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hut, at a depth of sixty-four feet beneath the the observations. According to the present surface of the soil, during the excavations for a data, it extends from Gothenburg to Torneo, and canal to unite Lake Maeler with an inlet of the as far as the North Cape, but increasing towards Baltic. The structure was about eight feet the north, where, being covered by the ocean, square; the walls crumbled away on exposure its detection becomes difficult, if not altogether to the air, but the floor timbers remained sound. impossible. In length it embraces one thousand There was a rude stone fire-place in the centre, miles, and probably half that distance in breadth; with fragments of half-burnt wood, and outside, and should the elevation still continue at the a heap of wood piled up for fuel; not a particle same rate, the upper portion of the Gulf of of iron appeared to have been used in the con- Bothnia, and a large extent of the sea on the struction of this singular building. It was west of Sweden, between Uddevalla and Gocompactly buried in fine sand, on which coarse thenburg, will become converted into dry land. gravel and large boulders in wavy strata were According to Humboldt, the bottom of the sea, superimposed. It has been shown that the sub- now forty-five fathoms below the surface, would mergence, if caused by a sudden inundation, begin to emerge at the end of twelve thousand would have left the boulders, as the heaviest years. portion of the materials, at the bottom, instead Various hypotheses have been put forward to of where they are now found, at the surface-a account for the phenomenon described in the preposition in which they have been deposited by sent paper. Some writers refer all disturbances foating ice. And we learn from this remarka- in the crust of the earth to the action of an imble fact, that since the building of fishing huts mense central fire; others, on the contrary, attriin Sweden, the land where the canal is dug has bute them to chemical agencies—decomposition sunk during a period long enough for the depo- of water and magnetism. We need not call in sition of strata sixty-four feet in thickness by the aid of so tremendous a power as that to be the sea, and has subsequently been raised to its derived from an interior fire, only a few hunpresent elevation.
dred miles less in diameter than the globe, to Observations on this interesting phenomenon effect that which daily experience teaches us have been made in Sweden for about a century may be effected by a power similar to that and a half, and we see no reason to doubt their exerted by the hydrostatic press; and it is well correctness. They are still carried on under known that the passage of voltaic currents genethe direction of Berzelius and other members of rates heat to a degree sufficient to account for the Royal Academy of Stockholm, with a view voltaic and other convulsions. Experiments to determine the direction of the upheaval. As have been made in America as to the expansion yet, the evidence is in favour of an oscillation of rocks by heat; from which, according to Mr. or see-saw motion from south to north. In Lyell, “ a mass of sandstone, a mile in thickness, 1749, Linnæus measured the distance of a large which should have its temperature raised 200 stone from the water, at Trelleborg, on the coast degrees Fahrenheit, would lift a superimposed of Scania, the southern extremity of Sweden; it layer of rock to the height of ten feet above its then lay one hundred feet farther from the sea former level. But suppose a part of the earth's than when measured in 1836-eighty-seven crust, one hundred miles in thickness, and years later. In the seaports of this part of the equally expansible, to have its temperature country, the streets are in many instances below raised 600 or 800 degrees, this might produce the level of the water—a situation in which an elevation of between two and three thousand they were not likely to have been built-and feet. The cooling of the same mass might afterartificial mounds have been made to prevent the wards cause the overlying rocks to sink down encroachments of the waves. It would thus again, and resume their original position.” All appear that while the north is rising, the south the facts hitherto adduced tend to show that no is sinking; the proportion of dry land increases geological period has been one of continued in the former and diminishes in the latter. repose. In whatever quarter of the world we The changes to be brought about by such, as look, the same indications speak to us of the yet, mysterious movements, it is impossible to mighty changes which have been and are still foretell
. A similar phenomenon has been ob- in action in most intelligible language.“ It served on the west coast of Greenlard, where seems to be rendered probable,” writes Mr. a tract six hundred miles in length is slowly Lyell, “ that the constant repair of the land, and subsiding. Low islands and buildings gradually the subserviency of our planet to the support of disappear; and the native Greenlander, it is terrestrial as well as aquatic species, are secured said, has been taught by experience to desist by the elevating and depressing power of causes from building his dwelling on the verge of the acting in the interior of the earth; which, ocean.
although so often the source of death and terror The area of upheaval comprised in Sweden to the inhabitants of the globe-visiting in sucand the adjacent countries, is of great extent, cession every zone, and filling the earth with and may be much larger than as yet appears by monuments of ruin and disorder-are neverthe
less the agents of a conservative principle above | about ten thousand millions in wars undertaken all others essential to the stability of the system.” first to humble the Bourbons, and then to restore
them to the throne which Napoleon had usurped.
The wars of all Europe from 1793 to 1815, COST OF WAR.
twenty-two years, cost some $15,000,000,000, The single arsenal at Springfield, contains and probably wasted full twice as much more in muskets alone to the value of $3,000,000 ; upon other ways, thus making a grand total of more the Military Academy at West Point, we have than forty thousand millions of dollars !—Peace (1846) already squandered more than $4,000,000; Manual. and in our Navy Yard at Charlestown are sunk nearly five millions more! The average cost to us of a line-of-battle ship is $830,000, though
Selected for Friends' Review. some of ours have absorbed in construction and BLESSED ARE THE DEAD IN CHRIST. repairs inore than a million each ; and the war
O blessed are the dead in Christ; ships of all Christendom probably amount to
Why should we weep for them ? some 2,000, the cost of which, at an average of No more the stormy billows here, half a million each, would be $1,000,000,000 in
With weary heart they stem; all. Merely to keep the material or instruments
No more they struggle here below,
To guide through many a gulf of wo of war in full repair, must cost Christendom
Their being's fragile bark; nearly $100,000.000 a year.
But havened in eternal rest, No less than 80 per cent. of all our national By far-off islands of the blest, expenditures have for years been for war purposes
Calm on a sun-lit ocean's breast, alone. These expenditures have been growing
Anchor their peaceful ark. more and more prodigal. Under Washington's
Seem they to sleep ?_"Tis but as sleep administration, they were for the army
The grain within the earth ; less than $11,000,000 in eight years, or $1,365,
To burst forth to the brilliant morn 000 a year; while those of the eight years pre
Of a more glorious birth.
Seem they to feel no touch of love ceding 1844, reached nearly $164,000,000, or
That o'er their icy brow may move $20,417,000 a year; an increase of 1500 per
With tearful whispers warm? cent. in war expenses, against an increase of 'Tis that upon the Spirit's ear some 400 per cent. in population! In 1817 our All Heaven's triumphant music, clear war expenses were about nine times as large as
Is sounding, where there comes not near
One tone of Sorrow's storm. those for all other purposes, and in 1832, seventeen times as great as for all civil offices. From
O give them up to Him, whose own 1791 to 1832, a period of forty-one years, the
Those dear beloved ones are ; aggregate of our expenditures, with some two Lo! on their wakening hearts he breaks, years and a half of actual war, was $842,250,891;
The bright and morning star!
His are they now for ever more, and of this sum, at least eight-ninths were for
The mystery and the conflict o'er, war purposes, and merely $37,158,047, or about
The Eternal city won ; one twenty-third part of the whole, for civil As conquerors let them pass—and go offices ; one dollar for the support of civil
Up from the fight of faith below,
The peace of God at length to know government, to twenty-three dollars for war!
In kingdom of the Son. During our revolutionary struggle, we borrowed from France $7,962,959, expended from our Lift up your heads, ye heavenly gates, own resources $135,193,703, and issued of paper
Ye everlasting doors, give way, money $359,547,027; in all, $502,703,689, be- And let the King of Glory's saints sides an indefinite amount of contributions from
Throng the bright courts of day ;
We follow, too, ye loved ones gone, individuals and states. From 1816 to 1834,
We follow-faint yet fearless on, eighteen years, our national expenses amounted To where the Lamb once slain, to $463,915,756; and of this sum, nearly four For ever now enthroned on high, hundred millions went for war, and only sixty
Shall reign, and wipe from every eye
The tears, that through eternity, four millions for all other objects! Here we
Shall never flow again. have, even in peace, twenty-two millions a year for war, and about three millions and a half, less than one-sixth of the whole, for the peaceful
SUMMARY OF NEWS. operations of our government !
But look at the direct expenses of war. А The freshet in the Ohio--mentioned in our lastsingle first-rate ship of the line is supposed to is said to equal, if not exceed, the great flood of cost us, in active service, full half a million of 1832. Telegraphic despatches from Cincinnati of dollars a year; and the expense of every gun
the 15th, 16th and 17th, say that the lower part of
the city was entirely inundated, at least 5000 famiour navy averages, even in peace, some $15,000 lies rendered houseless, business almost entirely a year.
suspended, "half the lumber in the city afloat, is It has been estimated, that England spent i and boats carried off of the stocks in the ship yards.
The snow was eighteen inches deep, but the On the same day, Holmes, of South Carolina, weather being cold, prevented it from swelling offered resolutions in the House" for peace with the flood, by melting, to the extent it would other- Mexico," which are said to be much the same with wise have done. Those of our readers who have those of Calhoun, at least so far as to indicate convisited Cincinnati, may perhaps realize the height cert of action. of the waters from the announcement that ihe Dickinson's resolutions are looked upon as the stores south of Pearl street were flooded, and Administration ground, and the others as indicating Broadway overflowed, and that the water and gas the opposition of the Calhoun party to war and works had both been inundated, and compelled to conquest. suspend operations. Other towns on the river The veto message of the President upon the were reported in much the same condition:-Mari- River and Harbor bill of last session, has been sent etta, Parkersburg and Louisville being inundated in, but no vote has yet been taken on the case. to á distressing extent. The tributaries of the Two-thirds will be required to pass it. The one Ohio were also fearfully swollen. The Muskingum hour rule, which limits the length of speeches, has at Zanesville was reported on the 17th as being been re-adopted in the House. three feet higher than during the flood of 1832,
ALBERT GALLATIN ON THE WAR.-We learn part of the town inundated, and at least a hundred from the New York Commercial
, that a pamfamilies forced to leave their dwellings. The water at that place was then at a stand, and on
phlet has just been published in that city, bearthe evening of the same day, a despatch from Cin-ing the title of “ Peace with Mexico, by 'Albert
Gallatin." cinnati informs us that the Ohio was falling.
This distinguished statesman discusses the subThe Susquehanna and Juniata are also reported ject of the war under various distinct heads, and to be very high, and Eastern papers inform us that arrives at the following conclusions : both the Connecticut and Hudson rivers are much
“That the annexation of Texas was an offensive above the ordinary height of their waters. The and unjust act to Mexico. Delaware has also been flooded. A letter from
" That the Government of the United States South Trenton, N. J., published in one of our city grossly erred in sending a Minister to Mexico, inpapers, reports, under date of the 17th, that most stead of a Commissioner. of the mills at that place had been stopped by the " That Texas never had any valid claim to the rise of the water.
Rio del Norte as its boundary. On the 8th of 10th month. at 11, A. M., an earth
“That the United States ought not to make a quake occurred simultaneously in Chili'and Peru, conquest of Mexico; or insist upon receiving from
other indemnification than that due to South America, which considerably damaged some towns, and produced great alarm among the in-American citizens, by Mexico, before the war habitants. There were rumors of fearful destruction
begun. in some parts, but they do not appear to be well evacuate the Mexican territory now in our posses
"That, as a preliminary to peace, we ought to sustained, and in those places from which authentic information has been received, the damage was
sion." comparatively slight. Reports have been previ- The Commercial copies the following final ously published in some of our papers, of the de- passage from this pamphlet: struction of a city in Mexico, on the same date “Not only collisions must be avoided, and the with the above earthquake, but the statements renewal of another illicit annexation be prevented, differ as to the name and situation of the town but the two countries must coolly consider their destroyed, some of them locating it in a state (At. relative position ; and whatever portion of territory, lisco) which does not exist in Mexico, and giving it not actually settled by the Mexicans, and of no a name, (Ocotlan,) which, as far as we know, does real utility to them, they may be disposed to cede, not appear on the map.
must be acquired by å treaty freely assented to, Congress.-Resolutions of the Legislatures of not the time for the discussion of a proper final
and for a reasonable compensation. But this is New York, Rhode Island and Maine, in favour of arrangement. We must wait till peace shall have Whitney's projected railroad to the Pacific, have been restored, and angry feelings shall have subbeen presented. On the 14th, Senator Dickinson, sided. At present the only object is peace, immeof New York, offered resolutions in favour of the diate peace, a just peace, and no acquisition of policy of annexing contiguous territory, and of territory, but that which may be absolutely neces" leaving all questions concerning the domestic sary for effecting the great object in view. The policy therein to the legislatures chosen by the most simple terms, those which only provide for people thereof:"--a condemnation, in general the adjustment of the Texas boundary and for the terms, of the Wilmot Proviso. On the 15th, Cal- payment of the indemnities due to our citizens, houn, of South Carolina, offered the follow and, in every other respect restore things as they ing:
stood before the beginning of hostilities, appear to Resolved, That to conquerand hold Mexico, either me the most eligible. For that purpose I may be as a province or by incorporating it into the Union, permitted to wish, that the discussion of the terms is inconsistent with the avowed object of the war, should not be embarrassed by the introduction of contrary to the settled policy of the Government, any other matter. There are other considerations, in conflict with its character and genius, and, in the highly important, and not foreign to the great end, must be subversive of all our free and popular question of an extension of territory, but which institutions.
may, without any inconvenience or commitment, Resolved, That no line of policy in the further be postponed, and should not be permitted to im. prosecution of the war should be adopted which pede the immediate termination of this lamentable may tend to consequences so disastrous.
A RELIGIOUS, LITERARY AND MISCELLANEOUS JOURNAL.
PHILADELPHIA, FIRST MONTH 1, 1848.
For Friends' Review,
EDITED BY ENOCU LEWIS.
acceptable worship is that which is performed
• in spirit and in truth. They collect their Published Weekly by Josiah Tatum, families two or three times a day to hear the No. 50 North Fourth Street, corner of Appletree Alley, Scriptures read, and abstain from secular emPHILADELPHIA.
ployment on the first day of the week, called Price two dollars per annum, payable in advance, or six Sunday, considering it their duty to appropriate copies for ten dollars.
this day to religious exercises. Their marriages This paper is subject to newspaper postage only. are performed with solemnity in their public
meetings, and the parties promise to be faithful
to each other during life. They believe that the LIFE OF WILLIAM ALLEN.
only true baptism is that of Christ with the
Spirit, and that the water baptism of John is not (Continued from page 212.)
now necessary : and they consider that the true Stephen Grellet and William Allen left Mos- communion is altogether of a spiritual nature, cow on the last of the 4th month, 1819, and and make use of no outward ceremony. In proceeded to visit the colonies bordering on the their meetings for worship they sing Psalms, and Black Sea. They had been furnished with a several of those who are esteemed by the rest letter of introduction to General Contineas, a as most pious, read to the others in turn. They man of considerable eminence, upon whoin the have no appointed preachers, but any one who Emperor principally relied in the management feels himself properly qualified by the Divine of the colonies. Upon arriving at Ekaterinoslav, Influence upon the mind, may expound and the place of his residence, they found him a speak to edification; they however consider that serious, feeling, sensible man, acquainted with it should never be done for hire, or from any the French and German, as well as the Russian worldly motive. languages. Upon their inquiring of him for a They believe that a true Christian can never person of religious sensibility, who could act harbour revenge, and they think it their duty as their interpreter, he almost immediately re- rather to suffer wrong than to seek to avenge it ; plied, "I will go with you myself.” Though if any differences arise, they are settled among the public engagements of this worthy man did themselves, and not brought to the tribunals. not allow him to devote more than two or three “We were glad to find that they had estaweeks to the assistance of his new friends, a blished a form of discipline, so that if the moral strong attachment was formed, which was dis- conduct of any one does not correspond with solved only by death; and during the time he his profession, he is tenderly exhorted, and was with them, his acquaintance with the country, much labour is bestowed upon him ; but if they the local institutions, and the most pious people, I judge that he cannot be reclaimed, he is disunited appears to have greatly facilitated their inter- from the Society. With respect to the poor course with the class of inhabitants whom they among them, they deem it their Christian duty were concerned to visit.
to take care of and support one another. It At this place they became acquainted with a appears that they have no instance among them class of religious professors, who called them- of children acting irreverently towards their selves Spiritual Christians, whose principles and parents, and they are very careful to have them doctrines approximate, in many particulars, to instructed in reading and writing. those of our religious society. By conversing “ In conversing with these dear people, both with them, through their friend Contineas, the at Ekaterinoslav and Simferopol, we felt an unfollowing summary was learned :
doubted evidence of the sincere piety of many “They believe in the divine authority of the among them, and the concurrent testimony of Holy Scriptures, in the Deity of our Lord and all who spoke of them, was so highly in favour Saviour, and in the influence of the Holy Spirit, of their excellent moral character, and quiet as fully as any Christians whom we ever met peaceable demeanour, that we could but feel with. They believe it their duty to abstain deeply for them, as part of that little flock scatfrom all ceremonies, and think that the only I tered through different lands, who have heard
the voice of the true Shepherd, and are striving | Allen took an opportunity of repaying the kindto follow him."
ness of Lady Liston, by putting her voltaic On the banks of the Dneiper they found a apparatus in a better condition, and performing number of German colonists of the Mennonite a number of chemical experiments for the inpersuasion, whose tenets are in many points struction of herself and her friends. similar to those of Friends. Their ministers At Smyrna they were introduced to the Bey receive no salary, but support themselves by Effendi, á Turkish prince, who bore an excelthe labour of their hands; and even their bishop lent character for integrity and liberality of sentimay be seen guiding his own plough. They, ment. They found him much superior to many like Friends, believe that war is inconsistent of the Turkish prejudices; his countenance ap with the spirit of Christianity, and conscientiously peared expressive of mildness and benignity, refuse to bear arms. In Prussia, from which and he expressed some sentiments worthy of a they emigrated, their pacific principles subjected Christian-sentiments, indeed, deserving more them to grievous persecutions, but the Emperor attention from the professors of Christianity than of Russia, with his characteristic tenderness, they generally receive. secured to them the free exercise of their religion; In the early part of the 8th month, our traveland finding their general conduct entirely blame- lers landed at Scio, 'an island, which then conJess, he encouraged their immigration, and, by tained about 100,000 inhabitants; of whom his liberality, drew great numbers of them to his 80,000 were Greeks. This island, it may be dominions. There were fifteen villages of these remembered, became, about three years afterMennonites, containing nearly six hundred fami- wards, the scene of a horrible massacre. There lies. With them they held a religious meeting, they were treated with kindness by the Turkish which was sensibly owned by the solemnizing Governor, who gave them all the assistance in presence of the Master of assemblies.
his power. They became acquainted with a In the neighbourhood of the Euxine, they Greek priest named Bambas, who was at the met with a number of serious persons, who head of a seminary which afforded instruction to received their visit with evident satisfaction, six hundred boys, many of them in the higher with whom they had considerable religious con- branches. Finding that the Holy Seriptures versation. Among these are noted the commu- were not used in the schools there, our Friends nity of Malakans, whose religious principles undertook to furnish a copy of the selections are almost entirely identical with those of the already made, as far as the New Testament was Spiritual Christians, already mentioned. By concerned. When their selections were presubsequent information, it appeared that in 1825 sented to Bambas, he was delighted, and engaged the number of these Malakans amounted to about tò correct the language, the translation not being eight hundred. Many of them had suffered a good one, and to print them at his own press. persecution on account of their separation from Our Friends had great satisfaction in their visit the Greek Church.
to Scio, where they had two interviews with the On the 12th of 7th month, our travellers arrived archbishop, and had opportunity of intercourse at the far-famed city of Constantinople, on the east- with some of the principal inhabitants, to whom ern border of Europe. As the plague was then they explained our religious principles, and beginning its ravages there, the danger of enter- whom they endeavoured to interest in the cause ing this filthy and ill ventilated city was immi- of Christian education. A young Armenian of nent; but they soon met with a man of pleasing considerable influence, with whom they engaged manners, who kindly invited them to take up their in religious conversation, entered warmly into quarters at his house, in an elevated position, the subject of schools, and promised to use his where they were comfortably accommodated. influence to promote education in his own coun
At Constantinople and its vicinity they were try. Meeting with a peasant, who presented treated with great kindness and respect, parti- to them some grapes and figs, they offered him cularly by the British Ambassador, Sir Robert a Testament if he would accompany them to the Liston, and his amiable wife. They obtained coast. Though he signified that he could not interviews with many diplomatic functionaries, read, but his wife could, yet he ran with them and other persons of influence, with whom they full three miles over a rough stony road, without held conversation on religious subjects ; and in shoes or stockings, and accepted the Testament which they also laboured to excite an interest in with the liveliest expressions of gratitude. The the education of the youth. A prominent object friendships formed with the people of Scio renin the plans of education which they endeavoured dered the cruelties asterwards perpetrated there to promote, was the introduction of the Scriptures, exceedingly poignant to our sympathising friends; or selections from them; and they had the satis- ample evidence of which will appear in our fufaction to find that many of those with whom ture numbers. they conversed were capable of appreciating the From Scio our travellers proceeded to Athens, importance of the subject, and disposed to en- where they had an opportunity of viewing the gage in the labour.
place where Paul preached, declaring to the During their residence at this place, William I superstitious Athenians the unknown God, whom