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gave a broader meaning to my remarks than Mr. COWAN. Very well.
of said river, the cause may be tried before the district they would bear. I did not say that Congress The PRESIDENT pro tempore. Objection
court of the United States of any State in which any had no power to prevent the spread of this dis- being made, the bill lies over.
portion of said obstruction or bridge touches. ease. I said that it had no power to pass such
The amendment was agreed to.
BILL INTRODUCED. a law as was recently passed in England, the
The next amendinent was te strike out from only one which seemed to be effective for the Mr. POMEROY asked, and by unanimous section two the following words: purpose; that is, Congress has no power to consent obtained, leave to introduce a bill (S.
That any bridge built under the authority of this direct the officers of the United States to go No. 285) granting lands to the State of Kansas act shall be constructed as a draw-bridge, with aspan into particular districts or States of the United to aid in the construction of the Kansas and over the main channel of the river, as understood at
the time of the erection of the bridge, of not less than States, and there seize all the cattle of private | Neosho Valley, railroad and its extension to
three hundred feet in length; and said span shall not citizens within a given State or district and Red river; which was read twice by its title, bo less than thirty feet above the low-water mark, destroy them. I doubt very much whether referred to the Committee on Public Lands,
and not less than ten feet above the extreme highsuch a power exists in Congress. It is a power and ordered to be printed.
water mark, measuring to the bottom chord of the
bridge; and one of the next adjoining spans shall not that ought to be exercised by the States. Con.
be less than two hundred feet in length; and, also, RAILROAD BRIDGES ACROSS THE MISSISSIPPI.
that there shall be a pivot draw constructed in said gress may, however, by commercial regula. tions, do all it can to prevent the coming of
Mr. RAMSEY. I move to proceed to the
bridge, at an accessible and navigable point, with
spans of not less than one hundred and fifty feot in this disease into the country, and it has already consideration of Senate bill No. 236.
length on each side of tho central or pivot pier of the
draw. done so. A bill reported by me some time ago
The motion was agreed to; and the Senate, was passed, and under that bill the Secretary
as in Committee of the Whole, proceeded to And in lieu thereof to insert of the Treasury has excluded all cattle, hides, consider the bill (S. No. 236) to authorize and
That any bridge built under the provisions of this and everything that can communicate this disestablish certain post roads.
act may, at the option of the company building the ease from infected districts. If the Senator
The bill, as introduced by Mr. TrumbULL,
same, be built as a draw-bridge, with a pivot or other
form of draw, or with unbroken or continuous spans: can suggest any other remedy or any other
proposes to make it lawful for any person or Provided, That if the said bridge shall be made with measure I should like very much to have the persons, company or corporation, having au- unbroken and continuous spans, it shall not be of less
elevation in any case than fifty feet above extremo benefit of it. The Committee on Agriculture thority from the State of Illinois for such pur:
high-water mark as understood at the point of locahave not concluded themselves by their con
pose, to build a bridge across the Mississippi || tion, to the bottom chord of the bridge, nor shall thọ sideration of the subject from acting on any
river at Quincy, Illinois, and to lay on and spans of said bridge be less than two hundred and measure or reporting any measure that may over the bridge railway tracks, for the more
fifty feet in length, and the piers of said bridge shall
be parallel with the current of the river: And proseem to be necessary; but we do think that perfect connection of any railroads that are or
vided also, That if any bridge built under this act under our system of government the whole
shall be constructed to the river at or opposite || shall be constructed as a draw-bridge, the same shall sale destruction of cattle in particular States that point. When constructed, all trains of
beconstructed as a pivot draw-bridge with a draw over
the main channel of the river at an accessible and and communities will not be justified by any
all roads terminating at the river at or opposite pavigable point, and with spans of not less than one power conferred by the Constitution on Con- that point are to be allowed to cross the bridge bundred and seventy-five feet in length on each side gress. That is the only conclusion at which for reasonable compensation, to be made to
of the central or pivot pier of the draw, and the next
adjoining spans to the draw shall not be less than we have arrived, and I think upon that there
the owners of the bridge, under the limitations two hundred and fifty feet; and said spans shall not is no doubt. If the Senator can find any power
and conditions provided. The bridge is to be bo less than thirty feet above low-water mark, and in the Government of the United States thus constructed as a draw-bridge, with a span over
not less than ten above exteme high-water mark,
nearing to the bottom chord of the bridge, and the to destroy the property of private citizens within
the main channel of the river, as understood piers of said bridge shall be parallel with the current the States according to the system adopted by
at the time of the erection of the bridge, of not of the river. the British Parliament, which is supreme within
less than three hundred feet in length; and the The amendment was agreed to. the jurisdiction of Great Britain, I should like span is not to be less than thirty feet above the
Mr. HENDERSON. I desire to offer some to know where he finds it. low-water mark, and not less than ten feet
amendments to this bill. In the first section, The resolution was adopted.
above the extreme high-water mark, measuring | line six, after the word " Illinois,'. I desire to to the bottom chord of the bridge; and one of
insert and at Hannibal, Missouri.'' MRS. W. L. HERNDON.
the next adjoining spans is not to be less than Mr. RAMSEY. I trust this will not be done. Mr. COWAN. The Committee on Patents two hundred feet in length; and there is also
Let each proposition of this kind stand on its and the Patent Office, to whom was referred to be a pivot draw constructed in the bridge, at
own merits. If the gentleman desires a bridge the bill (H. R. No. 193) for the relief of Mrs. an accessible and navigable point, with spans at Hannibal, it might be well to introduce a William L. Herndon, have had it under consid- of not less than one hundred and fifty feet in bill of that kind, refer it to some committee, eration, and have instructed me to report favor.
length on each side of the central or pivot pier | and have the facts investigated as they have ably upon it, and recommend its
of the draw. The draw is to be opened promptly || been in this case.
Representations tave been if there be no objection, I ask that it be put upon reasonable signal for the passage of boats, heard on one side and the other, and the comupon its passage now. whose construction shall not be such as to
mittee strike at what they consider to be a safe The PRESIDENT pro tempore. It requires
admit of their passage under the permanent mean between the extremes asked by the railunanimous consent to consider the bill on the spans of the bridge, except when trains are
road company and the navigation interests reday it is reported. Is there any objection?
passing; but in po case is unnecessary delay | spectively. This proposition of building bridges Mr. TRUMBULL. I should like to know to occur in opening the draws after the pas
across the Mississippi river is a very serious if it is a bill calculated to take any time. sage of trains. Any bridge constructed under
I think in every instance the bill ought Mr. COWAN. No, I think not; it simply
the act, and according to its limitations, is to to be referred to a committee. For that reason proposes to confer on her the copyright of a be a lawful structure, and be recognized and
I trust the gentleman will withdraw his amendbook formerly published by public authority– || known as a post route, upon which no higher ment at this time and introduce a bill, as has Herndon's Expedition. I do not think there charge shall be made for the transmission over
been done in every other case. can possibly be any objection to it.
the same of the mails, the troops, and the Mr. HENDERSON. I must express some Mr. TRUMBULL. I do not know anything | munitions of war of the United States, than | little astonishment at the objection the Senator about this bill, but I know that we passed a
the rate per mile paid for their transportation from Minnesota presents to the amendment I similar bill a year or two ago, and afterward
over the rallroads or public highways leading have indicated. He insists that the subject of great objection was made to it.
to the bridge. The ferry authorized to be building a bridge at Quincy, Illinois, has gone Mr. CLARK. The fact is as stated by the established by the Illinois and Missouri Trans
before a committee, and that a proposition to Senator from Illinois, that two or three years portation Company, by the laws of the States
build a bridge across the Mississippi river at ago we passed a bill of this kind, and got into
of Illinois and Missouri, across the Mississippi Hannibal ought to go there, because the buildconsiderable difficulty about it, and the Com
river at the city of Quincy, is, during the time ing of bridges, across the Mississippi is a very mittee on Claims has been troubled with a authorized by the laws of those States, and
serious thing under any circumstances. I think petition from gentlemen claiming the right for
until the completion of the bridge, under and if the bill under consideration is to be passed, I believe every succeeding session, and there according to the provisions of the act, to be
it is a very serious thing. I am not in favor seems to be some doubt about the relief. I recognized and known as a post route.
of the passage of the bill, and I did not expect it do not know anything about this case; and if
The Committee on Post Offices and Post
to come up this morning. I have not all the Senators do know that it is entirely free from Roads proposed amendments to the bill, the
memoranda here that I desire to present. ! doubt, perhaps there will be no objection to it,
first of which was in section one, line four, thought they were in my desk ; they are not all but I think it had better lie over and be printed, after the word “Illinois': to insert "and Mis
here; and I shall be compelled to ask, eventso that it may meet the attention of some one. souri,” and to make the word “State" read
ually, a postponement of this bill until I can Mr. CONNESS. I think if an explanation
“States ;'' so that the clause will read: of it is made, it will satisfy the Senator now.
That it shall be lawful for any person or persons, Now, Mr. President, I agree with the Senator Mr. CLARK. The difficulty is, that if we
company or corporation, having authority from the
from Minnesota that the proposition to build consider it now nobody will see it; but if we build a bridge across the Mississippi river at Quincy, || bridges across the Mississippi river is a very serihave it printed some Senator may see what the Illinois.
ous proposition. The Senator is very well aware character of the bill is, or some person out- The amendment was agreed to.
of the fact that if these bridges are to be built side may get information on the subject. Mr. TRUMBULL. Let it go over until
The next amendment reported by the com- || at all, as provided in this bill, bridges not with mittee was in section one, at the end of line
continuous spans, but what are called draw. to-morrow. thirteen, to insert:
bridges, they will very materially interfere with Mr. CLARK. I think myself it had better And in case of any litigation arising from any ob
the navigation of the Mississippi river, and I go over and be printed.
struction or alleged obstruction to the free pavigation must express some little astonishment at tho
proposition on the part of the Senator who not also allow a bridge to be constructed at in one or the other mode; we only ask that it seems to have reported this bill from the Post || Hannibal. I do not know whether it will ben- shall be built in continuous spans, and if they Office Committee to build bridges of this char- efit the town of Hannibal ; I care not whether want to use iron they can do so. acter across the Mississippi river. If he be it does or not. I do not know whether the But let me propose to the Senator from willing, as a representative of the interests con- construction of this bridge will be of any sub- || Minnesota, whose section of country is very nected with that great river, to build draw- stantial benefit to the town of Quincy. My rapidly growing into great importance, that bridges over it, I am not. The Senate of the impression is, that the construction of railroad in the course of a few years a great change United States may outvote me on the proposi- | bridges, such as are contemplated in this bill, has come about in the transportation of prodtion, but I never will vote for the establishment upon the Mississippi river will do all the towns
mpon the Mississippi river, much of which of a bridge across the Mississippi river which is more damage than good. However, if the Sen- comes from his own thriving State. Instead of called a draw-bridge.
ator desires to pass bills of this character, I loading down a packet and running it through, It has been recently demonstrated that there shall not put myself in the way.
a tow-boat is taken, with a large number of is but little difficulty in building bridges with The Senator is very well aware that there is barges, requiring much more space than forsufficient spans to admit of the passage of no break in steamboat lines between the town merly in the transportation of the producboats; and that being the case, if bridges can of Quincy and St. Louis. We have no line of tions of that section of country. He will rebe built on the Mississippi river sufficiently packets running directly to Hannibal and back; member another difficulty, and a very serious elevated to admit the passage of steamers, even we have none running directly to Quincy and one with us. From the State of Wisconsin, with chimneys that can be let down as men- back; but the lines of packets running from and his own State, perhaps, a large quantity tioned the other day, I am perfectly willing | St. Louis continue their trips to the town of of the lumber used in our section of country that that character of bridges may be built ; Keokuk, and there is no obstruction in the way. is brought upon the surface of the Missisbut it is a matter of serious consideration, The navigation of the Mississippi above the sippi river. These rafts are sometimes three indeed, whether draw-bridges shall be con- town of Hannibal is just as good as it is be- hundred, four hundred, or five hundred feet in structed across the Mississippi river. We know tween Hannibal and St. Louis, and indeed length, and repeated difficulty in getting them perfectly well that they will interfere, and better. Therefore we do not need any different through between the piers of a bridge has been materially interfere, with the navigation of that sized packets to navigate the Mississippi river experienced at the town of Rock Island. He great river, and I doubt whether we shall ever between those points; and why is it that it will may say that a raft is never so wide as two be compensated by railroad travel and railroad be an injury to construct a bridge at the one hundred and fifty feet. I do not know in retransportation for the inconveniences arising || point and not at the other? The same lines gard to that, but I know that some of them from draw-bridges.
of boats that pass under the bridge at the one are very wide. He will remember, however, The Senator says that this bill for a bridge || point will be required to pass under it at the that the current in high and low water is not at Quincy has been before a committee. What other.
always the same on the Mississippi or any have the committee done? They have simply But, Mr. President, a short time ago we pro- other stream. The passage of rafts between reported the bill which was introduced and vided for the construction of a railroad bridge the piers of these bridges will certainly require referred to the committee for building a bridge at St. Louis. What sort of a bridge did we a space of more than two hundred and fifty at Quincy. They have reported the bill back, || provide for constructing there? Was it such a feet. Perhaps the Senator from Minnesota only changing the height and the span of the bridge as the Senator now proposes ? Certainly can enlighten me on the subject, but if I am bridge. But, sir, if a bridge is to be built at not. The bill which the Senate passed a short not much mistaken, in high water, when the curQuincy-I live in that neighborhood; I live time ago at the instance of my colleague (Mr. rent is strong, and when the piers themselves only thirty miles from the town of Hannibal Brown] required that the lowest part of the are not in a line parallel with the current of the and only fifty miles from the town of Quincy; bridge at St. Louis should be fifty feet above river, a raft may be started through properly, I know that country perfectly well—let me ask high-water mark at its greatest span; that the but before the entire raft gets throngh it will the Senator why he presents an objection to bridge itself should have a continuous or un- strike the piers, as has frequently been the case the building of a railroad bridge at Hannibal. broken span; that it should have one span at at Rock Island, if I am not mistaken. What new light can the committee shed on it least six hundred feet in the clear, or two spans Mr. GRIMES. At Rock Island the bridge that cannot now be given?
of four hundred and fifty feet in the clear of is right at the foot of the rapids where the curMr. RAMSEY. Does the gentleman want abutments. If the two latter spans be used, rent is very strong; but no such condition of an answer now?
the one over the main steamboat channel must | things can exist here. Mr. HENDERSON. The Senator can an- be fifty feet above high-water mark, measured Mr. TRUMBULL. The span there is only swer me directly. I am going to state some to the lowest part of the bridge at the center one hundred and twelve feet. facts with which I am perfectly conversant, but of the span. Now, let us see what sort of a Mr. RAMSEY. The whole difficulty at Rock with which, perhaps, the Senator is not. The bridge is proposed' here. The Senator from Island is the obliquity of the piers to the curHannibal and St. Joseph Railroad Company Minnesota provides in this bill that it may be rent. first constructed its road from Hannibal to the built as a draw-bridge with a pivot or other Mr. HENDERSON. That is the very diffitown of St. Joseph, and that road is now being form of draw, or with unbroken and continu- culty that I am suggesting. continued across the State of Kansasin a direct ous spans. We provided in regard to the Mr. RAMSEY. That is well guarded against west line, and is to connect with the great line | bridge at St. Louis that it should not be built in this bill. They are required here to be in of road to the Pacific ocean.
as a draw-bridge at all. Then it is here pro- the line of the current. After the construction of the road from Han- vided
Mr. HENDERSON. I am very well aware nibal, the State of Missouri granted a charter
That if the said bridge shall be made with unbro
of that; but the Senator will recollect that he to construct a branch road from the town of ken and continuous spans, it shall not be of less ele- may have them in the line of the current in low Palmyra, some fifteen miles from the town of vation in any case than fifty feet aboveextreme high
water and they will not be parallel with the Hannibal, so as to go directly to Quincy. The
water mark, as understood at the point of location, to
current in high water. The Senator knows Legislature of Missouri might have prevented of said bridge be less than two hundred and fifty feet perfectly well that the current of the Missisthis railroad connection, but we did not see fit in length, and the piers of said bridge shall be paral- || sippi is not always in the same line ; that the to do so.
lel with the current of the river. We permitted the Hannibal and
current changes even in high and low water. St. Jo. Railroad Company to connect with the It was provided, in regard to the St. Louis | The current of a river, I apprehend, is connorthern cross-road, which leads from Quincy | bridge, that the spans should not be less than trolled more or less by the height of the water to Chicago. A road is now being constructed six hundred feet. It is here provided that they and by the obstructions that may present them. across Pike county, Illinois, from Naples, on the may be only two hundred and fifty feet. Now, selves, and those obstructions may be different Illinois river, which connects with the Toledo let me suggest to the Senator from Minnesota in high water from low water. The building road—the Great Western road, as it is called- || that if a bridge of this character is to be built, of a wharf at a town may change the entire curfrom Fort Wayne directly on to Hannibal. This it will seriously interfere with navigation. I rent of the river for miles above and below the road will soon be finished. Now, a bridge can do not ask that a bridge of six hundred feet town. Such things have frequently occurred. be constructed at the town of Hannibal just as span shall be constructed at the point where a The smallest obstacle in nature will oftentimes well as at the town of Quincy, and, let me say bridge is now proposed, but I do think that no change the current even of a river like the Misto the Senator, much more easily. A bridge bridge of less span than four hundred feet sissippi. The Senator need not tell me that can be constructed there with much greater ought to be built upon the Mississippi even when a pier is built at an ordinary stage of facility, because the river is not so wide at Hanwith continuous spans.
water parallel with the current of the river it nibal as at Quincy, and there is a better steam- Mr. SHERMAN. It cannot be done. is always so. We know to the contrary. We boat channel, a more condensed and more com
Mr. HENDERSON. Mechanics say it can know that the current is different in high water pact channel, there than at Quincy. A great be done. The very best mechanics of St. Louis from low water. Hence it is an utter impos. line of railroad, leading from Pittsburg directly wrote to my colleague and myself that a bridge sibility; and when you come to abate these to Hannibal, will soon be in operation; indeed, could be built at the city of St. Louis with a bridges as a nuisance in the courts it will be it is to the town of Naples, within a few miles span of six hundred feet.
found that the testimony is never sufficient to of Hannibal. Again, I ask the Senator, why,
Mr. RIDDLE. Only by iron suspension do it, and when they are once fastened upon if a bridge is to be constructed at Quincy, shalí | bridges.
the surface of that river we shall never get rid not at
Mr. HENDERSON. I care not how it may of them. of the country, if you look at anything beyond above high-water mark, so as to enable the be constructed on the Mississippi river. I do the mere interests of the town of Quincy alone, steamers to pass beneath the bottom chord of not wish to put obstacles in the way of railroad I can see no reason whatever why you should the bridge. We do not ask that it shall be built il transportation; but when you bring into com
If you look at the travel and transportation be done, provided the bridge is put offliny Term of Iwonid gladly say to-day that no bridge shall
petition with the transportation upon the Mis- like to have the privilege of offering it now that will be voted down by a majority of thousands; sissippi river the transportation upon the lines it may be printed.
four fifths of the soldiers who have come home of the railroads of this country, I infinitely pre- The PRESIDENT pro tempore. If there be from the field will vote against it ; and the sol. fer that great river. Nature has made a better no objection, the Chair will receive the amend- diers of Wisconsin who are still in the field will railroad there than man can ever make, one ment, and the order to print will be entered. also vote against it." upon which the productions of that great coun- Mr. TRUMBULL. I suggest that the bill Now, what are the facts? We went into the try can be transported much more cheaply than be made the special order for half past twelve canvass; we put aside negro suffrage as an they ever can be carried upon the lines of rail. to-morrow, so as not to interfere with the morn- issue; and what did we do? We elected a road built by mortal man. The road is already ing business, and I make that motion, so that Union Legislature and a Union Governor and made. All that man has to do is to construct we shall be able to get it up to-morrow. State officers by ten thousand majority. But the car—the steamboat-and put it upon that Mr. SHERMAN. I do not think we ought what became of negro suffrage? It was voted magnificent stream. So far as I am concerned, to make special orders now, especially of a bill | down by ten thousand majority in the State of I would not mar that stream, nor would I mar of this character.
Wisconsin. The result justified what the mathe stream of transportation that must pass Mr. TRUMBULL. I will not insist upon it | jority said in the Union convention, and what upon it in all time to come, by the construction if the Senator from Ohio objects. We perhaps | I among them said: When the soldiers of of these bridges.
can get it up to-morrow morning without hav. Wisconsin came to vote, four out of every five But, sir, when the Senator tells me that the ing it made a special order. I hope the Sen- of them voted against it. What was the fact Senate of the United States is to enter upon a ator will allow it to come up then.
in relation to the soldiers in the field? There scheme of building these bridges, and proposes Mr. SHERMAN. I shall have no objection were still 1,172 votes cast by our soldiers in a bill the mere effect of which-not the object to its coming up, but special orders interfere the field, and out of the 1,172 votes that were -is to benefit a little town in the State of Illi- with the general business of the Senate. cast on the question of negro suffrage how nois at the expense of the people of my own
ADMISSION OF COLORADO,
many do you suppose voted for it? Three. State, and I offer to amend it so as to give them
And yet men talk about pressing negro sufequal privileges with the people of Illinois, I The Senate resumed the consideration of the frage as a political question before the people am met with the proposition that no committee motion of Mr. Wilson to reconsider the vote of the country, and denounce me because I has examined it. What if they have not? I by which the Senate refused to order the bill had the courage to tell the people of Wisconknow that country perfectly well; and if ten (S. No. 74) for the admission of the State of sin what I tell the Senate here: place your. thousand committees were to examine it, they Colorado into the Union to be engrossed for selves upon that issue and you will be buried could not enlighten us upon the subject. The a third reading.
out of sight. They would have been buried in Senator from Illinois knows the country per- Mr. DOOLITTLE. Mr. President, the Sen- Wisconsin had they not followed my advice, fectly well. I apprehend the Senator from ator from Nevada (Mr. NYE] in the course of which saved the Union party in Wisconsin, Minnesota knows it. The lines of railroad from his remarks yesterday was pleased to allude to and elected this very Legislature which now the East go directly to the city of Hannibal; me as having been instructed by the Legisla- | undertakes to instruct me on this question as and why not give us a bridge twenty miles from ture of Wisconsin to resign my seat in the Sen- | to how I shall act and what I shall do. Quincy if a company will build it? I propose ate, and as misrepresenting my constituents on The other point was whether we in Wiscon. to amend the bill so as to let us have a railroad this floor. It is not my purpose to-day to go sin--and there this great battle began-should bridge at Hannibal, if Quincy is to have one. into any lengthy argument to defend my course insist, as a condition-precedent to the admisIf we are to enter upon this system of railroad here. I may ask the attention of the Senate | sion of the representatives from the South, bridges far down immediately upon the surface to that matter on some other occasion, when and the admission of those States into full of that great stream, and to have bells rung for those resolutions shall arrive of which we have communion, upon negro suffrage at the South. the opening of the draws, when every half mile been informed in advance by the telegraph. The people of Wisconsin decided against it, of that mighty stream in the course of a few I will only say for the present that when I and they will decide against it a hundred times years will be covered with the commerce of a entered upon my second term of office as a mighty nation-for when I speak of the West I Senator for six years from the 4th day of Mr. HOWE. If my colleague will excuse almost speak of this nation, and when I speak 1 March, 1863, at your desk, sir, I took a solemn me, I did not quite understand what it was of the nation I speak of the West as it will be oath, not to obey the resolves of the individuals || that the people of Wisconsin decided against. in the course of twenty years from to-day- | who might happen to be elected as members I was occupied at the time. when it is proposed to have these bridges, let of the Legislature of Wisconsin, or to follow Mr. DOOLITTLE. I say the Union conus make them equal, and let the people of the opinions or caprices of any other body of vention laid that upon the table by a large every State be equally benefited by them, if men, but to support the Constitution of the majority. anybody is to be benefited; and if anybody.is | United States, and faithfully to discharge the Ár. HOWE. What was that?": to be injured, let all be injured alike. I do not || duties of the office which was placed upon me; Mr. DOOLITTLE. The proposition to inmean to vote for the building of any bridge so and God helping me, I shall keep that oath. sist upon negro suffrage as a condition-precefar as I am concerned, even if this proposition Upon the other allegation, that I stand here dent before admitting the States of the South shall be amended. I hope that the Senate will misrepresenting the views of my constituents, into full communion. The Union party of not refuse me this amendment, because other- the people of Wisconsin, I will only say that Wisconsin refused to do that, and because they wise the bill would be unjust. Will any Sena- by no word or vote of mine on this foor have refused to do it they sustained themselves in tor tell me why the Toledo and Pittsburg and I'in the slightest degree deviated from the Wisconsin. Fort Wayne road should not have a connection formally expressed opinion of the Union party As I have said, I do not propose to go into direct at Hannibal as well as the northern in Wisconsin in its last convention, upon which this question at length. The members of this cross-road? It is a direct line from Toledo, by || this very Legislature was elected, as well as the Legislature were elected upon a platform which the way of Hannibal, to St. Joseph. It is as Governor and State officers-not in one word, rejected, as a party measure, negro suffrage in straight as it can be, inuch straighter than the not in the dotting of an“i” or in the crossing the State of Wisconsin, and rejected as a party other road. Then why not build a bridge of a “t.”'
measure the insisting upon negro suffrage at there? I know of no point on that great stream But, sir, there were two propositions brought | the South as a condition-precedent to their better fitted for building a bridge than the town forward in that convention which, by a large || being admitted into full communion; and they of Hannibal.
majority, were put aside : first, the proposition could not have been elected without it, and The PRESIDENT pro tempore. The morn- to make negro suffrage, as it is called, a party this Legislature, that that convention, acting ing hour having expired, it becomes the duty test in the State of Wisconsin; and second, to with me, put in power, now assume to instruct of the Chair to call up the unfinished business || make it a further test that no representative ne because I do not follow their behests! Mr. of yesterday, which is Senate bill No. 74, for from the southern States should be admitted || President, let me warn my friends here, as I the admission of the State of Colorado into the into Congress, and the States of the South warned my friends in Wisconsin-and I do it Union, the pending question being on the mo- should not be admitted into full communion || in all sincerity--that is a rock on which you will tion to reconsider the vote of the Senate reject- until they should adopt impartial suffragem | split; if you fall upon it, you will be broken; ing the application of that State for admission. suffrage just as free to the blacks as suffrage || let it fall on you and it will grind you to pow
Mr. RAMSEY. Will it be in order to make || exists in favor of the whites. Those two prop- der; try it on just as soon as you please. this present bill which we are now considering | ositions, by a large majority of the Union con- While I insisted that it was wrong. for the the business of the morning hour to-morrow, vention of Wisconsin, were laid upon the table; Federal Government to undertake to dictate to or will it become so as a matter of course? and upon that vote, and because I acted with the States who should exercise the right of suf
The PRESIDENT pro tempore. It would | the convention in favor of putting those reso- frage within their borders, and while I was pot become the special business of the morning lutions on the table, I am called in question opposed to making negro suffrage a part of the hour under the present rule of the Senate. by certain gentlemen in Wisconsin and else. platform or creed of the Union party of Wis
Mr. GRIMES. It would come up after we where. In support of the action which the consin, I, as an individual, did not object to got through with the morning business. majority of that convention assumed to take, negro suffrage in Wisconsin; and why? Be
Mr. POMEROY. We had better make it a and which I advocated, and for which, so far cause the class of colored persons who reside special order for to-morrow at half past twelve. as I had voice or influence, I admit myself to be within our State are, from babit, from educa:
Mr. SHERMAN. I hope no special orders responsible, what did we say? We said to the tion, trained as freemen among freemen, capaç will be made.
people of Wisconsin, in advance of the elec- ble of exercising the right of suffrage, and I Mr. GRIMES. I have an amendment which tion to come off, “ If you adopt negro suffrage | advocated the extension of the right to them, I desire to propose to this bill, and I should as a part of your party creed in Wisconsin you
and I voted for it as an individual.
Mr. COWAN. How many of them are there portion would give a population of 15,480. In being compelled to connect themselves with an there?
1865 there was another election held, and the organization that is altogether American. They Mr. DOOLITTLE. Three hundred in the number of votes cast was 5,905. and the same are in favor of a State in New Mexico. I ex. State. But, Mr. President, as I said in the proportion would give a population of 14,762, amined with great care the natural boundaries; beginning, I do not intend to go into that ques. The question arises, if the population of and the natural boundaries would throw that tion now at any length. My purpose is to come Colorado was 25,326 in 1861, how can it be population of some seven thousand into New directly to the question pending before the that that population now is but 14,762? The Mexico proper. Mere lines do not make the Senate. I agree with my honorable friend from causes are sufficient to any one
who is familiar || boundaries of States. Massachusetts [Mr. SUMNER! in very much with the history of the time. Colorado is sur- Mr. DOOLITTLE. The Senator from Cal. that he has said on this question. There are rounded by other Territories full of mines, and ifornia states the fact that the San Luis Park, some things in which I do not concur with him, these miners, who are without families gen- which is separated from the residue of Colobut at the same time I always accord to him | erally, can, without great expense, and without | rado by immense mountains, was settled by the the highest patriotism and perfect sincerity of any trouble or the breaking up of family ties, | Spaniards, and settled from the direction of purpose and character. One of the points on at once migrate from one mining district to New Mexico, and it is a Mexican population which I differ with him is this: I maintain that another, and the mining districts of Idaho and speaking Spanish. They from the natural one of the rights which belong to the States Montana have actually drawn off this popula- || boundaries belong to New Mexico; it is an under the Constitution, and which they have tion from Colorado. General Pierce, the sur- artificial line which has separated them from had from the beginning, is to judge for them- veyor general, says, speaking of the population | New Mexico and embraced them within Coloselves on the question of suffrage. Believing of Montana, that it was about 40,000, one rado. The fact that they desire to withdraw that to be the right of a State, I do not feel at fourth of which came from Colorado. Accord- from Colorado or have an act of Congress to liberty to vote against the admission of a State | ing to that statement nearly 10,000 of the min- withdraw them from Colorado and allow the because it declares that no Indians shall vote, ing population left Colorado to go to Montana. San Luis Park, or a portion of it, to be ator no negroes shall vote; or if it declares that Others, perhaps, went in and to a certain extent tached to New Mexico is one reason, perhaps, certain classes of Indians may vote, or certain supplied their places.
why they are opposed to Colorado coming in classes of colored men may vote; or even if it Then, another cause has been in operation as a State, including them. should go on to declare that women may vote, to diminish the number of people in Colorado. But, Mr. President, if we come to the votes I should not vote to reject the constitution for While the war was pending there were two or themselves, what do the facts show? Do the that reason. If it established a property qual. || three regiments raised in Colorado; they were facts really show that the population of Coloification, if it established an educational quali- || employed mostly in fighting the Indians, and rado desire to come into the Union as a State? fication, although I did not agree in the prin- some few came further east into Kansas, and We passed a law and submitted the question to ciple, perhaps, which was involved in the into the service of the United States. The the people of Colorado. They decided against constitution, I would not oppose the admission || Indian wars and difficulties upon the plains || it by a vote of three to one in September, 1864, of a State for that reason, because I believe interrupted the communication between the when there was more population than there that is a question that the State should pass States and Colorado, and made provisions in was last September, 1865. They decided then upon for itself.
Colorado so very expensive that it was impos- | three to one against it; but since then, without There is another point on which I feel called sible for them to sustain mining operations any law, by mere voluntary election, called upon to say a word. I do not fully concur in with any great degree of success; and it is a under a voluntary understanding of the comthe information which my honorable friend has fact which you, Mr. President, and I very well mittees of two political parties, a convention in relation to the gentlemen who appear here know, (for we witnessed it with our own eyes was got together which formed a constitution claiming seats in this Chamber as Senators from last summer,) that very many of the mining and submitted it to the people for their ratifiColorado. I do not know what may bave oc- operations were suspended in Colorado. Out | casion or rejection; and they held an election curred in the presence of the committee on the of perhaps thirty mills but three or four were at which the whole vote polled was 5,905, and conduct of the war, or the sub-committee- in successful operation. In consequence of the of that vote 155 is the majority in favor of the
Mr. SUMNER. That is all that I quoted. two facts to which I have referred, the emi- constitution. Here are one hundred and fiftyI added nothing to that.
gration of the miners into other districts, and five persons more in the Territory of Colorado Mr. DOOLITTLE. I say I do not under- the interruption of communication across the who desire a constitution and State government, stand what may have occurred in that commit- plains, the expenses of living and feeding a than there are who are opposed to it, by the tee. I only know that before another committee || single person were at least five dollars a day. vote that was taken last fall; and yet by the of the body testimony was taken on the same How would it be possible in the Territory of vote which was taken a year ago when their subject; I refer to the Sand creek massacre. Colorado to maintain the successful operation || population was more numerous than it was last Governor Evans, the person alluded to, ap- of mining at such a high price of provisions? || fall, when the vote was heavier than it was last peared before that committee on two or three Mr. President, we know very well that in the fall, they decided against it three to one;
there occasions, and I must say that there was noth- south part of Colorado, over in the San Luis were but 1,520 for it and and 4,672 against it. ing in the testimony which led those of us who || Park, the greater portion of the population is Now, Mr. President, upon these facts, when heard it to suppose or believe that Governor | Mexican, and we know from all accounts that the population is so small, when it is so doubtEvans had any knowledge of the meditated all that portion of the population are very much ful even whether the people of Colorado desire attack of Colonel Chivington upon the Indians opposed to Colorado coming as a State in the or a majority of the people desire to be admitted at Sand creek. Indeed, there was some testi- Union in its present condition.
as a State, is it wise, is it just for us to pass this mony before us which tended to show that How, then, stands the question in relation bill to adinit them as a State into this Union? Chivington made the attack without any knowl- to the people of Colorado ? Do they desire to When I look at this as a practical question, edge on the part of Governor Evans. I feel be admitted? Sir, the balance of the testimony | and think that the little county of Racine, in that it is but just to Governor Evans to say this. is decidedly against it.
which I live, which is principally an agriculAs to the Sand creek affair, I shall not speak Mr. POÑEROY. I do not like to interrupt || tural county, a little county twelve miles by at the present time. I have already expressed the Senator, but I do not understand that the twenty-four, has more voters and population my opinion on that subject in very strong terms | people in New Mexico, or that portion of them than this proposed State of Colorado which it in the Senate.
in Colorado, are at all opposed to it, because || is sought now to admit into the Union with two Having said thus much, I come directly to New Mexico herself has formed a constitution, Senators on this floor, it seems to me so plain the consideration of the question that controls and I am glad to say they have not got the that it is unwise for us to do it that I can hardly my mind on this subject; and that is the ques. word "white" in it, and they are coming here argue the question. Here is a population of tion of the population of the Territory of Col. to ask that they may be admitted. They are not more probably than fifteen thousand. The orado. In 1861 there was a census taken of acting with great unanimity in New Mexico on mayor of Denver, in the last letter which has the population of Colorado, and the census the subject.
been read in the Senate bearing on this quesshowed that there were there 18,223 males, Mr. DOOLITTLE. What I stated was that tion, claims that there may be a population of 2,622 minors, and 4,484 females, making the that portion of the people residing in the south- || thirty-five thousand in the whole Territory. aggregate population 25,329. At that time ern or southwestern part of Colorado, in the || Suppose there were thirty-five thousand; that there were 10,580 voters in the Territory, or valley of the San Luis Park, which is the Mex- is just about one fourth of the number sufficient one voter to every two and a half of the pop- ican population, who speak Spanish, are very to entitle a district to one member of Congress, ulation. If you assume the relative propor- much opposed to having Colorado admitted for it requires over one hundred and twenty tion of voters to the population to be as one into the Union as a State.
thousand population to be entitled to one Repto two and a half you can form a very correct Mr. POMEROY. I cannot see why they resentative under the present ratio. estimate of the population during the years should be so opposed to it, when the Mexicans Sir, it is said that States have sometimes 1862, 1864, and 1865, for in each of those years in New Mexico are in favor of a State. I have been admitted with a small population. I elections were held, and the votes of the peo- yet to learn that that is so.
remember that Florida was admitted with a very ple of the Territory were taken. In 1861, as Mr. DOOLITTLE. That undoubtedly is the small population ; but who does not know that have stated, there were 10,580 voters in a fact.
it was a question connected with slavery that population of 25,329. At the election held in Mr. McDOUGALL. Allow me to say that || forced Florida into the Union with that small 1862 there were 8,224 votes cast, and the same I have been there. The population of the San || population, that Florida was to come in as a ratio would give us a populatioo of 20,560. In Luis Park belong properly to New Mexico; all slave State to balance against the State of Iowa, 1864 there was another election held, at which their relations are there. They are opposed to which was a free State? So, too, in relation to there were 6,192 votes cast, and the same pro- the organization of this Territory as a State, Arkansas. She came in with a small popula. tion, but it was to balance against the great | pledged anew to the people of Colorado that the amendment to the Constitution of the United State of Michigan, and the act was always if they held another election we should admit States, submitted by Congress and now pending, regretted afterward. them as a State into the Union. Sir, they come
which forever abolishes slavery in every Siate, and
empowers Congress to pass all laws necessary to seMr. President, is there any political necessity || here precisely as if they had originated a con- cure liberty to all the people, black and white. By its upon us to force us to adopt this bad precedent, stitution without any enabling act. An enabling | adoption the cause of the rebellion will be removed, a precedent which has been condemned by all
slavery destroyed, liberty established upon a foundaact is not necessary to the existence of a State
tion which neither State, nor President, nor Conjust-thinking men in the case of the admission
or to its admission in the Union; but when the gress, nor court, nor change of parties can shake; as of Florida and the admission of Arkansas with people of a Territory proceed without an ena
enduring as the globe itself. By its adoption all the
people of those States, all the world will know that their small, insignificant population as States bling act they must show themselves in a proper they accept freedom as their situation and give up in this Union? That was then pressed as a condition to satisfy Congress that they can slavery, and all hope of restoring slavery, forever.' necessity in order to balance off slave States assume the responsibilities and duties of a State Now, I think my colleague will agree with with free States. They must, it was supposed, | government. They do not show it. The con- me that there is nothing in the whole
series of be admitted in pairs. Is there any such neces- trary is shown. They do not show a popula- || resolutions passed by that convention which sity now, when every State in the Union is a tion amounting to one quarter of what is suffi- comes nearer to an indorsement of the parfree State and no State in the Union is a slave cient to entitle them to a member of Congress. ticular votes of his which have been complained State? Why should we do this great wrong? For these reasons I am opposed to the recon- of than the resolution I have just read. I think Mr. NYE. Will the Senator allow me to sideration of this bill.
I shall do my colleague no injustice if I remark ask him a question? What was the excuse for Mr. LANE, of Indiana. Mr. President- that he himself was the author of that resoluadmitting Oregon with a small population ? Mr. HOWE. Will the Senator from Indiana | tion, and I am certain, that I do neither him
Mr. DOOLITTLE. What was the popula. || allow me a short time on a question upon which nor the resolution itself any injustice when I tion of Oregon? my colleague has spoken?
say that right there in that resolution is found Mr. NYE. Very small when the act of Mr. LANE, of Indiana. Certainly. authority for every proposition which has been admission was passed.
Mr. HOWE. Mr. President, the State of advocated by any one on this floor, and which Mr. DOOLITTLE. It was alleged, if I re- Wisconsin and the action of her Legislature has been denounced as radical, as disunion, member aright, that Oregon contained a popu. and the action of the last convention which and as disloyal. Mr. President, there and then, lation of from forty thousand to sixty thousand assembled in that State representing the party and through that very resolution which I have when it was admitted, and that was many years which sent my colleague and myself here have | just read, my colleague instructed the people ago, when the ratio of representation was not been referred to to-day, and were referred to of Wisconsin and the people of the Union that as high by one third as it is now. When Wis- || yesterday, and on one or two previous occa- to reorganize those communities down there, it consin was admitted she had three Representa- | sions, and referred to in a manner which seems was necessary, not indeed for them to put the tives. When Minnesota was admitted she had to me to demand some attention from myself. ballot into the hands of black or white men, two. When Michigan was admitted I believe Mr. President, of course I am not here to into the hands of one class or another, but that she was admitted with two Representatives. say that my colleague is not perfectly justified || it was necessary for them to do certain things, Iowa, when admitted, had a sufficient popula. || in his own judgment for each and every one of to incorporate certain provisions into their own tion to be entitled to two Representatives. If, the votes he has given since he has been a rep- constitutions, and to assent to an amendment to as is alleged, Colorado possesses such vast and resentative of the State of Wisconsin here; but the Constitution of the United States. Did he boundless fields of agricultural and pastoral when he goes further than that, and not only ever instruct the people of Wisconsin, or would lands, if, as is alleged, her mountains are full assumes but asserts that he stands justified for he, without repudiation and indignant rebuke, of mines, we need not wait very long. Now these votes by the action of the last State con- bave allowed anybody else to say to the people that peace is once more established upon the | vention held in the State of Wisconsin repre- of Wisconsin, that the United States could tell plains, in the course of one, two, or three years | senting the Union party, or by any convention them to put a paragraph or a word into their Colorado may fill up sufficiently with a popu. which ever assembled in that State represent constitution, or to strike it out; have allowed lation to be able to bear the burdens of a State | ing that party, I think he assumes too much and the United States to tell Wisconsin that she government. We may then pass an enabling asserts what the record of that convention will must assent to one proposition or another as a act and submit the question to the people of not substantiate. There was nothing, as I part of the Constitution of the United States ? Colorado, and determine whether or not she recollect the action of that convention, which Certainly not. No one yet has ventured to tell ought to be admitted into the Union.
could justify either of the votes which my
col- any State in allegiance to the Government of Mr. President, there is another consideration | league has given during the present session of the United States what sort of constitution she that ought not to be forgotten. When the Congress on which he has differed from the shall form, or what sort of amendments she election was held in September, 1864, to de- great body of his political friends about him. must incorporate into the Constitution of the termine whether they would come into the || 1 ought not to speak very confidently on this
United States. Union or not, it was held, under valid law, so point, perhaps. My colleague ought to be I am not controverting the truth of what was that persons who were guilty of the crime of presumed to know better what was the action asserted in that resolution at that time; but I voting when they were not entitled to vote or of that convention than I myself. It is true, do say to my colleague, to you, sir, to the Senwho were gụilty of perjury at the election might || as he has stated, that he was a member of that ate, and to the world, if they would only listen, be punished; but when this voluntary election convention. I believe he was the chairman of that the power which can tell the State of was held in 1865, it was without law, without the committee which drew and reported the || Georgia or the State of Alabama to assent to any authority, it was just as void as any other | resolutions adopted by that convention. If I an amendment of the Federal Constitution, or assembling of the people without any authority | mistake upon any of these points, he will of to incorporate any especial provision into her of law. Hundreds and thousands, perhaps, course correct me. He was, therefore, a promi- own local constitution, can do all things that might not have voted at all at such an election, nent member of that convention. I was not a we have been asked to do, and can make them regarding it as an election without force; the member of it at all. He saw the whole of it, put anything else into their constitution, or Mexican portion of the population, in the south- and he was a great part of it, I think; but still assent to the putting of anything else into our ern part of the Territory, may not have voted I believe I cannot be mistaken in saying that Constitution that we believe to be right. If at all
, and in other districts they may not have the resolutions adopted by that convention can- you find anywhere the authority to say to the voted.
not be urged here as authority for some of the people of Georgia or Florida, "You must inMr. President, I certainly see no such neces- votes which he has given.
corporate one amendment into the Constitution sity, political necessity or any other necessity, I heard this, as † thought, asserted by my of the United States before you can be restored for the admission of this State at this time as colleague yesterday on the floor, and I have to the roll of States," you can tell them to to justify us in doing it. I know it is some- looked for a copy of those resolutions this incorporate anything else into that Constitutimes claimed that the enabling act has pledged morning to see what there was in them that tion. Instead, therefore, of this resolution the good faith of Congress that they shall be could be held up here as a justification for these affording a justification for the votes which mý admitted. Sir, that enabling act was passed votes of which the recent Legislature of Wis- || colleague has given, or for those peculiar views in the belief that there were at the time of its || consin has complained. I have not been able which he has urged here, and which have been passage from forty.to sixty thousand people in || to find a copy of the resolutions, but I find one complained of in our State, I must say again, Colorado. The chairman of the Committee on of them in a speech which my colleague him- as I said before, that I think it affords the most Territories stated to the Senate that that was self made in the Senate on the 17th of January, | ample justification for every proposition which the amount of the population of Colorado at the I think-at least some time in January. Prob- has been urged by the great majority of his time. That was a great mistake. It is proved ably that resolution goes as far to justify the political friends here, and which he has comby the census that there were but 25,000; and votes which have been commented upon in the plained of as radical if not revolutionary. if Congress were deceived ; if Congress were State of Wisconsin as anything to be found in Mr. President, the minority of the comimposed upon; or if Congress in mistake of the the whole series. Let me reproduce that | mittee appointed by that convention to draft fact passed an enabling act by which they could resolution:
resolutions did, as I understand, ask the conform a constitution and come into the Union it
“That the animus which caused the late rebellion
vention to adopt two resolutions, one declaring does not lie in the mouth of the people of Col. against the United States was born of the pride and in favor of admitting: negroes to the right of orado or any one else to say that there is any ambition of an aristocracy founded upon slavery, suffrage in Wisconsin ; and I do not recollect want of good faith on our part after the people
which the war and the emancipation proclamation
the phraseology of the other resolution, but it of Colorado have exhausted the powers
was to the effect that they ought to be admitted the enabling act, and the law itself has had its slave but now free States that they should in good to the right of suffrage in this southern insureffect. Until some act of Congress has been faith accept their new constitution as free States, not
rectionary portion of the country. Myeolonly by abolishing slavery in their State constitupassed, the faith of this Government is not tions, but by the ratification by their Legislatures of ll league says that those resolutions were laid