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prince; and treated the Jews, who took the side of Cleopatra, as slaves. He punished small crimes as capital offences, and endeavoured to crush the spirit of his people. He divorced his queen, to marry her daughter, his niece; but the violence and wickedness of his conduct made him so obnoxious to his subjects, that he was compelled to abandon the throne. He fled to the island of Cyprus, taking with him the unhappy victim of his passion, and his son Memphitis, her mother's child.

On his flight, the Alexandrians gave the crown to the divorced but rightful queen. It sat not with ease upon her brow. In Cyprus, Physcon still held the idea of regaining the throne of Egypt. He sent for a son he had left in Alexandria, and fearing his accession to the throne, caused him to be put to death. His next step was to cause the lifeless, mangled corpse of his son Memphitis, to be sent as a present to the mother on her birthday, The horror and detestation awakened by these unparalleled cruelties, raised the spirit of vengeance among his people. An army was raised, and war was proclaimed. Physcon hired a numerous body of mercenaries, and sent them, under able command, against the Egyptians. A bloody contest ensued on the frontiers of Egypt, when victory declared in favour of this in human tyrant. Cleopatra, the divorced but reigning queen, appealed to Demetrius, king of Syria, for succour and support; but, after an unsuccessful struggle, Cleopatra was forced to flee to Ptolemais, and take up her abode with her own daughter, the queen of Syria. Physcon was restored to the throne of Egypt, and held the sceptre till the day of his death, which took place at Alexandria, in the 47th year of his age, and 29th of his reign. He left behind him two sons by his niece Cleopatra, Ptolemy Lathyrus, and Ptolemy Alexander.

Lathyrus ascended the throne about B.C. 116. Cleopatra en deavoured to secure the crown for her younger son Alexander, but without success. The Alexandrians favoured Lathyrus, but he was afterwards compelled to give up the government of Egypt

their revolt. Berenice, the daughter of Auletes, occupied the throne of Egypt, by the consent of the people. The accession and subsequent marriage of this daughter, increased the fears of Auletes. Through great influence, he contrived to get several of the more distinguished members of the embassy put to death; to procure an acquittal for those who did the deed, and to enlist the sympathies and the arms of the Romans on his behalf. After a series of low intrigues with the senate, Auletes regained his throne. He reigned only about three years, and died, leaving two sons and two daughters to the guardianship and tuition of the Roman people.

His daughter Cleopatra, having won the heart of Julius Cæsar by her charms, contrived, through him, to set aside the claims of her brothers and sister, and was proclaimed queen of Egypt. For a time she exercised the most powerful influence over the Roman warrior. After his death, she tried her consummate arts on Marc Antony, and overcame him as she had done Cæsar, by the force of her charms. In the battle of Actium, which decided the contest for power between her new lover and the heir of Cæsar, Antony was defeated. Soon afterwards he put an end to his existence. In the ruin which he thus brought upon himself, Cleopatra is considered to have been deeply involved. In the year following his defeat and death, she was taken prisoner by Augustus Cæsar. In order to avoid the disgrace of being yoked to his triumphal car, she poisoned herself, and died the victim of her own pride and passion, even before her charms had begun to fade. This event took place about 30 years before the Christian era; and from that day, Egypt, the land which had formed the cradle of the arts and sciences, and the birthplace of letters and philosophy, dwindled into a Roman province. For a considerable period afterwards Egypt maintained its pre-eminence, as the seat of wealth; and, in a commercial point of view, Alexandria continued to be the most busy and influential city of the world. But with the death of Cleopatra, the last of the Ptolemies, closes

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for that of Cyprus. Cleopatra then sought to associate her son Alexander with herself in the sovereignty of the kingdom. But he caused her to be murdered, and lost his throne. His subjects revolted and restored Lathyrus. On his restoration, Lathyrus turned his arms against Thebes. After a siege of three years, he reduced that city and stripped it of its glory. He passed the rest of his reign in comparative peace and tranquillity, and died, B.C. 81, leaving one daughter, and two illegitimate sons, Ptolemy of Cyprus, and Ptolemy Auletes.

After the death of Lathyrus, the son of his brother Alexander ascended the throne. He proved himself scarcely less a monster than his father. Having murdered his queen, and provoked the revolt of his subjects, he fled to Pompey the Great, who was then carrying on the war against Mithridates, king of Pontus, and shut himself up in the city of Tyre. On his death-bed, he bequeathed his kingdom to the Roman senate. Meanwhile, the Egyptians made AULETES king. In virtue of Alexander's will, the Romans contested with him the right of possession. The dispute ended in favour of Auletes, who surpassed all his predecessors in the weakness of his character, and in the effeminacy of his manners. Conscious of this, he sought an alliance with Rome. As this could only be purchased at an immense cost, Auletes imposed new and heavy taxes on his people, in order to raise the necessary sum. Against this imposition they rebelled, and the king had to make his escape. Leaving Alexandria, he set sail for Rome, and landed on the island of Rhodes. Here it is said that he had an interview with Cato, who advised him to return to his kingdom. Auletes not being in a position to take this counsel, left Rhodes for Rome. On his arrival, he found that Cæsar was in Gaul. He occupied his time in going from house to house, and soliciting the votes of the senators. While he was thus engaged, an embassy from Alexandria, consisting of a thousand citizens, came to acquaint the senate with the grounds of

the ancient history of a people whose life has impressed the world with the profoundest wonder and the deepest spirit of inquiry. The hieroglyphics of that people may yet be deciphered, their language read, their mysteries unveiled, and their whole historical life better understood and appreciated.


In our first lesson, reference was made to THEBES with its sublime greatness of dimensions, and its finished magnificence of decorations, which made it the admiration of the world. We think of the hundred-gated city, occupying a site of one hundred and forty furlongs in circumference, and sending forth its twice ten thousand armed chariots. We think of its temples, and statues, and columns, and obelisks. We enter the temple of Luxor, through a magnificent gateway, which is two hundred feet in width, and fifty-seven above the present level of the soil; and as we enter we find the vestibule of this noble edifice filled with sculptures representing the triumphs of some of the Egyp tian kings, while the walls of the building exhibit in beautiful relief, battles, hunting-scenes, and other kindred subjects. But all this must give place to the grandeur in which the temple of Carnac rises before us. Its chief or western front is towards the Nile, from whose banks it stands at the distance of two thousand five hundred feet, with a splendid avenue leading down to the river. We walk slowly along between the majestic and calmlyreposing sphinxes up to the still more magnificent vestibule of the building. Passing through this colossal entrance, which is about three hundred feet long, and one hundred and ninety-eight feet high, we come into a large court full of lofty and imposing pillars, find ourselves in the presence of colossal statues, pass on and go through a second entrance, and after ascending a flight of seve-and-twenty steps, enter that gorgeous hail, whose area

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measures 57,629 square feet, and at the foot of whose one hundred
and forty-four columns, the imagination sinks abashed.

At the Persian conquest, Thebes was in great part destroyed
by fire. Little was done under the Ptolemies to restore or em-
bellish it; her people lost all courage and soul; having rebelled
in the reign of Lathyrus, the city, after a three years' siege, was
taken and pillaged, and gradually declined, till under the Romans
it lost the last semblance of wealth or power. And what is her
present condition?
"The whole of this great extent is more or
less strewed with ruins, broken columns, and avenues of sphinxes,
colossal figures, obelisks, pyramidal gateways, porticoes, blocks
of polished granite, and stones of extraordinary magnitude:-
while above them, in all the nakedness of desolation, the colossal
skeletons of giants' temples are standing in the unwatered sands,
in solitude and silence. They are neither gray, nor blackened:
there is no lichen, no moss, no rank grass, or mantling ivy to robe
them, and conceal their deformities. Like the bones of man,
they seem to whiten under the sun of the desert. The sand of
Africa has been their most fearful enemy:-blown upon them
for more than three thousand years, it has buried the largest
monuments, and, in some instances, almost entire temples."

The rival of Thebes was Memphis, both as a regal residence and the seat of commerce. This magnificent city, whose foundation and erection have been ascribed to Menes, extended half a day's journey in every direction, and, with its splendid temple, is declared by no mean authority to offer to the spectator, even now in its ruins, "a union of things which confound him, and which the most eloquent man in vain would attempt to describe. As to the figures of idols found among these ruins, whether we consider their numbers or their prodigious size, the thing is beyond description. But the accuracy of their forms, the justness of their proportions, and their resemblance to nature, are most worthy of admiration." One which was measured by this traveller was, without its pedestal, "more than thirty cubits; its breadth from right to left was about ten cubits; and from front to back it was thick in proportion. This statue was formed of a single piece of red granite, and was covered with a red varnish, to which its antiquity seemed to give only a new freshness." Memphis was the centre of Egyptian idolatry. There the bull APIS was bred, nurtured, enshrined, and worshipped.

Of Heliopolis, or the City of the Sun, but little remains to awaken the impression of its former magnificence. It is situated north-east of Cairo, and is famous for the celebrated fountain of the sun, to which, if we may trust tradition, the Holy Family carne on their flight from Herod. Near this is the pillar of On, or obelisk of Heliopolis, which is sixty-seven feet high and six feet square at the base, and which is formed of one entire block of reddish granite. This obelisk is one of the most ancient existing monuments of Egyptian art, and from the execution and arrangement of its hieroglyphics, which are the same on all sides, it may be inferred that Heliopolis had at an early period reached a high degree of social refinement and artistic skill. It is the same with the On or Aven of Scripture: and since we read that Joseph married a daughter of the priest or prince of On, it thus becomes associated with one of the most touching and life-like histories that the world has ever produced. Some have conjectured that it was here the deeply-moving interview took place between Joseph and his brethren. Be that as it may, nothing remains but the solitary obelisk, which we have just described, and a few broken fragments of the temple in which the bull Mnevis was worshipped, to attest its previous existence. As in the case of Memphis, "the dream of idolatry has passed away; the grand, all-inwrapping mists of ungodliness have melted into air before the Sun of Truth, and the Christian traveller mingles pity with his wonder as he looks upon these splendid baubles of the old world-these playthings which Time and Truth have united in breaking."

The subject of Egypt's overthrow and ruin enters largely into the predictions of the inspired volume. With great elegance and force does Ezekiel describe the fall of that ancient kingdom and of all the allied powers. Under the image of a fair cedar of Lebanon, once tall, flourishing, and majestic, but now cut down and withered, with its broken branches strewed, he represents the fall of the king of Nineveh; applies the same to the monarch of Babylon, as a true picture of his impending fate; while the head of Egypt, like a beast of prey, is caught, slain, and his car cass left to be devoured by the beasts of the forest or the fowls

of heaven.


By what means did Physcon lift himself into the seat of supreme power Describe the character of this prince.-After his flight to Cyprus, how did he recover the crown from his divorced queen Relate the chief events which marked the reign of Lathyrus.-Who succeeded Lathyrus on the throne, and what was his character

To whom, on his deathbed, did he make over the kingdom and all his own rights ?-How, and through what agency, did Auletes secure an alliance with the Roman senate?-How long, after his restoration, did he enjoy the sovereignty of Egypt? Were the claims of Auletes' sons justly set aside by his daughter Cleopatra ? Can you relate the conduct of Cleopatra, and what was her end?At what point does the ancient history of Egypt close?-What are the chief ruins of that celebrated nation?-What happened to Thebes at the time of the Persian conquest?-Was anything done by the Ptolemies to restore it; and what is its present condition?What city was the rival of Thebes, and in what did it seek to rival that first capital ?-Describe its size and its ruins.-What converted Memphis into the centre of Egyptian idolatry?—Are there any remains to attest the former magnificence of Heliopolis, or City of the Sun ?-With what portion of Sacred History is Heliopolis associated?-Does the fall of Egypt enter into any of the predictions of the inspired volume?-Under what figures does Ezekiel foretel the overthrow of the kings of Nineveh, Babylon, and Egypt?

[The ancient history of Egypt being concluded, we deem it advisable, in the present state of our progress, to postpone the Lessons in Ancient History, until we shall have finished some of the more important lessons now going on, especially those that are in the greatest demand among our subscribers and the public in general. These lessons will of course be resumed at the earliest possible period, in order to render our work a complete encyclopedia of instruction. We say this in the most decided manner, in order that no one may feel the slightest disappointment at their discontinuance. We find, indeed, from our numerous correspondents, that the present lessons in the languages and in the that we cannot do our subscribers a greater service than to conelementary sciences, are deemed by them of so much importance, tinue them regularly and fully as we have hitherto done. As to relief from the harder studies in the POPULAR EDUCATOR, we can most properly recommend the study of Geology, which is in fact a species of ancient history, older than that of the Antediluvians themselves, not to mention Egypt or Assyria, and one which is sure to interest the majority of our readers, and prove an excellent succedaneum (that which succeeds) for the present, to the lessons whose place they have now taken.]



You will now refresh your recollections of what has been said, in the second lesson, about the cooling cinder, the cavity inside of it, and the melted globule floating at the bottom of it.

This melted globule is supposed to have in it, or about it, the means of perpetuating, and even of increasing its burning heat. You can imagine that the materials of which the cinder is com posed, and which lie nearest the bottom, or the sides, or the roof of the cavity, are more fusible, or more easily melted, than other component parts of it. The consequence of this easier fusibility, will be that the dimensions of the cavity will widen and deepen, and that the quantity of the melted matter will become greatly increased. With the enlargement of the cavity, and with the accumulation of the melted mass, the intensity of the heat will also be greatly increased.

It would depend on the intensity of the heat, and the thickness of the crust, whether the roof above would be worn down by melting, would become swelled out on the surface, or whether the entire crust would be cracked through by fissures. All melted matter has a tendency to expand and to rise; and, accordingly, it acquires an elevating force, which will cause the mass that may lie on its surface to swell out in the form of a curve. In this process of elevation the heat will produce, in the superincumbent matter, many cracks and fissures. These cracks are never likely to be in right lines, or in perpendicular lines parallel to each other; but they will be rather in directions which, if continued, would join in points or angles.

Imagine that the crust of the earth were cut through, so that you could see the face of it, just as you can see the lines in a section of a divided lemon. You could then mark the cracks which were made by the intense heat in the first instance, before the fused matter had acted on the fissures themselves. The fissures would appear like those represented in fig. 2; and the body of the crust would appear, between the different

fissures, something like wedges whose sharp points had been the expansive power of heat seeks a vent. It will either avail itself of one of the fissures already made, though now partly

cut off.

The burning heat which has produced these fissures will now apply its elevating force to the different


masses. The wedges B, D, F, present larger surfaces to the fire than the wedges A, C, E, do. The consequence is, that the elevating force of the heat below will have greater power upon B, D, F, and will therefore push them up.

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As these are pushed up, it may be that the wedges A, C, E, which have their smaller end downwards, will also sink a little, until they become jammed between the others; and that they would become so, before they would descend low enough for the heat to act on them to keep them up.

The consequence of such a process will be, that the wedgeshaped masses, whose broader sides are downwards, will be elevated above the other wedges A, C, E. The heaved-up surface will then appear uneven and rugged; that is, the crust of the earth will put on the appearance of mountains, table-lands, and valleys, as represented in fig. 3.


closed, or it will form a fresh one. By means of this vent, formed through the entire crust, the expanding force will throw up the melted matter to the surface, where, upon cooling, it will form a hill or mountain. By the same elevating power, it will also fill up any of the crevices or fissures which the previous action of heat may have left in conception of this eruptive

the crust. Fig. 4, will assist your process. Here, in one case the vent A c is open from the matter in fusion, at H, through the entire crust a, a, up to the surface at A, and the melted rock is thrown up into a mountain at B. In the two other cases, at D and E, the fused matter is injected into fissures, and form what miners and geologists call "dikes."

Fig. 3.


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On the supposition that, by some means, the elevating power of heat be either withdrawn, or somewhat suspended, your eye, on looking at fig. 2, will tell you at once that the masses thus heaved up and cracked, will never again fall into their first position in reference to the fissures. The roof of the cavity will now be formed into a compact arch capable of supporting itself, if the abutments of the cavern be strong enough. As soon as the





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As the melted matter was heaved up to the arched roof of the cavity, and as the roof above was cooler than the fused mass below, the fluid when it came into contact with the roof, would, while partly altering it, become, in the process of cooling, crystallised, or, perhaps, vitrified into a hardened rock, and would thus gradually form a new roof over the matter in fusion. It is probable that at this day there may be masses of fused matter in the process of cooling, at the depth of several miles, in some immense cavities around the vents of volcanoes, and that they are forming beds below beds which increase downwards as they cool These and crystallise. deep formations will remain invisible and unknown till either some mighty changes in the from below shall snap the into the open air as repre


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the heat at H would begin
to melt the wedges c

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earth's crust, or elevating power
crust, and throw up the rocks
sented in fig. 5.

While you examine carefully fig. 4, keep in mind that our
imagined mass of cinder, or the crust of the earth, is many
scores of miles in thickness, from the surface down to the roof
of the cavity. The bottom and the sides of the cavity are
constantly in a state of being melted and torn away, to increase
the glowing fluid. The intense action of the fire on the bottom
may be melting deep rocks, which may consist of materials
very different from those of the first roof, and also from
those which, by cooling or crystallising below, have formed an
additional roof.
Fig. 4.

When you make further progress in the knowledge of geological phenomena, you will learn that our imaginary arch has not, in many instances, been able to support itself. It is possible that the body of the arch was so near the lake of fused matter as even to lie on its surface, to float on it, and to be kept up by it; or it is possible that certain parts of the arch as c or E, or even D or F, may sink down to the very bottom of H, H, and there form new support for it. The consequence of this breaking down of certain masses will be that, instead of one large lake, we shall now have a number of lakes formed, which will be connected with each other by narrow channels running between the masses that have fallen down. The facts represented in fig. 3 are important, as they will materially assist you when you come to examine what geologists call "faults" in the trata, or to account for



he displacement of beds on the opposite sides of a fault.
The beds, or strata, a, a, and x, x, which are seen to be parallel
to each other in fig. 2, are found at unequal depths in fig. 3.
Let us once more suppose that the heat under the crust of
the earth becomes more intense; that, consequently, the
quantity of melted matter becomes greatly increased, and that

Let A A, fig.5, represent the first hardened crust of the earth, Bв the nether-formed (hypogene) rock which first, in a fused state, was heaved against the roof, and a then by bursting the crust, forced the fissure c, and formed the mountain D above and the crystallised bed в below. . After the cooling of the rock B,в the expansion

of the heat below requires again an outlet to get rid of its materials accumulated by the constant fusion of the bottom and the sides, and perhaps of the new roof. And now another vent is formed, and other fissures are made in the crust; the melted matter is thrown up from F, F to form a new mountain at E, differing in lithological character from that at

D, and also to form another "dike" under G. When the heat
becomes diminished in intensity, the rock F cools, hardens,
and crystallises, and forms a roof below в as в did below A.
The burning sea of fused matter having thrown off its old
surface, begins again to melt and wear away deeper rocks
at its bottom, and other
rocks at its sides. It
again acquires intensity
of action and accession
of mass, and with them,
a fresh elevating force
that seeks a vent. The

crust is again cracked and rent at H, I, and

from depths greater A than those of

any former eruption; and through the crystallised or calcined beds F and B, which had been formed by other eruptions along the concave side of the arch, melted

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fig. 5, by в and F. You see that the crust of the earth has been thickened by accessions from below. It is evident that these rocks may be in the course of forming below, notwithstanding that the upper crust of A may not have been in the least affected by them. The stupendous chemistry which has Fig. 5. the power of destroying one class of rocks, has also the power of forming new ones. The crust A may continue for ages undisturbed and unaffected, while the rocks B and F, at great depths, are A passing from a solid into a fluid state, and then consolidating themselves again, so as to acquire a lithological character perfectly new. This may have been the case, in ancient



matter is again thrown up to the surface at 1, where a new mountain K is formed, differing in composition from both the preceding eruptive rocks. The same process and the same results may be repeated again and again by the same Plutonic lake; or another Plutonic sea may be acting on a different material of the crust, and may form a rock, either on the surface, or in a dike, different in structure from all the others.

The difference, in the lithological structure of these eruptive rocks, does not always depend on the unequal depths from which they have been thrown up: it will also depend on the circumstance whether the eruption has taken place on the surface in the open air, or at great depth under the

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Propero 1, I hasten; finis, is, m. an end; mors, mortis, f. death; arma, orum, pl. arms; Galli, órum, the Gauls, the French; Rhenus, i, m. the Rhine; generosus, a, um, generous; victus, a, um, conquered; cometa, ae, m. a comet; raritas, átis, 1. rarity; species, ei, f. appearance, beauty; mirabilis, e, admirable; navigatio, ónis, f. navigation; periculosus, a, um, dangerous (E. R. perilous) causa, ae, f. a cause, a reason (E. R. to cause, excuse); cadúcus, a, um, falling, perishable; odium, i, n. hatred; seges, segeris, f. a field of corn; Pluto, ónis, Pluto, the ruler of the lower regions in classical mythology; piscis, is, m. a fish; exspiro 1, I breathe out, expire, die camélus, i, m. a camel; pictus, a, un, painted (E. R. picture); vestis, is, f. a garment (E. R.

geological time, with On this account, Sir


granite, gneiss, hornblende, &c.
Charles Lyell has called these kinds of rocks "hypogene," a
term derived from the Greek úno, under, and yivouai, to be, to
be born, or to be produced. The name is intended to imply the
hypothesis that rocks such as granite, hornblende, schist, certain
porphyries, and other crystalline formations, are
formed" rocks. They are supposed to be constituted and
composed beneath the earth's crust, and not formed by cooling
after they had been erupted to the surface. The hypothesis
also supposes that these nether-formed rocks may be brought
to view by the denuding action of water, which may cut deep
into the overlying beds; and thus, by valleys of denudation,
as well as by the uplifting and tilting action of eruptive rocks,
expose some of the lowest rocks in the crust of the globe.

vest); commemoro 1, I mention, speak of; congrego 1, I meet together (E. R. congregation); depascor 1, I feed upon; metus, ûs, m. fear; officium, i, n. duty (E. R. official).

EXERCISES.-LATIN-ENGLISH. Nulla est firma amicitia inter malos; propero ad mortem; Galli habitant trans Rhenum; nulla babemus arma contra mortem ; vir generosus mitis est erga victos; cometae ob raritatem et speciem sunt mirabiles; servi parent propter metum, boni propter officium; navigatio juxta litus saepe est periculosa; nemo est beatus ante mortem; quam ob causam (ob quam causam) rides? infra luna omnia sunt caduca; multos per annos (per multos annos) inter barbaros habitas; Plutónis regnum infra terram ponitur; imperium populorum est penes reges; pisces extra aquam exspirant; res praeter opinionem cadit; camelus odium adversus equos gerit; pictae vestes apud Homerum commemorantur; multa animalia congregantur et contra alia dimicant; Hippótămus segetes circa Nilum depascitur.


There is no faithful society among the bad; man has no arms against death; beyond death is life; we hasten to the Rhine; the friends are before the house; my sons are at my house (apud me); are your children at your house? the king is mild towards the conquered; after death good men are happy; what is (there) below the earth? God is above and through all things; men dwell below the clouds; my children are in my power; in (apud) Cicero are many beautiful sayings (dicta); I love the country on account of thee (on thy account); the soldiers are within the walls. PREPOSITIONS WHICH GOVERN THE ABLATIVE CASE. A, before consonants Ab, before vowels Abs, before t and qu Ab'sque, without




Clam, without the knowledge of
Co'ram, in the presence of
Cum, with
De, concerning

E, not before vowels
Ex, before vowels and


In, in


out of

Præ, before (of place, denoting

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Te'nus, as far as (stands after its Cum is united with pronouns, thus: te'cum, with thee; vobis'cum, with you; nobis'cum, with us.


Hebcsco 3, I grow dull; senectus, útis, f. old age; aquila, ae, f.


an eagle: c ccyx, yuis, m. a cuckoo; pario 3, I bring forth: alienus, a, um, another's (E R alienate): nidus, i, m a nest; visus, ûs, m. the sight. ..ítus, ùs, m. the hearing; debilito 1, I weaken; dens, dentis, .. a tooth (E. R. dentist); nifico 1, I build a nest; sinus, ûs, m. a bosom: X re-, is, m. Xerxes, a Persian monarch; inventus, a, um, discovered; inventus est, was discovered; aufugio 3, I flee; Metellus, i, m. Metellus, a Roman commander; elephantus, i, m. an elephant; triumphus, i, m. a triumph; canto 1, I sing; latro, ónis, m. a robber; sidna, eris, n. the stars, the constellations; Phoenices, um, m. the Pheni cians; apes, apis, f. a bee; intans, antis, an infant; opes, opis, f. aid; morior 3, I die; mori, to die; viator, óris, m. a traveller; venum, i, n. poison; remedium, i, n. a remedy (E. R. remedial); ortus, ús, m. a rising: occasus, as, a sitting; aliquando, adv. sometimes; possum, I am able; potest, is able, has power; nihil potest, has no power; commeo 2, I move, proceed; unquam, ever.


Venenum aliquando est pro remedio; infans nihil potest sine aliena ope; aquilae nidificant in arboribus, coccyx parit in alienis nidis; senectute hebescunt sensus; quidam homines nati sunt cum dentibus; Xerxes cum paucissimus militibus ex Graecia aufugit; Metellus elephantos ducit in triumpho; cantat coram latrone via tor; sidera ab ortu solis ad occasum commeant; Britannia a Phoenicibus inventa est; apes sine rege esse non possunt; dulce est pro patria mori.

Am or ama, love

Amo, v. I love

Amor, n. love
Amator, n. a male lover
Amatrix, n. a female lover
Amanter, adv. lovingly
Amabilis, adj. loveable
Amabiliter, adv. loveably
Amabilitas, n. loveableness

VERBS, &c.

A. aoay, from
Ad, to

Am'bi, on both sides, round
An'te, before
Circum, around
Cum, with
Con'tra, against
De, down

Dis, apart, in different directions
E, out of, out and out, thoroughly

In, into

ob, against

Per, through, thoroughly

Post, after

Prie, before
Præter, along, by
Pro, forwards
Re, back
Retro, backwards
Se, apart
Sub, under


Is poison ever a remedy? Xerxes fights in Greece; in old age Subter, beneath the sight and the hearing are weakened; does the cuckoo build in another's nest? thy sister sings before many (persons); they hasten from the west to the east; coming out of Greece the army hastens into Italy; Metellus with many soldiers is in Britain; my son is born without teeth; is the army without elephants? the elephants are led in triumph by the general; is it sweet to die for (one's) country? what are mortals without the aid of God? do all birds build (their) nests in trees? the boy is in the house without the knowledge of his father; it is sweet to see infants happy in the bosom of their mother; is thy sister with thee? without his father the boy has no power; my daughter is with me; how many children are (there) with you? how many men are (there) in Britain? FORMATION OF WORDS.

Inamabilis, adj. not loveable
Adumo, I begin to love

Deamo, I love greatly
Redamo, I love again

In'ter, between

In'tro, within

Su'per, over
Trans, across

I have thus gone through the several parts of speech in the Latin language, in a general way, aiming chiefly to make you familiar with the nouns and adjectives. Before I pass on to a full treatment of the verb and to the laws of literary combination comprised under the name of syntax, I wish to show you how great is the verbal treasure of which you have laid the foundation; and at the same time to lead you to some acquaintance with the manner in which words are formed. Without here entering into a learned discussion as to which was the original part of speech, I shall take the verb as containing the primitive root, and aid you in deducing therefrom other forms. In the course of the previous lessons you had the verb amo, I love. Now in becoming aware of the meaning of amo, you learnt the import of all words derived from amo; Docenter, in the way of teaching thus taking am or ama as the root you are led to

Doceo, I teach

Doctus, taught, learned
Docte, learnedly
Doctor, a teacher
Doctrina, teaching
Documentum, a proof
Docilis, teachable
Docilitas, teachableness

Laudo, I praise
Laus, praise
Laudate, praisingly
Laudatio, a praising
Laudator, a male praiser
Laudatrix, a female praiser
Laudabilis, praiseworthy
Laudater, in a praiseworthy


Allaudo, I praise greatly
Allaudabilis, worthy of great protse
Collaudo, I praise in several respects
Collaudatio, a great praising
Collaudator, a great praiser
Collaudabilis, worthy of praise in se-
veral respects

laudabilis, not worthy of praise
Perlaudabilis, worthy of great praise


Remark that in, not, changes the n like in, into.

Indocilis, unteachable
Indocibilitas, unteachableness

Then with the help of prepositions, and in, signifying not, Addoceo, I teach thoroughly

you have

Condoceo, I teach together, exercise

Dedoceo, I unteach, that is, I cause
to forget or renounce

FORMS INTO WHICH THA 242 ab, abs, au

ac, af, ag, al, an, ap, ar, as, a amb, am

Edoceo, I teach out and out,


Perdoceo, I teach thoroughly

circun, circu

co, cog, col, com, con, cor

di, dif, dir

ex, ef

i, il, im, ir


o, oc, of, og, op, os pe, pel

prod, pol, por

su, sue, suf, sug, sul, sum, sup, m

Orno, I adorn
Ornate, ornamentally
Ornatio, an adorning
Ornator, a male adorner
Ornatriz, a female adorner
Ornamentum, an ornament
Adorno, I adorn greatly

Adornate, very ornamentally
Erorno, I adorn completely
Erornatio, a complete adorning
Erornator, a male decorator
Inornatus, unadorned
Perorno, I adorn thoroughly

Moveo, I move
Motio, a moving

Motus, motion or movement
Motiuncula, a smail movement

Motor, a mover

Moto, I move frequently
Mobilis, moveable
Mobilitas, moveableness
Mobiliter, moveably
Momentum, moving-power

Immobilis, immovable
Immobilitas, immovability
Admoveo, I move to
Admotio, a moving to
Amoveo, I move away
Commoveo, I move together

Commotio, a commotion "by Demoveo, I move down

A careful inspection of the list will show you how one word ensues from another. Thus amabilitas comes immediately from amabiliter, which in its turn comes from amabilis; and amabilis, an adjective in bilis, is formed from the stem ama. The or ma is also traceable in other

being the foundation of in English; and of ma

must not, however, diverge from our subject. Before you pro- clue to the import of some 10,000 Latin words, and require ter in Greek, whence comes the Latin mater, a mother. We lessons you have had 1000 Latin words, you have obtained s Iceed to study the following lists, you will do well to commit only a little reflection to aid you to a full perception of them

to memory this

and of their signification.

Dimoveo, I separate by moving
Promoveo, I move forward

Now from these instances you may infer what a number of

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