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years of an old man's life, he would intimate, were but an ignoble mark for so much animosity and malignity. It is true some of the philosophers of ancient Greece enjoyed a marvellously green old age, and prolonged it in a most extraordinary manner (see Cic. Cat. Maj. Chap. V. VII. etc.); but, in the common course of nature, a septuagenarian could not count on many more years of life.-ovoja čxelv, ordinarily in good sense, to enjoy distinction, but still capable of being applied to mere notoriety, as here. Perhaps Socrates, with that irony which was so favourite a weapon of his, has purposely chosen to employ a word which would more naturally suggest a favourable interpretation.— airiav ēxelv is a phrase of indifferent import, though more frequently occurring in a bad than in a good sense. The idea contained in όνομα και αιτίαν έχειν is passive, and we have after it, consequently, ünÒ with the genitive, as after a passive verb. Compare c. I. note (a).

υμίν τούτο εγένετο] That is, εμε τεθνάναι δή, an addition, which appears to have crept from the margin into the text of several MSS. Heindorf wished it to be retained, but thought that it should be read, tò šuè tadvávai on. See, however, the observations of Matthiæ, & 468. b.-ÅTÒ TOū aŭtouárov, of its own accord, even if you had not condemned me to death.

πόρρω ήδη εστί του βίου] Analogous to such expressions as οψέ της ημέρας, πόρρω της ημέρας, and the like. Similarly, Plato has πόρρω ιέναι της φιλοσοφίας, to go to great lengths in philosophy. The subject to εστί is ηλικία: my time of life is far advanced. The genitive indicates a partitive notion.

« άπαντα ποιείν....ώςτε αποφεύγειν] The phrase πάντα, or änavra toleīv, is about equivalent to ours, to leave no stone unturned; it may be followed by ús, őgte, or tws, and is sometimes construed with a participle, e. g., závra toleTV peVYOVTES TÌv dimnv, Euthyph. p. 8. C. The whole sentence may be rendered as follows: •And perhaps you imagine that it is through a lack of arguments that I have been brought in guilty, by the help of which I might have convinced you, had I thought it right to have recourse to all possible means, both in word and deed, in order to elude justice. Far from it,' etc. It is impossible to say whether the olc av újās é teloa is intended as an independent sentence, thrown in parenthetically, or as under the government of oïsole. Probably Socrates begins by putting the sentiment in the mouths


of his judges, and then, from his conviction of his truth, adopts it as his own.

τεθνάναι ή εκείνως ζήν] With εκείνως understand απολογηoáperos. On the use of the perfect tense, see c. XVII. note (2).

fláv tis toluậ] That is, if any one can prevail on himself to do this, if any one can go to so great a pitch of impudence, that -- Xenoph. Mem. II. 1, 3. tis âv ppovūv ToŨ oo✓ Diácov τολμήσειεν είναι; Ρlat. Crit. c. XV. ετόλμησας ούτω γλίσχρως επιθυμεϊν ζήν.

8 Bávarov ťkovyEīv] On the infinitive subjoined for the purpose of explanation to the pronoun toūto, see c. XXIV., note (TM). With movnplav, a little further on, understand ékpuyaTv.

hüte Bpað og óv] Socrates and his accusers are represented as followed, the former by the comparatively slow pursuer, death; the latter by what steals upon us with far more rapid speed, iniquity. The adjectives delvoi and ófæīs contrast, by what grammarians call chiasmus, with apeoßúrns and Bpaờvsr espectively. Some have advocated our reading véor instead of delvoi; but the former epithet would not be altogether appropriate to the dicasts en masse, and then delvoi conveys more forcibly the impression of bodily strength and vigour.-Socrates plays on the ambiguity of the verb álõval, which is applied both to one who is overtaken in running, and to one who has lost his cause and been condemned.

Davárov divnu odlwv] That is, condemned to the punishment of death. Literally, having owed, or incurred the penalty of death. The expression is not uncommon.

But while we say divny óplcīv, we may also say, with equal propriety, uwplav, μοχθηρίαν, or αδικίαν οφλεϊν, in the sense of to incur the charge of folly, wickedness, or injustice. Socrates avails himself of this double meaning to add υπό της αληθείας ώφληκότες μοχθηρίαν kai áduriav, that is, you are convicted and condemned by Truth to the reproach of wickedness and injustice.-Tợ tiuhuatı ťujévw, that is, I abide by your sentence.—uerpiwç xelv, nearly the same as cũ, opows, š xxiv, though somewhat weaker. •For my own part, I think it is all very well as it is.'

ΧΧΧ. και ενώ μάλιστ' άνθρωποι χρησμωδούσιν] Alluding to the current belief, that the soul attained a closer resemblance to divinity on the approach of death, and acquired the power of foreseeing and foretelling the future. On this interesting subject see Cicero Div. I. 30, with the commentaries upon that passage.

on oiav žuè átektóvate] That is, than the punishment which ye have inflicted on me in condemning me to death. The mode of expression is one which arises out of studied brevity. Ordinary usage would have required oiav.... Másete; but, at the thought of the nature of the revenge they had taken, he substitutes the more definite word, απεκτόνατε.-τού διδόναι έλεγχος του βίου, that is, from giving an account of your life, and being therefore censured.

c kai xalet útepoi] On the omission of toooúry, see c. XVII., note (9). A little further on, åtokteivovtes åv@púrous is, because ye put men to death. Fischer was wrong in supposing that the aorist was required.

d 4 μή τους άλλους κολoύειν] Κολούειν is properly to mutilate : hence, to prevent anything from being accomplished; to frustrate an undertaking.

XXXI. εν ώ οι άρχοντες ασχολίαν άγουσι] That is, while the Eleven are occupied. The judges used to deliver to the Eleven those who were condemned to be punished. It was the duty of these functionaries to order their assistants to lead away the culprit to prison, and inflict on him the prescribed punishment. See the article ëvdeka in the Dictionary of Antiquities, where the particulars of this magistracy are given. ładóvra -τεθνάναι i. e, εις το δεσμωτήριον. A little further on, διαμυθοloyñoal is to discuss or converse together.

ο ή γαρ είωθυλά μοι μαντική ή του δαιμονίου] Schleiermacher considers the words ń toữ da povíov a gloss, because Plato elsewhere is accustomed to call the thing itself to daquóviov, and because, when he expresses the same thing by a substantive, as μαντική, φωνή, σημείον, he either adds nothing, or else του θεού, rather than toữ daluovíov. But even if a passage cannot be found in every respect resembling this, yet we are safe in following all the MSS. And the want of those words would be felt, since, without them, it might be doubted what description of μαντική he meant. Therefore he adds ή του δαιμονίου, namely, that which I owe to the spirit which I have before mentioned. For ň uavtidoes not denote the thing itself which Socrates intended, when he spoke of his daluóvlov, but rather the effect of that daimonion.-A little further on, observe the collocation havu επί σμικρούς for επί πάνυ σμικρούς. The reason is, that πάνυ is the emphatic word. So Euthyd. p. 305. C. hávu napà rollois. Phedo, p. 110. C. και πολύ έτι εκ λαμπροτέρων. –εί τι μέλλουμι,



that is, as often as I was about, etc. On the use of the optative, to indicate an action frequently repeated, see Matth. Gr. § 521.

b & γε δή οιηθείη άν τις και νομίζεται] That is, which any one would take to be, and which really are regarded, as the worst of evils. The relative pronoun å serves at once for object to oindein and subject to vouiserat. See Matth. Gr. $ 428. 2, and 474. d.

c Néyovta uetažú] That is, at the very moment of my speaking ; in the middle of my speaking. Compare Theag. p. 128. E. déyovtos σού μεταξύ γέγονέ μοι η φωνή ή του δαιμονίου. Rep. Ι. p. 336. Α. και διαλεγομένων ημών μεταξύ ώρμα αντιλαμβάνεσθαι του λόγου.

d τί ούν υπολαμβάνω] Stephens and others substitute a comma for the note of interrogation; but this much impairs the vigour and liveliness of the passage. Plato often makes his speakers interrogate themselves, and answer their own questions. The whole sentence we may render as follows: 'Do you ask what I conceive to be the reason of this? I will tell you. I am disposed to think that the event which has befallen me is a blessing; and it is impossible that those among us can have been right in our notions, who believed death to be an evil. I have had convincing proof of this; for the wonted sign would certainly not have failed to oppose me, if I had not been purposing to do something that was good.'

XXXII. a 'Evvonowyev kai tõd-] The sentiments expressed in the former part of this chapter have excited much attention, and portions of it have been often quoted and translated. Eusebius has transcribed part of it in his Præparatio Evangelica, and Stobæus in his Sermones; while Cicero has given us his version of almost the whole chapter in his Tusculan Disputations, Lib. I. 41. Magna me spes tenet, judices, bene mihi evenire, quod mittar ad mortem. Necesse est enim, sit alterum de duobus; ut aut sensus omnino omnes mors auferat, aut in alium quendam locum ex his locis morte migretur,' etc.

b ή γάρ οίον μηδέν είναι] That is, τοιούτόν τι ώςτε μηδέν είναι as a little lower down: ει δ' αυ οίον αποδημήσαι εστιν ο Oávatos. Eusebius, and Theodoret (who likewise quotes this passage), have undév ti cival, whence Heindorf conjectures that the reading ought to be μηδέν έτι είναι.

και μετοίκησις τη ψυχή-] On this use of the dative see Matth. § 389.1.-Instead of ueroiknoug ToŨ Tónov might have been said μετοίκησις εκ του τόπου. Yet the former is no less




usual. For since the verb PETOLKETV is not only construed with prepositions, but also is used with an accusative of the place, from which one person goes to another, as in Pausan. IV. 40. 'Akapvaνίαν μετοικήσαι: therefore μετοίκησις τόπου is no less correct than μετοίκησις εκ τόπου.-A little further on, του ενθένδε is put for του ενταύθα, because the verbal substantive signifes motion to a place. We have before spoken of a similar use of prepositions (c. XX. note (0) ): the construction of the adverbs has been illustrated by Heindorf on Gorgias, p. 472. B. where we find: ” Περικλέους όλη οικία ή άλλη συγγένεια, ήντιν' άν βούλη των Évéévde éclézaobal. Compare also Buttmann's Gr. § 138. 8.

d kai číte on undeuia-] The other alternative is given a good way on, and introduced by the words ei ' olov åmodnuñoai lotiv ó Dávatos. On ei after éire, see c. IV. note (a).

e ływ yàp åv oïuai] *Av belongs to the infinitive cúpɛīv. It is repeated on account of the long parenthesis; and its insertion at the head of the sentence prepares us for the hypothetical character of the proposition. Compare Soph. Ant. 466.

αλλ' αν εί τον εξ έμής
μητρός θανόντάθαπτον ήνσχόμην νέκυν,

κείνοις αν ήλγουν. For a similar reason, the words déol and oiuai are subsequently repeated. Heindorf wished also the word ei to be repeated before the words déol okeyájevov, for the sake of perspicuity And it is written so in Eusebius. But as the construction of the sentence is not altered from the beginning, this repetition does not appear to be necessary.

un őrı idiórnv] That is, not to say any private man. See Matth. Gr. Ş 624. 4.

8 ευαριθμητους αν ευρείν αυτόν τ.] The pronoun αυτόν is to be connected with tòv uéyav Baoiléa, and add emphasis to the expression: the great king himself.-Evapi@unto nuépal, that is, days which may be easily count:d, very few : npòs indicates comparison: if they be compared with other days and nights. So a little further on: τα έμαυτού πάθη προς τα εκείνων.

h kai yåp oudèv aleiwv] Fischer, following the quotation in Eusebius, reads πλείον. But the more correct reading is πλείων, meaning longer, ovdèy being used in the sense of où, as is frequently the case. Cicero has thus translated these words: perpetuitas consequentis temporis similis futura est uni nocti. For the expression ó tās xpóvos, compare Eurip. Med. v. 25. TÒV


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