly much difficulty. As the reader proceeded, I diccould not obtain admittance. The horses and tated copious notes; and, when these had swelled vehicles covered several acres of ground. to a considerable amount, they were read to me
T. repeatedly, till I had mastered their contents suf
ficiently for the purpose of composition. The
same notes furnished an easy means of referenee For Friends' Review.
to sustain the text. WILLIAM H. PRESCOTT.
“Still another difficulty occurred in the mecha. The following unassuming description of the nical labor of writing, which I found a severe trial difficulties under which Prescott laboured in the to the eye. This was remedied by means of a preparation of his “ History of Peru," is ex- writing-case, such as is used by the blind, which tracted from his preface to that work. Perhaps enabled me to commit my thoughts to paper withthere is not on record an instance of such indom- out the aid of sight, serving me equally well in the itable perseverance and acute research under dis- dark as in the light. The characters thus formed couragements so appalling. The case of Milton made a near approach to hieroglyphics ; but my is no parallel to it. The materials for his great secretary became expert in the art of deciphering, work were within him ; and his disconnection and a fair copy-with a liberal allowance for unwith the external world served only to throw avoidable blunders—was transcribed for the use him more entirely on the world within. The of the printer. I have described the process with materials for Prescott's History, which were more minuteness, as some curiosity has been revery voluminous, were written in foreign lan- peatedly expressed in reference to my modus opeguages, and the utmost patience and acute-l randi under my privations, and the knowledge of
it may be of some assistance to others in similar “ INFLUENCE OF SLAVERY UPON THE PROScircumstances.
PERITY OF A STATE. “ Though I was encouraged by the sensible pro- “ DOMESTICS FOR HOME CONSUMPTION.-One gress of my work it was necessarily slow. But of our merchants advertises in our paper that he in time the tendency to inflammation diminished, has just received a large consignment of Boston and the strength of the eye was confirmed more laths, and it strikes us, and must strike others, as and more. It was at length so far restored, that not a little remarkable, that a population living in I could read for several hours of the day, though the very heart of one of the best lumber regions my labors in this way necessarily terminated with of the United States, with thousands of fallen pine the daylight. Nor could I ever dispense with the trees covering the forests in their immediate services of the secretary, or with the writing-case; neighbourhood, should be indebted to Northern for, contrary to the usual experience, I have found enterprise for the very laths with which their writing a severer trial to the eye than reading- houses are constructed. a remark, however, which does not apply to the
“ Another instance arrested our attention a short reading of manuscript; and to enable myself, there- time ago. In visiting a rice plantation of a friend fore, to revise my composition more carefully, I on the Savannah river, we observed, stamped caused a copy of the History of Ferdinand and
on the side of the row-boat which carried us, the Isabella' to be printed for my own inspection, be- name of the maker in New York; while one of fore it was sent to the press for publication. Such our Carolina friends, a great lecturer on agriculas I have described was the improved state of my ture, and president of agricultural societies, gets health during the preparation of the Conquest even his pig yokes' from the North instead of of Mexico; and satisfied with being raised so making them on his own plantation. nearly to a level with the rest of my species, I
“ While such supine indolence and such a scarcely envied the superior good fortune of those short-sighted policy prevail among us, the South who could prolong their studies into the evening, must and will remain tributary to the superior and the later hours of the night. "Buta change has again taken place, during the
industry and energy of the North, which profits last two years. The sight of my eye has become
by her neglect of her own true interests.
“The resources of the South need only be gradually dimmed, while the sensibility of the developed to give her children wealth and comnerve has been so far increased that for several forts. Nature has done far more for us than for weeks of the last year I have not opened a volume, our Northern brethren, but they have husbanded and through the whole time I have not had the their resources, while we have squandered and use of it, on an average, for more than an hour a neglected ours. day. Nor can I cheer myself with the delusive expectation, that impaired as the organ has be
“Take for example the State of Georgia. Vast come, from having been tasked, probably, beyond quantities of her timber are now rotting in her forits strength, it can ever renew its youth, or be ests while Northern lumber comes into our port. of much service to me hereafter in my literary re- be converted into a thousand useful purposes is
The finest water-power in the world which might searches. Whether I shall have the heart to enter, as I had proposed, on a new and more exten- allowed to waste itself over rocks in its channel. sive field of historical labour, with these impedi- The shad fishery on the Savannah river is yearments, I cannot say. Perhaps long habit, and a
ly made a source of large profit to a company natural desire to follow
from Maine. Our canal furnishes our city only
the career which I have so long pursued, may make this, in a man
with eels and water lillies! instead of being comner, necessary, as my past experience has already pleted to bring us down the lumber and the proproved that it is practicable.
ducts of the Ogechee ; and in one word we continue poor, because we will not make the effort
to become rich by developing the actual resources From the [Kentucky) Examiner.
in our power. The Savannah Republican does not hesitate, “ Agriculture and commerce absorb most of in pointing to slaves, that fearfully large class of the energies of the portion of our people who unproductive consumers,' as the cause of the de- will work, while the class of 'unproductive concay of Southern cities, and the downward tenden- sumers' at the South is fearfully large. The cy of things in the Southern States. One of the professions have much to answer for in this reablest men of Georgia, indeed, goes so far as to spect. Many sturdy young fellows who would say, that, Georgia cannot be the State she ought enjoy both health and competence if following to be, until labour is esteemed honorable by all the plough, are wasting their energies and their classes, and made the characteristic of every free- lives in a fruitless chase after .cases,' either leman. The following article from the Savannah gal, medical, or clerical, to the great loss of the Republican shows the tendency of things in the community and their own. far South, and the necessity there exists for look- * Georgia, we are happy to see, is waking up; ing into and discussing fully, all the influences of the former stupid idea that a gentleman was one slavery:
who wore white kids, and never worked, is fast
giving place to the sounder doctrine, that the Professor Henry said he could find no evidence working men, either with hand or brain, are that he had written this in view of the establishthe true nobility of a country, and stamp its ment of an institution. character at home and abroad. Upon the pres- “Smithson died at Genoa in the year 1829, ent generation rests the duty of developing the in- leaving his property to his nephew, the son of ternal resources of the State-of employing her his brother, with a clause in his will leaving it water power in turning the busy wheels of fac- in trust of the United States, for founding an tories ; in increasing her exports of lumber-institution for the increase and diffusion of knowand developing all her countless resources.” ledge among men, in case the nephew died
This is right! look into the matter, friends, and without issue. He did so die, and the money, you will be prepared by and bye to solve the about $500,000, came into possession of our difficulty. When duty and interest combine, Government.” as combine they do, it will not be long before Professor Henry then explained his own conyou will act. Let Kentucky show the way, nexion with the Smithsonian Institution, which (and what a glorious lead it would be ! so wor- was entirely unsolicited on his part. He menthy of the noblest character! so inspiring to tioned the several plans which had been sugall the hopes of man,) let the old Dominion fol- gested for the organization of the Institution, as low, and Georgia will overlap South Carolina, well as that which has been finally adopted as a ultra as she now is, and sweep her on, as she compromise. According to this, speaks, with Tennessee and North Carolina, for To Increase Knowledge.--It is proposed, first, universal freedom.
to stimulate men of talent, in every part of the This is the talisman which developes the re- country and of the world, to make original resources of States, and builds up cities. This is the searches by offering suitable rewards; and, means by which individual prosperity, and the second, to appropriate annually a portion of the greatness of Commonwealths, are made endur- income for particular researches, under the diing, which will convert forests into fields, wa- rection of suitable persons. ter power into wealth, and make the South To Diffuse Knowledge.--It is proposed, first, what the South should be, as glowing and glori- to publish a series of periodical reports on the rious a land as man ever trod.
progress of all branches of knowledge; and,
second, to publish occasionally separate treatises THE FOUNDER OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTI
on subjects of general interest.
No memoir on subjects of physical science to TUTE.
be accepted for publication which does not form At the recent meeting of the Association of a positive addition to human knowledge, and all Geologists in Boston, Professor Henry gave the unverified speculations to be rejected. following account of James SMITiison, to whose Each memoir presented to the Institution, to be liberality we are indebted for the institution that submitted for examination to a commission of bears his name:
persons of reputation for learning in the branch “Smithson was born in England in the year to which the article pertains, and to be accepted 1768. He was educated at the University of for publication only in case the report of this Oxford; was a man of amiable disposition, and commission is favourable. devoted to science. He was the best chemist in The reports on the progress of knowledge, to Oxford, and after his graduation became the be furnished by collaborators, consisting of men rival of Wollaston in minute analysis, and pos- eminent in the different branches of knowledge. sessed most extraordinary skill in manipulation. These reports to consist of three classes-physiThe following anecdote to the point was related cal, moral, and political, literature and the fine on the authority of the late President of the arts. Royal Society: On one occasion he observed One-half of the income of the Institution is to a tear trickling down the face of a lady; he be devoted to carrying out this plan; the other caught it on a piece of glass, lost one-half, ana- half to the increase and diffusion of knowledge lyzed the other half, and discovered a microsco- by means of collections of books and objects of pic salt.
nature and art. “ He resided most of the time abroad, and was The building, which is slowly in progress, is the author of upwards of twenty original me to be erected, in considerable part, out of the moirs on various subjects of science. He ap- interest which will accrue upon the interest pears to have been proud of his scientific attain- which has accumulated upon the original sum ments, and on one occasion wrote thus: • The since it has been in the keeping of the United best blood of England flows in my veins. On States.--Nat. Intel. my father's side I am a Northumberland; on my mother's I am related to kings. But this is They who defend war, says Erasmus, must of no consequence. My name shall live in the defend the dispositions which lead to war; and memory of mankind when the titles of the these dispositions are absolutely forbidden by Northumberlands and Pereys are forgotten.'' the gospel.