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him? how grateful he will be, how studious of your will, how anxious to understand you, how happy to please and satisfy you!

4. We have possessed two horses at different times which, with only the treatment that they would experience from a master fond of the animals under his protection, would follow us with the attention of dogs, sometimes stopping to graze on the banks of the road till we had advanced many hundred yards, and then of their own accord, and apparently with delight, cantering forward and rejoining us. In fact, they were gentle, intelligent and pleasing companions, and this was produced rather by total abstinence from harsh treatment than by any positive solicitation or great attention on our part.

5. The great gentleness, sagacity and serviceableness which mark the horse in the East, particularly in Arabia, are qualities which seem to depend entirely on the better treatment which he there receives. The Arabs make the horse a domestic companion. He sleeps in the same tent with the family. Children repose upon his neck and hug and kiss him without the least danger. He steps amongst their sleeping forms by night without ever injuring them. When his master mounts him he manifests the greatest pleasure, and if that master by chance falls off, the horse instantly stands still till he is again mounted. An Arabian horse has even been known to pick up his wounded master and carry him in his teeth to a place of safety.

6. Unquestionably these beautiful traits of character have been developed in the animal by a proper course of treatment. The same law holds good here as amongst men. Treat these in a rational, humane and confiding manner, and you bring forth their best natural qualities; but, on the contrary, visit them with oppression and cruelty, and you either harden and stupefy them or rouse them to the manifestation of wrathful feelings which may prove extremely uncomfortable to yourself. It is probable, then, that, from the way in which we use most animals, we never have experienced nearly so much advantage from their subserviency as we might.



SELECT ETYMOLOGIES.-Abstinence: L. abstinen'tia: v. TENURE. Advantage: F. avantage; fr. avant, before; fr. L. ab, an'te, from, before; h., advance. ... Brute: L. bru'tus, heavy, dull. . . . Conspicuous: L. conspicuus, visible; fr. con and spě'cio, I look: v. DESPISE. . . . Contrary : L. contra'rius; fr. con'tra, against; h., contrast, counter, country (L. L. contra'ta, the region extending over against, on the opposite side), en-counter, etc. Domestic: L. domesticus; fr. dom'us, house; h., dome, domicile. Dragoon : a horse-soldier; h., to dragoon, to force; fr. L. dra'co, a dragon, dracona'rius, a standard-bearer (because the figure of a dragon was on the standard). . . . Example: L. exem'plum, a model or sample: v. ExEMPT.... Gregarious: L. grega'rius, pertaining to a herd: v. CONGREGATE. . . . Negative: L. negati'vus; fr. ně'go, I say no; h., ab-negation, de-ny, negation, re-negade. . Protection: L. protectio; fr. pro and teg'o, tec'tum, to cover; h., de-tect, integ'ument, etc. . . . Species: L. spe'cies, a look; h., a kind or quality: v. DESPISE.



Chersiphron (ker'si-frōn), an architect of Crete, flourished B. C. 560. He built the temple of Diana (Ar'temis) at Ephesus. Nem'esis, a Greek goddess, was a personification of the moral reverence for law, and hence of conscience.


WHEN to the utmost we have tasked our powers,
And Nemesis still frowns and shakes her head;
When, wearied out and baffled, we confess
Our utter weakness, and the tired hand drops,
And Hope flees from us, and in blank despair
We sink to earth, the face so stern before
August will smile-the hand before withdrawn
Reach out the help we vainly pleaded for;
Take up our task, and in a moment do

What all our strength was powerless to achieve.


Unless the gods smile human toil is vain.
The crowning blessing of all work is drawn
Not from ourselves, but from the powers above.
And this none better knew than Chersiphron,
When on the plains of Ephesus he reared
The splendid temple built to Artemis.


With patient labor he had placed at last
The solid jambs on either side the door,
And now for many a weary day he strove
With many a plan and many a fresh device,
Still seeking and still failing, on the jambs
Level to lay the lintel's massive weight :
Still it defied him; and worn out at last,
Along the steps he laid him down at night.
Sleep would not come. With dull distracting pain
The problem hunted through his feverish thoughts,
Till in his dark despair he longed for death,
And threatened his own life with his own hand.


Peace came at last upon him, and he slept;
And in his sleep before his dreaming eyes
He saw the form divine of Artemis:

O'er him she bent and smiled, and softly said,
"Live, Chersiphron! Who labor for the gods.
The gods reward. Behold, your work is done!"
Then, like a mist that melts into the sky,
She vanished; and awaking, he beheld,
Laid by her hand above the entrance-door,
The ponderous lintel level on the jambs.



SELECT ETYMOLOGIES.-August: L. augustus, sacred, majestic; fr. au'geo, auc'tum, to increase, to reverence. . . . Distract: L. dis'traho; fr. dis, apart, tră'ho, trac'tum, to draw: v. ABSTRACT. Ponderous: L. pon'dus, pon'deris, a weight; h., im-ponderable, poise, ponder, pound, preponderate: v. RECOMPENSE. . . . Problem: Gr. problēma (πрóßλnμa), anything thrown forward; h., a question put. Temple: L. tem'plum, a space marked out, a sanctuary.


From the introduction of so many Latin words into English, a kind of double language has been formed: the Anglo-Saxon English, which we commonly employ in conversation, and the Latinized English, which is employed principally in learned composition. Mixed, however, as the two are, each language preserves an idiomatic character; for, with few exceptions, the prefixes and affixes of the one cannot be conjoined with the words of the other.



1. THE proud Norman was not successful in imposing his own tongue upon the subjugated nation when the fatal day of Hastings (October 14, 1066) placed the British realm in the hands of his race. In vain was Norman-French spoken from throne, pulpit and judgment-seat; in vain did the Norman nobles long disdain to learn the language of the enslaved Saxon. For a time the two idioms lived side by side, though in very different conditions; the one, the language of the master at court and in the castles of the soldiers who had become noble lords and powerful barons; the other, the language of the conquered, spoken only in the lowly hut of the subjugated people. The Norman altered and increased the latter, but he could not extirpate it.

2. To defend his conquest he took possession of the country; and, master of the soil, he erected fortresses and castles, and attempted to introduce new terms. The universe and the firmament, the planets, comets and meteors, the atmosphere and the seasons,—all were impressed with the seal of the conqueror. Hills became mountains, and dales, valleys; streams were called rivers, and brooks rivulets; waterfalls changed into cascades, and woods into forests. The deer, the ox, the calf, the swine and the sheep appeared on his sumptuous table as venison, beef, veal, pork and mutton. Earls and lords were placed in rank below his dukes and marquises. New titles and dignities, of viscount, baron and baronet, squire and master, were created, and the mayor presided over the Saxon aldermen and sheriff; the chancellor and the peer, the ambassador and the chamberlain, the general and the admiral, headed the list of officers of the government.

3. The king alone retained his name, but the state and the court became French: the administration was carried on according to the constitution; treaties were concluded by the ministers in their cabinet and submitted for approval to the sovereign; the privy council was consulted on the affairs of the

empire, and loyal subjects sent representatives to parliament. Here the members debated on matters of grave importance, on peace and war, ordered the army and the navy, disposed of the national treasury, contracted debts, and had their sessions and their parties. At brilliant feasts and splendid tournaments collected the flower of chivalry; magnificent balls, where beauty and delicious music enchanted the assembled nobles, gave new splendor to society, polished the manners and excited the admiration of the ancient inhabitants, who, charmed by such elegance, recognized in their conquerors persons of superior intelligence, admired them and endeavored to imitate their fashions.


4. But the dominion of the Norman did not extend to the home of the Saxon; it stopped at the threshold of his house: there, around the fireside in his kitchen and the hearth in his room, he met his beloved kindred. The bride, the wife and the husband, sons and daughters, brothers and sisters, tied to each other by love, friendship and kind feelings, knew nothing dearer than their own sweet home. The Saxon's flocks, still grazing in his fields and meadows, gave him milk and butter, meat and wool; the herdsman watched them in spring and summer; the plowman drew his furrows and used his harrows, and, in harvest, the cart and the flail; the reaper plied his scythe, piled up sheaves and hauled his wheat, oats and rye to the barn.

5. The wagoner drove his wain, with its wheels, felloes, spokes and nave, and his team bent heavily under their yoke. In his trade by land and sea he still sold and bought; in the store or the shop, the market or the street, he cheapened his goods and had all his dealings as peddler or weaver, baker or cooper, saddler, miller or tanner. He lent or borrowed, trusted his neighbor, and with skill and care throve and grew wealthy. Later, when he longed once more for freedom, his warriors took their weapons, their axes, swords and spears, or their dreaded bow and arrow. They leaped without stirrup into the saddle and killed with dart and gavelock.

6. At other times they launched their boats and ships, which

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