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your most obedient servant, less mirth. They allege that &c. Such customs have led the chief end of religion is to christians to lie; so that to redeem men from the spirit falsehood is

and vain conversation of the counted civility: for it is world, and to lead them into notorious that these compli- inward communion with God; ments import not any design therefore every thing ought to of service. They disuse those be rejected that wastes our names of the months and precious time, and diverts the days, which, having been given mind from the witness of God in honour of the heroes and in the heart, and from the false gods of the heathen, ori- living sense of his fear, and ginated in their Aattery or that evangelical spirit which superstition: they likewise con- is the ornament of a chrisdemn the custom of speaking tian. to a single person in the plural With regard to religious number, as having also arisen liberty, they hold that the from motives of adulation.- rights of conscience are sacred (2.) They affirm that it is not and unalienable, subject only lawful for christians to kneel, to the control of the Deity, or prostrate themselves to any who has not given authority man, or to bow the body, or to any man, or body of men, to uncover the head to them; to compel another to his or because kneeling, bowing, and their religion. (Barclay.) uncovering the head, is the

3. On their church governonly outward signification of ment, or discipline.To effect our adoration towards God; the salutary purposes of disand therefore it is not lawful cipline, they have established to give it unto man.-(3) monthly, quarterly, and yearThey affirm that it is not law- ly meetings. A monthly ful for christians to use super- meeting is usually composed Muities in apparel, as are of of several particular congreno use, save for ornament and gations, situated within a convanity:-(4.) That it is not venient distance from each lawful to use games, sports, other. Its business is, to proor plays among christians, vide for the subsistence of under the notion of recrea- the poor, (for the friends tion, which do not agree with maintain their own poor) and christian gravity and sobriety; for the education of their forsporting, gaming, mocking, offspring ; to judge of the jesting, vain talking, &c., are sincerity and fitness of pernot christian liberty nor harm- sons appearing to be convinc



ed of their religious princi- a record of them; as also of ples, and desiring to be ad- the births and burials of its mitted into membership ; to members. This society does deal with disorderly members, not allow its members to sue and if irreclaimable, to dis- each other at law; it thereown them. Monthly meet- fore enjoins all to end their ings also grant to such of differences by speedy and imtheir members as remove into partial arbitration, agreeably other monthly meetings, cer- to the rules laid down; and tificates of their membership if any refuse to act according and conduct; without which to these rules, they are disthey cannot gain membership owned. Several monthly meetin such . meetings. Each ings compose a quarterly meetmonthly meeting is required ing, to which they send repreto appoint certain persons sentatives, who produce at the under the name of overseers, quarterly meetings, written who when any case of com answers from the monthly plaint, or disorderly conduct, meetings, to certain queries comes to their knowledge, are respecting the conduct of their to see that private admoni- members, and the meetings tion, agreeable to the gospel care over them. The accounts rule, Matt. xviii. 15—17, be thus received, are digested into given, previous to its being one, which is sent also in the laid before the monthly meet- form of answers to queries, by ing. All marriages among representatives to the yearly them are proposed to these meeting. Appeals from the meetings for their concur- judgment of monthly meetings rence, which is granted, if, are brought to the quarterly upon enquiry, the parties ap- meetings, whose business also pear clear of other engage- it is to assist in any difficult ments respecting marriage, case, or where remissness apand if they also have the con- pears in the care of the sent of their parents or guar- monthly meetings over the indians; without which concur- dividuals who compose

them. rence no 'marriages are al- The yearly meeting has a gelowed: for this society has neral superintendance of the always scrupled to acknow- society in the country in which ledge the exclusive authority it is established; and thereof the priests to marry. Their fore, as particular exigences marriages are solemnised in a arise, it gives advice, makes public meeting for worship; such regulations as appear to and the monthly meeting keeps be requisite, or excites to the

observance of those already nomination of elders. These, made. Appeals from the judg- and ministers approved by ment of quarterly meetings their monthly meetings, have are here finally determined. assemblies peculiar to themThere are seven yearly meet- selves, called meetings of miings: viz. at London, to which nisters and elders, in which come representatives from Ire- they have an opportunity of land; New England, New exciting each other to a disYork, Pennsylvania, and New charge of their respective duJersey ; Maryland, Virginia, ties, and of extending advice. the Carolinas, and Georgia: to those who may appear to and they in general maintain be weak, without

any needless a friendly correspondence by exposure. Such meetings are epistles with each other. generally held in the compass There are also monthly, quar- of each monthly, quarterly, terly, and yearly meetings of and yearly meeting ; and are women Friends, held at the conducted by rules prescribed same times and places with by the yearly meeting, and the men's meetings in separate have 'no authority to make apartments, on which devolve any alteration or addition. those parts of the christian The members of them unite discipline wherein their own with their brethren in the sex are more peculiarly con- meetings for discipline, and cerned. Those who believe are equally accountable to the themselves required to speak latter for their conduct. No in meetings for worship, are minister is allowed to travel notimmediatelyacknowledged abroad without a certificate as ministers by their monthly from the monthly meeting meetings; but time is taken they belong to, expressive of for judgment, that the meet- its approbation. This society ing may be satisfied of their has also meetings for suffercall and qualification, and in ings, which are composed of order that those who are in members chosen by the sevethe situation of ministers may ral quarterly meetings. They have the tender sympathy and were originally instituted and counsel of those of either sex, thus named in times of persewho, by their experience in cution ; and are continued to the work of religion are qua- superintend the general conlified for that service, the cerns of the society, during monthly meetings are advised the interval of the yearly to select such under the de- meetings.* (Summary.)

* History of Religion, vol, iv.

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sin apology for the length and in consequence of comof the foregoing article, in plaints of misrepresentations which the reader is referred in other publications. The to the authorities cited at the contrary opinions on several foot of the page, * it is proper points will be found under to say, it was inserted at the the articles Calvinist, Baptist, request of an intelligent Friend, Episcopalians, &c.]

AIANITÆ, a denomi- or science of christianity,

nation which sprang which they rested wholly on from the Eutychians. They good works; calling it a use-. derive their name from Gaian, less labour to seek for knowa bishop of Alexandria, in the ledge in the scripture. In sixth century, who denied that short they contended for the Jesus Christ, after the hypos- practice of morality in all tatical union, wąs subject to simplicity, and blamed those any of the infirmities of hu- who aimed at improving and man nature.

perfecting it by a deeper GAZARES, a denomina- knowledge and insight into tion which appeared about the the doctrines and mysteries year 1197, at Gazare, a town of religion. The Gnosimachi of Dalmatia. They held al- were the very reverse of the most the same opinions with "Gnostics. the Albigenses ; but their dis GNOSTICS. This denotinguishing tenet was, that no mination sprang up in the

had a right to first century. Several of the sentence men to death for any disciples of Simon Magus crime whatever.

held the principles of his phiGEORGIANS. See Ibe- losophy, together with the rians.

profession of christianity, and GNOSIMACHI, a were distinguished by the apwhich distinguished those in pellation of Gnostics, from the seventh century who were thier boasting of being able, professed enemies to the Gno. to restore mankind to the sis, i.e. the studied knowledge knowledge, yowors, of the su

* Sewell's history of the people called Quakes. octavo edit. vol. i. pp: 45_4432. vol. ii. p. 552. Richard Claridge's life and posthumous Works, P: 411–412. Penn's Works, folio edit. vol. i. 859. 860, vol. ii. p. 783 --878. ' Barclay's Works, folio edit. p. 84-876. Barclay's Apology, prop. ii. sect. 6–13. prop. iii. sect, 2-6, prop, iv. secc, 2. prop. v. and vi: sect. 11-22, prop. vii. viii. ix, prop. x 'sect. 16--18. prop. xi. sect. 6—21 prop. xii. sect, 3. prop. xiv, xv. sect. 2—14. A suinmary of the history, docirine, &c. of the Friends, p. 4–21. Bevan's refutation of the more modern misrepresentations of Friends, p. 21--95.

human power


preme Being which had been universe abounds, must be lost in the world. This party sought some where else than was not conspicuous for its in the Deity. It cannot renumbers or reputation before side in him who is all perfecthe time of Adrian.* It de- tion : therefore it must be rives its origin from the orien- without him. Now there is tal philosophy. The doctrine nothing without or beyond the of a soul distinct from the Deity but matter : therefore body, which had pre-existed matter is the centre and source in an angelic state, and was of all evil, and of all vice. for some offence committed Having taken for granted in that state, degraded and these principles, they proconfined to the body as a pu- ceeded further, and affirmed nishment, had been the great that matter was eternal, and doctrine of the eastern sages derived its present form not from time immemorial. Not from the will of the supreme being able to conceive how God, but from the creating evil in so great an extent power of some inferior intelcould be subservient to good, ligence, to whom the world they supposed that good and and its inhabitants owed their evil have different origins. So existence. As a proof of their inixed a system as this is, they assertion, they alleged, that therefore thought to be un- it was incredible that the worthy of infinite wisdom and supreme Deity, perfectly good goodness. They looked upon and infinitely removed from matter as 'the source of all all evil, should either create evil, and argued in this man or modify matter which is ner: There are many evils in essentially malignant and corthis world, and men seem im- rupt; or bestow upon it, in pelled by a natural instinct to any degree, the riches of his the practice of those things wisdom and liberality. which reason condemns; but In their system it was gethat eternal mind from which nerally supposed, that allintelall spirits derive their exist- ligences had only one source, ence, must be inaccessible to viz. the Divine Mind. And to all kinds of evil, and also of help out the doctrine concerna most perfect and beneficent ing the origin of evil, it was

Therefore the origin imagined, that though the of those evils with which the Divine Being himself was es

Under the general appellation of Gnostics, are comprehended all those who in the first ages of christianity, blended the oriental philosophy with the doctrines of the gospel.

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