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GATESHEAD, a town of Durham, separated from Newcastle, by the Tyne; over which there is a fine stone bridge, which formerly had an iron gate in the middle, with the arms of Durham on one side, and those of Newcastle on the other; being the boundary between the bishopric and Northumberland. It is a borough by prescription, but not privileged to send members to parliament. Here are considerable manufactories of cast and wrought iron, whiting, &c. The church is a fine building, with a very high tower; and in the church-yard are several ancient monuments. There are few traces left of its ancient monastery, except a stone gateway, of rather a modern erection. The house covered two acres and a half of land. Here is a free school for grammar, arithmetic, and navigation. Gateshead Fell, a bleak and clevated ridge, extending southward from the town, is famous for its grindstone quarries, whence the Newcastle stones are exported to all parts of the world. The view of Newcastle and the Tyne from the hill on the north of the Hexham road is uncommonly grand. Gateshead is thirteen miles north-east of Durham. GATEVEIN, n. s. Gate and vein. The vein otherwise called vena porta.
Being a king that loved wealth, he could not endure to have trade sick, nor any obstruction to continue in the gatevein which disperseth that blood.
Bacon's Henry VII.
GATH, or GETH, in ancient geography, a city of the Philistines, and one of their five satrapies. It is famous for having given birth to Goliath. David made a conquest of it, and it continued subject to his successors, till the declension of the kingdom of Judah. Rehoboam rebuilt and fortified it; king Uzziah retook it, and Hezekiah once more reduced it under his subjection. Some authors, among whom is F. Calmet, have committed an egregious mistake in making Gath the most southern, and Ekron the most northern, of the Philistine cities; as if these had been the two boundaries of their dominions, whereas they are not above five miles asunder; and Gaza is the last of the five satrapies south. Josephus expresses himself plainly enough, when he says, that Hezekiah took all the Philistine cities from Gaza to Gath; there being many more cities of that name, which signifies in the Hebrew a winepress. Several more of the name of Geth or Gath are mentioned in Eusebius and St. Jerome, whose situation, according to them, plainly shows them to have been different places from this, and from each other; besides those which had an adjunct to distinguish them. This city recovered its liberty and lustre in the time of the prophets Amos and Micah, but was afterwards demolished by Hazael, king of Syria; since which it became of but little consideration till the time of the crusades, when Fulk king of Jerusalem built a castle on its ruins. It was thirty-two miles west of Jerusalem.
GATH'ER, v. a., v.n., & n. s. Saxon, GATHERER, n. s. GATHERING, N. s. to some authors contracted from get here; but the Belgic has gaderen, gader; Teut. gadern; and the Scotch, gadeer, of the same signification; and more probably compounded as the Goth. gadra, of gawidra, go and with. To collect, and form
Have satisfied the king for his divorce,
All the way we went there were gathered some people on both sides, standing in a row. Bacon. Their snow-ball did not gather as it went; for the people came in to them. Id. Henry VII.
I will spend this preface about those from whom 1 have gathered my knowledge; for I am but a gatherer and disposer of other men's stuff.
Nor in that land
Do poisonous herbs deceive the gatherer's hand.
Have gathered aught of evil, or concealed,
By night, and listening where the hapless pair
Mademoiselle de Scudery, who is as old as Sibyl, is translating Chaucer into French: from which I gather that he has formerly been translated into the old Provencal. Dryden.
South, East, and West, on airy coursers born,
To see my youth, my beauty, and my love
Think on the storm that gathers o'er your head, And threatens every hour to burst upon it. Addison. Immortal Tully shone,
The Roman rostra decked the consul's throne;
And gathering loiterers on the land discern,
Byron. Corsair. GATINOIS, or GASTINOIS, a ci-devant province of France, forty-five miles long and thirty
broad. In the eleventh century it had counts of its own, but was afterwards joined to Anjou. It was next divided into Gatinois, Orleanois, and François; and now forms part of the departments of the Seine and Marne, Seine and Oise, and Loiret. This district has been long celebrated for its saffron.
GATTEN-TREE, n. s. A species of Cornelian cherry.
GATTON, a small borough of Surrey, nineteen miles from London, on the side of a hill on the road to Ryegate. It is supposed to have been known to the Romans, from their coins and other antiquities found here. It is a borough by prescription; and has sent members to parliament ever since the 29th of Henry VI. It was formerly a large town. The members are returned by its constable, who is annually chosen at the lord of the manor's court.
GAUBIL (Anthony), a French author, born at Caillac in 1708. He was sent a missionary to China, and acted as interpreter at the court of Pekin. He published a history of Jengis Khan, and a translation of the Chou King. He died in
GAUBIUS (Hieronymus David), a celebrated physician of Holland. He studied under the illustrious Boerhaave; and became so much his favorite, that he resigned the chemical chair in his favor. He taught at Leyden with great applause for forty years. His reputation was extended all over Europe by several valuable publications, particularly by his Institutiones Pathalogiæ Medicinalis, and his Adversaria, which contributed not a little to the improvement of medicine. He died at Leyden, Nov. 20th, aged seventy-six. GAUDE, n. s. & v. a. Lat. gaudere, to be GAU'DERY, n. s. glad.-Minsheu. ExGAU DILY, adv. pressive of what gives GAUDY, adj., & n.s. pleasure; whether to GAU'DINESS, n. s. the eye, as splendid colors; to the taste, as a luxurious feast; or to the heart, as good news, &c.: of the pleasure itself, or the agents and mode of its communication.
By this gaude, have I wonnen, yere by yere An hundred mark, sin I was Pardonere.
Chaucer. The Pardoneres Tale. Of smale corall, aboute hire arm, she bare A pair of bedes gauded all with grene.
Id. Prologue to Canterbury Tales.
He stole the impression of her fantasy,
The sun is in the heaven, and the proud day,
My love to Hermia
Id. King Lear.
A man who walks directly to his journey's end will arrive thither much sooner than he who wanders
aside to gaze at every thing, or to gather every gaudy flower.
In costly sheen and gaudy cloak arrayed, But all afoot, the light-limbed Matadore Stands in the centre, eager to invade The lord of lowing herds. Byron. Childe Harold. GAUDEN (Dr. Joseph), son of the Rev. John Gauden, vicar of Mayfield, in Essex, was born at Mayfield in 1605. At the commencement of the civil war, he was chaplain to Robert, earl of Warwick; whom he followed, on his taking part with the parliament against the king. Upon the establishment of the Presbyterian church government he complied with the ruling powers, and was nominated one of the assembly of divines who met at Westminster in 1643, and took the covenant; yet, having offered some objections to it, his name was afterwards struck out of the list. Nor did he espouse the cause of the parliament longer than they adhered to their first avowed principles of reforming only, instead of destroying, monarchy and episcopacy. In this spirit he signed the protestation to the army against the violent proceedings that affected the life of the king and a few days after his execution published the famous Eikov Baridien, A Portraiture of his Sacred Majesty in his Solitude and Sufferings which ran through fifty editions in the course of a year. Upon the return of Charles II. he was promoted to the see of Exeter; and in 1662 removed to Worcester, where he died the same year. He wrote many controversial pieces, and has generally been considered as the author of the Eikon Basilike. After the bishop's death, his widow, in a letter to one of her sons, calls it The Jewel; and said her husband had hoped to make a fortune by it. This assertion, as the earl of Clarendon had predicted, was eagerly espoused by the anti-royalists, in the view of disparaging Charles I. But it has been said, that Gauden had too luxuriant an imagination to be able to compose in so chaste but elevated a style; and thence, as bishop Burnet and others argue, that not he, but the king himself, was the true author. The whole of the arguments on each side of this disputed question may be found in Mr. Nichols's Literary Anecdotes.
GAUDENS (St.), a town of France, in the department of Upper Garonne, and late province of Languedoc, seated on the Garonne; eight miles north-east of Bertrand.
GAVELET, in law, an ancient and special cessavit used in Kent, where the custom of gavelkind continues, by which the tenant, if he withdraws his rent and services due to the lord, forfeits his land and tenements. The process is thus:-The lord is first to seek by the steward of his court, from three weeks to three weeks, to find some distress upon the tenement, till the fourth court; and if at this time he find none, at this fourth court it is awarded, that he take the tenement in his hand in name of a distress, and keep it a year and a day without manuring; within which time, if the tenant pays his arrears, and makes reasonable amends for the with-holding, he shall have and enjoy his tenement as before: if he comes not before the year and day be past, the lord is to go to the next county court with witnesses of what had passed at his own court, and pronounce there his process, to have further witnesses; and then, by the award of his own court, he shall enter and manure the tene ment as his own: so that if the tenant desired afterwards to have and hold it as before, he must agree with the lord; according to this old saying: Has he not since any thing given, or any thing paid, then let him pay five pound for his were, ere he become healder again.' Other copies have the first part with some variation: 'Let him nine times pay, and nine times repay. GAVELET is also a writ used in the hustings, given to lords of rents in London. Here the parties, tenant and demandant, appear by scire facias, to show cause why the one should not have his tenement again on payment of his rent, or the other recover the lands on default thereof. GAVELKIND. A term in law. A custom whereby the lands of the father are equally divided, at his death, amongst all his sons; or the land of the brother equally among the brothers,
if he have no issue of his own. This custom prevails in divers places in England, but especially in Kent.
Among other Welsh customs he abolished that of garelkind, whereby the heirs female were utterly excluded, and the bastards did inherit as well as the legitimate, which is the very Irish gavelkind.
Davies on Ireland.
GAVELKIND is a tenure belonging to lands in the county of Kent, and formerly universal in Ireland. The word is said by Lambard to be compounded of three Saxon words, gyf, eal, kyn, 'omnibus cognatione proximis data. Verstegan calls it gavelkind, quasi 'give all kind,' that is, to each child his part: and Taylor, in his history of gavelkind, derives it from the British gavel, i.e. a hold or tenure, and cenned,' generatio aut familia;' and so gavel cenned might signify tenura generationis. It is well known what struggles the Kentish men made to preserve their ancient liberties, and with how much suc
cess those struggles were attended. And as it is principally here that we meet with the custom of gavelkind (though it was and is to be found in some other parts of the kingdom), we may conclude, that this was a part of those liberties; agreeably to Selden's opinion, that gavelkind, before the Norman conquest, was the general custom of the realm. The distinguishing properties of this tenure are principally these:--1. The tenant is of age sufficient to alienate his estate by feoffment, at the age of fifteen. 2. The estate does not escheat in case of an attainder
and execution for felony; their maxim being, 'the father to the bough, the son to the plough.' 3. In most places he had a power of devising lands by will, before the statute for that purpose was made. 4. The lands descend, not to the eldest, youngest, or any one son only, but to all the sons together; which was indeed anciently the most usual course of descent all over England, though in particular places particular cus toms prevailed; and it must be allowed, that it is founded on strict justice, however contrary to the present general practice.
GAUGAMELA, in ancient geography, a village of Aturia, lying between the rivers Lycus and Tigris; famous for Alexander's victory over Darius. It is said to have been allowed to Darius Hystaspis for the maintenance of a camel; and hence the name. It was near a more considerable place called Arbela; whence the latter gave the name to the victory. See AR
A GAUGER is a king's officer, who is appointed to examine all tuns, pipes, hogsheads, and barrels, of wine, beer, ale, oil, honey, &c., and give them a mark of allowance, before they are sold in any place within the extent of his office.
GAUGING. See GEOMETRY.
GAUGING ROD, an instrument used in gaug. ing or measuring the contents of any vessel. GAUL. See GALLIA.
GAULTHERIA, in botany, a genus of the monogynia order, and decandria class of plants; natural order eighteenth, bicornes: CAL. exterior diphyllous, interior quinquefid: COR. Ovate; the nectarium consists of ten subulated points: CAPS. quinquelocular, covered with the interior calyx formed in the shape of a berry. Species one only, a beautiful Canadian shrub.
GAULTIER (Louis), abbé, was a native of Italy but of French parentage, and taken
early to France. Here, devoted to the education of youth, he conceived the project of smoothing the rugged path by the instructive games, known to children by the name of the 'Abbé Gaultier's Games.' The revolution forced him to quit France, however, for the Hague, where he accepted the situation of tutor to the children of the British ambassador, whom he accompanied to England. We now find him giving instruction gratuitously to the children of French emigrants; until the peace of Amiens allowed him to return to Paris, where he resumed his teaching, which he continued until his death, in 1818, in his seventy-fifth year. Some of his works have gone through twenty editions. The following are the principal-Leçons de Grammaire suivant la méthode des Tableaux analytiques, 1787; Jeu raisonnable et moral pour les Enfans, 1791; Méthode pour analyser la pensée et la réduire à ses Principes Elémentaires; Méthode pour apprendre grammaticalement la Langue Latine sans connaitre les règles de la Composition; Traits caracteristiques d'une mauvaise Education, ou Actions et Discours contraires a la Politesse, et regardés comme tels par les Moralistes tant Anciens que Modernes; Notions de géometrie pratique, nécessaires a l'exercice de la plupart des Arts et Metiers, 1807, &c. &c. GAUNT, adj. Saxon, gewaned, gewant, GAUNTLY, adv. from gepanian, to lessen. Thin; slender; meagre.
Oh, how that name befits my composition! Old Gaunt, indeed, and gaunt in being old : Within me grief hath kept a tedious fast; And who abstains from meat that is not gaunt? For sleeping England long time have I watched Watching breeds leanness, leanness is all gaunt: The pleasure that some fathers feed upon Is my strict fast; I mean my children's looks; And therein fasting, thou hast made me gaunt : Gaunt am I for the grave, gaunt as a grave, Whose hollow womb inherits nought but bones. Shakspeare. Richard II. Two mastiffs, gaunt and grim, her flight pursued, And oft their fastened fangs in blood embrued. Dryden.
While the gaunt mastiff growling at the gate Affrights the beggar whom he longs to eat. Popc. Then Judah raged by ruffian discord led, Drunk with the steamy carnage of the dead: He saw his sons by dubious slaughter fall, And war without, and death within the wall. Wide wasting plague, gaunt famine, mad despair, And dire debate, and clamorous strife was there. Bp. Heber. GAUNTLET, n. s. French, gantelet; Italian, gaunto; Goth. vanta; Belg. want; corrupted, probably, of Latin, manica, manus, the hand. An iron glove, used for defence, and thrown down in challenges; sometimes, in poetry, used for the cestus or boxing glove.
A scaly gauntlet now, with joints of steel, Must glove his hand. Shakspeare. Henry IV. Feel but the difference, soft and rough; This a gauntlet, that a muff. Cleaveland.
Then put on all thy gorgeous arms, thy helmet And brigandine of brass, thy broad habergeon, Vant-brass, and greves, and gauntlet, add thy spear, A weaver's beam, and seven times folded shield, I only with an oaken staff will meet thee.
Milton's Samson Agonistes.
So to repel the Vandals of the stage,
GAVOT, n. s. Fr. gavotte. A kind of dance. The disposition in a fiddle to play tunes in préludes, sarabands, jigs, and gavots, are real qualities in the instrument.
GAVOT, GAVOTTA, or GAVOTTE, is a kind of dance, the air of which has two brisk and lively strains in common time, each of which is twice played over. The first has usually four or eight bars; and the second contains eight, twelve, or more. The first begins with a minim, or two crotchets, or notes of equal value, and the hand rising; and ends with the fall of the hand upon the dominant or mediant of the mode, but never upon the final, unless it be a rondeau: and the last begins with the rise of the hand, and ends with the fall upon the final of the mode.
GAVOTTA, TEMPI DI, is when only the time or movement of a gavotte is imitated, without any regard to the measure or number of bars or strains.
GAURA, in botany, Virginian loose-strife, a genus of the monogynia order, and octandria class of plants; natural order seventeenth, calycanthemæ: CAL. quadrifid and tubular: COR. pentapetalous, with the petals rising upwards. The nut is inferior, monospermous, and quadrangular. Species three; natives of North and South America.
GAURITZ, one of the most considerable, as well as a very rapid and dangerous river of the colony of the Cape of Good Hope. It rises in the Nieuweldt mountains, crosses the Karroo and Zevarte Berg, and falls into the Indian Ocean, in long. 21° 40′ E., lat. 34° 35' S.
GAUSCHERKIE, a town of Upper Egypt, on the right bank of the Nile, opposite Tahta, supposed by Norden to be the ancient Diospolis. It contains a temple sixty paces in length and forty in breadth; the roof being well preserved; but it is employed by the Arabs as a cattleshed
GAUZE, n. s. fr. gaze; barbarous Lat. gazatum; as some have thought from Gaza; whence this silk first came into Europe. A kind of thin transparent silk.
Silken clothes were used by the ladies; and it seems they were thin, like gauze. Arbuthnot. Brocadoes and damasks, and tabbies and gauzes, Are lately brought over. Swift.
GAUZE, Gause, or GAWSE, in commerce, is woven sometimes of silk, and sometimes only of thread. To warp the silk for making gauze, they use a peculiar kind of mill, upon which
the silk is wound: this mill is a wooden machine about six feet high, having an axis perpendicularly placed in the middle thereof, with six large wings, on which the silk is wound from off the bobbins by the axis turning round. When all the silk is on the mill, they use another instrument to wind it off again on two beams: this done, the silk is passed through as many little beads as there are threads of silk; and thus rolled on another beam to supply the loom. There are figured gauzes; some with flowers of gold and silver, on a silk ground: these last are chiefly brought from China.
GAWK, n. s. foolish fellow.
GAWN, n. s.
A cuckow; a
GAY, adj. & n. s.`
GAV NESS, n. s.
Fr. gai; Italian, gauc; Arm. gae. Cheerful; light; playful; or frolicalso applied to
Bar, vi. 9.
A virgin that loves to go gay.
Chaucer. The Chanones Ymannes Tale.
And from those gayeties our youth requires To exercise their minds, our age retires. Denham. Morose and untractable spirits look upon precepts in emblem, as they do upon gays and pictures, the tooleries of so many old wives' tales. L'Estrange. The ladies, jayly dressed, the Mall adorn With curious dies, and paint the sunny morn.
Gay France shall make the Fan her artists' care, And with the costly trinket arm the fair.
Like some fair flower, that early Spring supplies, That gayly biooms, but even in blooming dies.
Smooth flow the waves, the zephyrs gently play,
Even rival wits did Voiture's fate deplore,
GAY (John), a celebrated English poet, descended from an ancient family in Devonshire, was born at Exeter, and educated at the free school of Barnstaple, under Mr. Rayner. He was afterwards designed for a mercer, but having a small fortune, and considering the attendance on a shop as a degradation of his talents, he resolved to indulge his inclination for the Muses In 1712 be became secretary to the duchess of Monmouth, and in 1714 accompanied the earl of Clarendon to Hanover. On queen Anne's death, he returned to England, where he was taken particular notice of by queen Caroline, then princess of Wales, to whom he read in MS. his tragedy of the Captives; and in 1726 dedicated his Fables, by permission, to the duke of Cumberland. From this it was supposed, that he would have been provided for in some office suitable to his inclination and abilities: but being in 1727 offered the place of gentleman usher to one of the youngest princesses, he thought proper to refuse it; and some warm re
monstrances were made on the occasion by his friend and patron the duke of Queensberry, who withdrew from the court in consequence. The issue of such dependence on the delusive promises of the great, Gay has figuratively and humorously described in his fable of the Hare with many friends The profits of his poems he lost in 1720, in the South Sea scheme. But the encouragement he met with from the public soon made ample amends for these private disappointments. In 1727-8, appeared his Beggar's Opera; the success of which was not only unprecedented, but almost incredible. It had an uninterrupted run in London for sixty-three nights in the first season, and was renewed in the ensuing one with equal approbation It spread into all the great towns of England; was acted in many places thirty and forty times, and last of all it was performed at Minorca. Nor was its fame confined to the reading and representation alone; the card table and drawing-room shared it with the theatre and closet; the ladies carried about its favorite songs engraven upon their fans, and screens and other pieces of furniture were decorated with them The profits were so great, both to the author and Mr. Rich the manager, that it gave rise to a popular pun, viz. That it had made Rich gay, and Gay rich. In consequence of this success, Mr. Gay was induced to write a second part to it, which he entitled Polly. But the disgust subsisting between him and the court, together with the report of his having written seditious pamphlets, occasioned a prohibition to be sent from the lord chamberlain, at the time when every thing was in readiness for the rehearsal. A very considerable sum, however, accrued to him from the publication of it afterwards in 4to. He wrote several other dramatic pieces, and many valuable ones in verse. Among the latter, his Trivia, or the Art of walking in the Streets of London, though his first poetical attempt, recommended him to the esteem and friendship of Mr. Pope: but as, among his dramatic works, his Beggar's Opera will perhaps ever stand as an unrivalled masterpiece, so among his poetical works, his Fables hold the highest estimation. Mr. Gay's disposition was affable, his temper generous, and his conversation agreeable. But he had the foible, too often incident to men of great literary abilities, viz. an excess of indolence, without any economy. So that though his emoluments were, at some periods of his life, very considerable, he was at others greatly straitened in his circumstances; nor could he prevail on himself to follow the advice of his friend Dean Swift, who endeavoured to persuade him to purchase an annuity, as a resource for the exigencies of old age. Mr. Gay therefore, after having undergone many vicissitudes of fortune, and being for some time chiefly supported by the duke and duchess of Queensberry, died at their house in Burlington gardens, in December, 1732. He was interred in Westminster Abbey, where a monument was erected to his memory, at their expense; with an epitaph by Pope.
GAYAH, or BOODH GAYAH, a town of the province of Bahar, Hindostan, one of the most celebrated places of Hindoo pilgrimage. It is