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CHARACTERISTICS OF READING AND SPEAKING.

1. There are sixteen distinct and peculiar attributes of voice and speech, that exist in the nature of things; and without the knowledge and practice of which, no person can ever be a beautiful and truly effective reader or speaker. Hence, the knowledge and proper application of them in vocal deliv ery, are important to all, and indispensable to the teacher and public speaker. They are the following, to wit:

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1. ARTICULATION.
2. PITCH.
3. FORCE.
4. TIME.
5. Rising INFLECTION.
6. FALLING INFLECTION.
7. CIRCUMFLEX.
8. MONOTONE.

9. EMPHASIS. 10. QUANTITY. 11. MODULATION. 12. QUALITY. 13. IRONY. 14. RHETORICAL PAUSE. 15. TREMOR. 16. CLIMAX.

ARTICULATION.

1. Articulation means distinctness of utterance; or it is the proper shaping out, by the organs of voice and speech, ev-e-ry el-e-ment, syl-la-ble, and word in a sen-tence.

2. “It is to the ear of the hearer what a beautiful and dis tinct hand-writing is to the eye.” Eloquence of thought and action will fail to secure the attention of an audience, without this attainment. It is indispensable to every good reader and speaker. There will, therefore, be presented in this work, ample means and examples for practice, with a view to the attain ment of this important accomplishment.

2

3. It is a primary duty of the teacher to conduct his pupils (and this may be done in concert) through a series of exercises, calculated to energize their organs of speech, and improve their articulation. He will first give them a knowledge of the elements of speech, or, in other words, the simple sounds of which words are made. These are forty-one in number, sixteen of which are made almost entirely by the organs of voice; hence, they are called Vocals ; fifteen are made by the voice, much interrupted by the organs of speech, and are termed Sub-vocals ; 'the remaining ten elements are uttered in whispers, and hence are called Aspirates. They are as follows:

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THE ELEMENTARY SOUNDS.

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VOCALS, 16. 1 A as in a-le. 2 A

a-rm. 3 A

a-11. 4 A

a-t. 5 A

a-ir. 1 E

m-e. 2 E

m-e-t. 1 I 2 I

2-t. 1 0

o-ld. 2 0

m-o-ve. 3 O

n-o-t. 1 U

l-u-te. 2 U

f-u-ll. 3 U

U-p. 1 OU 66

ou-t.

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SUB-VOCALS, 15. ASPIRATES, 10.
B

6-1-6.

F as in far.
D
d-i-d. H

h-at.
G

9-0-9.
K

ar-k.
J
j-ar. P

cu-p.
L
lo. s

s-in.
M
m-e. T

wi-t.
N

n-O. TH th-in. NG

so-ng.

SH she.
R
7-un,

ch-ur-ch. TH th-is.

WH6

wh-y. V

v-ie. CORRELATIVES. W

W-e.

ASPIRATE SUB-VOCALS. Y

F V TH TH y-ou.

K G 1 Z

SH 2 Z 2-one.

P В. 2 Z

CH J a-z-ure. s 12

T

i-ce.

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4. In the above table, every elementary sound must be singled out by the teacher, and then uttered by the class in concert, distinctly, and with increased force and energy, as the organs become fitted to their enunciation. Spelling by the sounds should then be introduced, and practiced with perseverance and great care; by which means the health of the body will be promoted, the power and melody of the voice se cured, and a correct and beautiful articulation attained.

EXAMPLES FOR PRACTICE IN DIFFICULT ARTICULATION.

1. Let the class utter distinctly the sound-element -power of each letter in the following combination :

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2. After a thorough practice in the foregoing sounds, the following should be pronounced as words, with great force and distinctness.

helms. thrusts. shrieks. facts. breadths. fifths. nymphs. prompts.

depths. spheres. chasms. dwarfs. writhes. wasps. shrimps. twelfth.

respects.
harm'st.
call’dst.
smil'st.
thousandth.
maim'd.
class'dst.
triumphd.

particularly. familiarly. specifically. authoritatively. unhesitatingly. hereditatively. recitatively deteriorately.

3. After the foregoing exercise, let the following sentences, containing the most difficult combinations of elements, be enun ciated slowly, distinctly, and energetically, taking great care to give outline to

every

element:

1. The wild beasts straggled through the deepest shade. 2. The finest streams through the tangled forests strayed. 3. The heights, depths, and breadths of the subject. 4. Ice cream, not I scream; an ice-house, not a nice house. 6. Then rustling, crackling, crashing, thunder down. 6. The strife ceaseth, and the good man rejoiceth. 7. He was most mindful in memory of that mysterious mummery.

8. The rough and rugged rocks rear their hoary heads high on the heath.

9. He had great fear of offending the frightful fugitive in his Aight.

10 The vile vagabond ventured' to vilify the venerable veteran. 11. We wandered where the whirlpool wends its winding way.

12. The stripling stranger strayed straight through the struggling stream. 13. The swimming swan swiftly swept the swinging sweep.

(Swim, swam, swum!--well swum swimming swan!) 14. Round and round the rugged rocks, the ragged rascals ran. 15. No sheet nor shroud enshrined those shreds of shrivel'd clay. 16. Sam Slick sawed six slim, sleek saplings for sale. 17. Six brave maids sat on six broad beds, and braided broad braids.

18. Amidst the mists and coldest frosts,

With barest wrists and stoutest boasts,
He thrusts his fists against the posts,
And still insists, he sees the ghosts.

4. The importance of a distinct articulation is strongly illustrated by the following examples. They must be read with great distinctness, or the sense will not be given :

1. His cry moved me. His crime moved me. 2. He can pay nobody. He can pain nobody. 9. The battle last still night. The battle lasts till night. 4. The culprits ought to be punished. 6. The culprit sought to be punished.

6. He can debate on either side of the question.
7. He can debate on neither side of the questio...
8. They never imagined such an ocean to exist.
9. They never imagined such a notion to exist.
10. They discovered nought but wastes and deserts.
11. They discovered nought but waste sand deserts.
12. When a twister a twisting will twist him a twist,

For twisting a twist he three times doth intwist;
But if one of the twines of the twist doth untwist,

The twine that untwisteth, untwisteth the twist. 13. Peter Prickle Prandle picked three pecks of prickly pears from three prickly prangly pear trees; if, then, Peter Prickle Prandle picked three pecks of prickly pears from three prickly prangly pear trees, where are the three pecks of prickly pears that Peter Prickle Prandle picked from three prickly prangly pear trees; suc cess to the successful prickly prangly pear picker.

14. Theophilus Thistle, the successful thistle sister, in sifting a sieve full of unsifted thistles, thrust three thousand thistles through the thick of his thumb; if then Theophilus Thistle, the successful this. tle sifter, in sifting a sieve full of unsifted thistles, thrust three thousand thistles through the thick of his thumb; see that thou, in sifting a sieve full of unsifted thistles, dost not thrust three thousand this. tles through the thick of thy thumb: success to the successful thistle sifter, who doth not get the thistles in his tongue.

15. Thou wreath’d'st and muzzl’d'st the far-fetch'd ox, and imprison’d'st him in the Volcanic Mexican mountain, of Popocatapetl, in Cotapaxi. Thou prob’dst my wounds and troubl’d'st my rack'd ribs. Thou trifl’d'st with his acts, that thou black’n’d'st and contaminated'st with his filch'd character. Thou lov’d'st the elves when thou heard'st and quick’n’d'st my heart's tuneful harps. Thou wagg’d’st thy propp'd up head, because thou thrust'd'st three hundred and thirty-three thistles through the thick of that thumb, that thou cur'd'st of the barb'd shafts.

ALPHABETICAL ALLITERATION AND ARTICULATION,

Alderman Affluent always adjudicated with admirable ability.

Brother Ben boldly beat, battered, and bruised the British with his bludgeon.

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