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πάντα συντήκουσα δακρύοις χρόνον. Ibid. 1096. τρυχομένους τὸν πάντα χρόνον.
1 Μίνως τε καὶ ̔Ραδάμανθυς, κ. τ. λ.] These words are placed in apposition with the relative pronoun; whereas the first part of the sentence would lead us to expect the accusative. So Phædo, p. 66. Ε, καὶ τότε— ἡμῖν ἔσται οὗ ἐπιθυμοῦμεν, — φρονήσεως. Hipp. Μaj. p. 281. C. τί ποτε τὸ αἴτιον, ὅτι οἱ παλαιοὶ ἐκεῖνοι, ὧν ὀνόματα μεγάλα λέγεται ἐπὶ σοφίᾳ, Πιττακοῦ τε καὶ Βίαντος, — φαίνονται ἀπεχόμενοι τῶν πολιτικῶν πράξεων. These apparent irregularities are due to the principle of attraction, which exercises so strong an influence in the structure of a Greek sentence. It would be easy to multiply examples; but those who are anxious to see a greater number, may refer to Wolf on Demosth. Lept. § 15, or Heindorf on Hippias Maj. § 2. By a similar construction, Sulpicius in Cic. ad. Diversos, IV. 5, writes: genus hoc consolationis miserum est, quia, per quos ea confieri debet, propinquos ac familiares, ipsi pari molestia afficiuntur.— Respecting the judges of the infernal regions, and their duties, there is a remarkable passage in Gorg. p. 523. E. sqq. It appears to have been the opinion of the common people in Attica, probably derived, by rumour, from the Eleusinian mysteries, that Triptolemus, and other heroes who had lived a just and pious life, became judges in the infernal regions. For Triptolemus was said not only to have taught the Athenians agriculture, but also to have given them laws, whence he was called Oɛσμopóρoç. The following words, καὶ ἄλλοι, ὅσοι κ.τ.λ, seem to refer to the prevalent notion, that the dead would practise in the shades what had been their occupations in the upper world.
κ ἐπὶ πόσῳ ἄν τις δέξαιτ ̓ ἂν ὑμῶν] Cicero renders: quanti tandem æstimatis? Xenoph. Mem. II. 2, 8. dλà vǹ Sía Xéyɛi, ἃ οὐκ ἄν τις ἐπὶ τῷ βίῳ παντὶ βούλοιτο εἶναι. Compare Matth. § 585. B.
1 ἐγὼ μὲν γὰρ πολλάκις ἐθέλω τεθνάναι] On this use of the verb Tεovávaι see c. XVII. note (2). Eusebius has: ¿y μèv kai πολλάκις: whence Heindorf conjectured that Plato wrote: ἐγὼ μèv yaρ Kai TоMákig, etc. But there is no need of change. The word yap sometimes introduces the real reason for a preceding or following statement; but, very frequently, indeed, refers to a statement or sentiment, to which the train of thought leads so spontaneously as to render it unnecessary to do more than thus intimate it; and sometimes, like the Latin enim, seems to
mean simply, indeed, at any rate, according to its etymology, γε ἄρα.
κι ἡ διατριβὴ αὐτόθι] That is, As far as I myself am concerned, the intercourse there would be delightful; to meet with Palamedes and Ajax, the son of Telamon, and any of the rest of the ancients, who, through an unjust sentence, were put to death : to compare their sufferings with my own would, I conceive, be no unpleasant occupation.—ἀντιπαραβάλλοντι is, in point of sense, equivalent to ἀντιπαραβάλλειν. The stories of Palamedes and Ajax are well known. See, for the former, Virg. Æn. II. 81, and Ovid. Met. XIII. 55; for the latter, Hom. Od. XI. 545.
η καὶ δὴ τὸ μέγιστον] The expression τὸ μέγιστον is placed in apposition with the whole of the following clause. See Matth. § 432.5.
· τὸν ἐπὶ Τροίαν ἀγαγόντα] That is, Agamemnon.
• ἢ ἄλλους μυρίους ἄν τις εἴποι] Stephens would read ἢ ἄλλους μυρίους, οὓς ἄν τις εἴποι, not bearing in mind that brevity by which several sentences are sometimes united in one clause. See Gorg. p. 483. D. 'πεὶ ποίῳ δικαίῳ χρώμενος Ξέρξης ἐπὶ τὴν ̔Ελλάδα ἐστράτευσεν; ἢ ὁ πατὴρ αὐτοὺ ἐπὶ τοὺς Σκύθας; ἢ ἄλλα μυρία ἄν τις ἔχοι τοιαῦτα λέγειν. Phædo, p. 94. Β. λέγω δὲ τὸ τοιόνδε, ὡς εἰ καύματος ἐνόντος καὶ δίψους ἐπὶ τοὐναντίον ἕλκειν, ἐπὶ τὸ μὴ πίνειν· καὶ πείνης ἐνούσης ἐπὶ τὸ μὴ ἐσθίειν. καὶ ἄλλα μυρία που ὁρῶμεν ἐναντιουμένην τὴν ψυχὴν τοῖς κατὰ τὸ σῶμα.
9 ἀμήχανον ἂν εἴη εὐδαιμονίας] Similarly Theætet. p. 175. Α. ἄτοπα αὐτῷ καταφαινεταὶ τῆς σμικρολογίας, monstrous degree of stupidity. The genitive is a partitive one.
XXXIII. 2 ̓Αλλὰ καὶ ὑμᾶς χρή] Cicero: vos, judices, qui me absolvistis. Socrates will not recognise as judges those who condemned him. Compare c. XXXI.
b καὶ ἕν τι τοῦτο διανοεῖσθαι ἀληθές] The circumstance that Tì is used here before Touro arises from the usage of the Greeks, first to express what they mean generally by the pronoun ɩ, and then to limit or define the meaning more accurately. So we should say, one particular thing, namely this, is to be regarded as true.—ἀπὸ τοῦ αὐτομάτου: that is, by chance, fortuitously, not by the design and will of the gods.—ἀπηλλ. πραγμάτων, that is, human affairs, with the accessory notion of labour and toil.—οὐ πάνυ χαλ., not much; not greatly. Others have incorrectly translated it by no means, a signification which the words no where
have.-A little further on, Heindorf suggests that the reading ought to be: τοῦθ ̓ ὃ αὐτοῖς ἄξιον μέμφεσθαι. But the language is more serious and emphatic as it stands.
• ταὐτὰ ταῦτα λυποῦντες] That is, giving them just the same annoyance which I have done you; to wit, exhorting them to virtue, making trial of their wisdom, convincing them of folly.—ɛivai rɩ K. T. X., that is, If they think themselves to be something when they are nothing, reproach them, as I have done you, etc.
d'Aλλà yàp ] Cicero Tusc. I. 41. Sed tempus est jam hinc abire, me, ut moriar; vos, ut vitam agatis. Utrum autem sit melius, dii immortales sciunt: hominem quidem scire arbitror neminem. See c. XXIX. note (a).
NOTES ON THE CRITO.
Crito.] Crito, whose name is honoured by standing at the head of this dialogue, was a wealthy and generous Athenian. He wrote a considerable number of treatises in the dialogue form, but it is to his faithful and self-sacrificing attachment to his friend and master that he owes by far the greater part of his fame. His sons were also pupils of Socrates
I. a IIŋvíka páλiora;] What hour is it as near as you can tell? The interrogative πηvíкα is correctly used, not of time in general, but of the subdivisions of the day. See Thom. M. p. 713, ed. Bern. - πηνίκα μὴ εἴπῃς ἐπὶ χρόνου. ἔστι γὰρ ὥρας δηλωτικόν οἷον ἐὰν εἴπῃς ἕωθεν ἢ περὶ μεσημβρίαν. The adverb μάλιστα is frequently used with numerals and similar words, to indicate that nothing more than an approximation, as near as possible however to the exact truth, is intended.
b ὄρθρος βαθύς.] Crito defines the time more accurately in these words, for πр and opeрos differ from one another, as in Latin mane and diluculum, of which the former is the part of the day extending from twilight to about the third hour, according to the antient division of the day; but the latter is the twilight itself, when
Nox abiit, nec tamen orta dies, according to Ovid. Amat. I. 5, 6. Phrynichus: öрероç то πро ἀρχομένης ἡμέρας, ἐν ᾧ ἔτι λύχνῳ δύναταί τις χρῆσθαι. The adjective Babug is used by the Greeks in reference to time as the word " depth" is used in the phrase "the depth of winter." Protagor. p. 310. Α. τῆς παρελθούσης νυκτὸς ταυτησί, ἔτι ὄρθρου Balsoç. Lucian. Asin. 34. vúž Balɛĩa, where see Reitz. Polyæn. Strateg. I. 28, 2, βαθείας ἑσπέρας.
• θαυμάζω, ὅπως ἠθέλ.- I wonder how it came to pass that. Compare Xenoph. Μem. I. 1, 20. θαυμάζω οὖν, ὅπως ποτὲ ἐπείσθησαν οἱ ̓Αθηναῖοι. Eurip. Med. v. 51. πῶς λείπεσθαι θέλει; So a little further on: πῶς οὐκ ἐπήγειράς με εὐθύς; Socrates