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scenes, among that gay people, the duke found himself C H A P. in a fituation, where he was perfectly qualified to excel B. But his great fuccefs at Paris proved as fatal as his former failure at Madrid. Encouraged by the smiles of the court, he dared to carry his ambitious addresses to the queen herself; and he failed not to make impreffion on a heart not undisposed to the tender paffions. That attachment, at least, of the mind, which appears fo delicious, and is so dangerous, seems to have been encouraged by the princess; and the duke presumed fo far on her good graces, that, after his departure, he secretly returned upon fome pretence, and, paying a vifit to the queen, was difmiffed with a reproof, which favoured more of kindness than of anger C.

INFORMATION of this correfpondence was foon carried to Richelieu. The vigilance of that minifter' was here farther roufed by jealousy. He too, either from vanity or politics, had ventured to pay his addreffes to the queen. But a priest, past middle age, of a fevere character, and occupied in the most extenfive plans of ambition or vengeance, was but an unequal match in that conteft, for a young courtier, entirely difpofed to gaiety and gallantry. The cardinal's disappointment ftrongly inclined him to counter-work the amorous projects of his rival. When the duke was making preparations for a new embaffy to Paris, a meffage was fent him from Lewis, that he must not think of fuch a journey. In a romantic paffion, he fwore, that he would See the queen in spite of all the power of France; and from that moment, he was determined to engage England in a war with that kingdom D.


He first took advantage of fome quarrels, excited by the queen of England's attendants; and he perfuaded Charles to difmifs, at once, all her French fervants, contrary to the articles of the marriage treaty E. encouraged the English ships of war and privateers to feize veffels belonging to French merchants; and these he forthwith condemned as prizes, by fentence of the court of admiralty. But finding that all these injuries produced only remonftrances and embaffies, or at most VOL. VI. reprisals,


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B Clarendon, vol. i. p. 38. C Memoires de Mad. de
D Clarendon, vol. i. p. 38. Rushworth,
vol. i. p. 423, 424.


CHA P. reprisals, on the part of France; he refolved to fecond the intrigues of the duke of Soubize, and to undertake at once a military expedition against that nation.


SOUBIZE, who, with his brother the duke of Rohan, was the leader of the hugonot fa&tion, was at that time in London, and ftrongly folicited Charles to embrace the protection of thefe diftreffed religionifts. He reprefented, That, after the inhabitants of Rochelle had been repressed by the combined fquadrons of England and Holland, after peace was concluded with the French king under Charles's mediation, the ambitious cardinal was still meditating the deftruction of the hugonots; that preparations were filently making in every province of France for the fuppreffion of their religion; that forts were erected in order to bridle Rochelle, the most confiderable bulwark of the proteftants; that the reformed in France caft their eyes on Charles as the head of their faith, and confidered him as a prince engaged by interest, as well as inclination, to fupport them; that fo long as their party fubfifted, Charles might rely on their obedience, as much as on that of his own fubjects; but, if their liberties were once ravished from them, the power of France, freed from this impediment, would foon become formidable to England, and to all the neighbouring


THOUGH Charles probably bore but small favour to the hugonots, who fo much resembled the puritans, in difcipline and worship, in religion and politics; he yet allowed himself to be gained by these arguments, inforced by the folicitations of Buckingham. A fleet of an hundred fail, and an army of 7000 men, were fitted out for the invasion of France, and both of them trusted to the command of the duke, who was altogether unacquainted 9th July. both with land and fea-fervice. The fleet appeared beExpedition fore Rochelle: But fo ill concerted were the duke's meato the ifle fures, that the inhabitants of that city fhut their gates, of Rhe. and refused to admit allies, of whofe coming they were not previously informed. All his military operations fhewed equal incapacity and inexperience. Instead of attacking Oleron, a fertile island and defenceless, he bent his course to the isle of Rhe, which was well garrifoned and fortified: Having landed his men, though with fome loss,

F Rushworth, vol. i. p. 426.



he followed not the blow, but allowed Toiras, the French C HAP. governor, five days refpite; during which St. Martin was victualled and provided for a fiege G. He left behind him the fmall fort of Prie, which could at first have made 1627. no manner of resistance: Though resolved to starve St. Martin, he guarded the fea negligently, and allowed provifions and ammunition to be thrown into it: Despairing to reduce it by famine, he attacked it without having made any breach, and rafhly threw away the lives of the foldiers: Having found, that a French army had stolen over in small divifions, and had landed at Prie, the fort which he had at firft overlooked, he began to think of a retreat; but made it fo unfkilfully, that it was equivalent to a total rout: He was the laft, of the whole army, that embarked; and he returned to England, having loft two-thirds of his land forces; totally difcredited both as an admiral and general; and bringing no praise with him, but the vulgar one of courage and perfonal bravery.

THE duke of Rohan, who had taken arms as foon as Buckingham appeared on the coast, discovered the dangerous spirit of the fect, without being able to do any mischief: The inhabitants of Rochelle, who had at last been induced to join themselves to the English, haftened the vengeance of their master, exhausted their provifions in fupplying their allies, and were threatened with an immediate fiege. Such were the fruits of Buckingham's expedition against France.

G Whitlocke, p. 8. Sir Philip Warwick, p. 25.

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Third parliament.-Petition of right.-Prorogation. Death of Buckingham.New feffion of parliament.Tonnage and poundage. -Arminianifm.

Diffolution of the Parliament.


HERE was reafon to apprehend some disorder or infurrection from the difcontents, which prevailed among the people in England. Their liberties, they believed, were ravished from them; illegal taxes extorted; their commerce, which had met with a fevere check from the Spanish, was totally annihilated by the French war; thofe military honours, tranfmitted to them from their ancestors, had received a grievous ftain, by two unsuccessful and ill-conducted expeditions; fcarce an illuftrious family but mourned, from the laft of them, the lofs of a fon or brother; greater calamities were dreaded from the war with these powerful monarchies, concurring with the internal diforders, under which the nation laboured. All thefe ills were afcribed, not to the refractory difpofition of the two former parliaments, to which they were partly owing; but folely to Charles's obftinacy, in adhering to the counfels of Buckingham; a man no wife intitled, by his birth, age, fervice, or merit, to that unlimited confidence repofed in him. To be facrificed to the intereft, policy, and ambition of the great, is so much the common lot of the people, that they may appear unreasonable, who would pretend to complain of it: But to be the victim of the frivolous gallantry of a favourite, and of his boyish caprices, feemed the fubject of peculiar indignation.

In this fituation, it may be imagined, the king and the duke dreaded, above all things, the affembling of a parliament: But, fo little forefight had they poffeffed in their enterprizing schemes, that they found themselves under an abfolute neceffity of embracing that expedient. The money levied, or rather extorted, under colour of prerogative, had come in very flowly, and had left fuch ill-humour in the nation, that it appeared dangerous to renew the experiment. The abfolute neceffity of fupply, it was hoped, would engage the commons to forget all past injuries; and, having experienced the ill effects of former




obftinacy, they would probably affemble with a refolution C H A P. of making some reasonable compliances. The more to soften them, it was concerted, by Sir Robert Cotton's advice A, that Buckingham should be the first perfon, who propofed in council the calling of a new parliament. Having Third parlaid in this stock of merit, he expected, that all his liament. former mifdemeanors would be over-looked and forgiven, and that, inftead of a tyrant and oppreffor, he should be regarded as the first patriot in the nation.

THE views of the popular leaders were much more judicious and profound. When the commons affembled, they appeared to be men of the fame independent spirit with their predeceffors, and poffeffed of fuch riches, that their property was computed to surpass three times that of the house of peers B; they were deputed by boroughs and counties, inflamed, all of them, by the late violations of liberty; many of the members themselves had been caft into prifon, and had fuffered by the meafures of the court; yet, notwithstanding all these circumstances, which might prompt them to embrace violent refolutions, they entered upon business with perfect temper and docorum. They confidered, that the king, difgufted at these popular affemblies, and little prepoffeffed in favour of their privileges, wanted but a fair pretence of breaking with them, and would feize the firft opportunity offered by any incident or any undutiful behaviour of the members. He fairly told them, in his fpeech, that, "If they should not do their duties, in contribut"ing to the neceffities of the state, he must, in discharge "of his confcience, use those other means, which God "had put into his hands, in order to fave that which the "follies of fome particular men may otherwife put in "danger. Take not this for a threatening," added the king, for I fcorn to threaten any but my equals; but


as an admonition from him, who, by nature and duty, "has most care of your preservation and profperity C." The lordkeeper, by the king's direction fubjoined, "This way of parliamentary fupplies, as his majesty "told you, he hath chofen, not as the only way, but as "the fittest; not because he is deftitute of others, but "because it is most agreeable to the goodness of his own "" most

A Franklyn, p. 230. B Sanderson, p. 106. Walker,
c Rushworth, vol. i. p. 477. Franklyn, p. 233.

P. 339.

17 March.

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