« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
ber of times. I doubt whether we get any other results. I was a surveyor many years ago in a wooded country. Now in a wooded country, when a line is run from one section to another, they 'blaze' the line. When they come to the quarter posts they have what they call 'witness' trees. Now it happens that these 'witness' trees many times stand twenty-five and forty years, and over and over again it occurs that these 'blazes' are overgrown and we never found that the account was mis-written. For the government survey was thirty-two years before our survey, and when we cut in we could count just thirty-two rings from that time. I do think that a tree may form occasionally a second ring. Governor Furnas has a number of trees of which he knows the date when he set them out, and he finds that sometimes they have more rings than they should have. On the plains here I do not see why a tree, being isolated, might not go into the summer rest and start again in the fall. But in the forests this cannot occur, so I doubt whether a second ring ever happens in a great forest, because the ground is moist all the time. So I take it that if we make experiments here long enough, we could get a second ring. Again, if you go into the south far enough you will not find rest with the growth. There are blocks of wood in some of the cases here on which you cannot make out any line where one growth begins and another stops."
R. A. Emerson read a paper on the "Internal Temperature of Trees," which was discussed as follows:
The importance of this may be shown in regard to orchard trees. Trees sometimes get sick on the southwest side; this is called "sun-scald." The tree usually dies. There is a belief among horticulturists that a rapid change in the winter affects the vitality of the bark. There is a great deal of injury done to trees in this way.
Professor Condra: "Did you perform any experiments in regard to the growth of trees?"
Mr. Emerson: "I think it would be hard to obtain such reResults have been obtained, however, in regard to this, and have been published."
Dr. Bessey: "We have no means of accurately obtaining these results. We do not know yet of any way by which we can tell the temperature of the cambium layer. When we bore a hole in a tree and destroy the layer of cells and have an air cavity in there instead of the solid mass of wood, we put in at once a condition which brings about an error. It is to be hoped that the electricians will give us an instrument by which we can measure the temperature of leaves without destroying them. We have no thermometer small enough to really determine the temperature of the limb accurately. All this, while it tells us something, is telling it to us about as crudely as the illustration I have suggested. We must have some thermometer of an entirely different kind. Something which will not make it necessary to break the tissue at all. I am quite strongly of the opinion that when we learn how hot the cambium layer becomes, we will find it gets very hot in the summer."
Professor Swezey: "I think it is possible to get such an electrical device."
Owing to the lateness of the hour, the following papers were read by title only: "The Barites of Nebraska and the Bad Lands," by E. H. Barbour; "Some Data as to Wind Distribution of Seeds," by E. M. Hussong; "Parasites of Nebraska Dogs and Cats," by H. B. Ward; "The Study of Botany in the School for the Blind," by C. E. Bessey; "Discovery of Meteoric Iron in Nebraska," by E. H. Barbour; "Notes on the Phyllopoda of Nebraska," by H. A. Lafler and A. S. Pearse.
The Academy then adjourned.
G. D. SWEZEY,
TREASURER'S REPORT FOR 1896.
G. D. Swezey, treasurer, in account with the Nebraska Academy of Sciences:
Jan. 1, Balance from last year.
Received dues for 1895.
Received dues for 1896...
Feb. 1, Paid for printing programs and circu
At a meeting of the publication committee of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences, December 14, 1897, the following rules were adopted:
I. All papers intended for publication must be in the hands of the publication committee, ready for printing, within thirty days after official notice has been sent to the authors.
II. No corrections will be allowed after a paper is set up, save at the expense of the author. To avoid the necessity of correction, as far as may be possible, the committee earnestly recommends that all manuscript be prepared with the utmost care, and, if possible, type-written.
III. All necessary drawings must accompany the manuscript and must be made in India ink.
IV. Illustrations used in the Proceedings will ordinarily be zinc etchings. Only in rare cases, and then by a special vote of the editorial committee, will photographs be reproduced as halftone engravings.
V. When the request is made on the manuscript, an author will be furnished, gratis, twenty unbound copies of his paper. Additional unbound copies will be furnished at cost if so requested on manuscript.
VI. Papers read before the Academy, but printed elsewhere, will regularly be noticed in the Proceedings, but may be abstracted, and only very exceptionally printed in full.
VII. Papers read before the Academy, but not in condition for publication, shall be presented as notes or preliminary reports.
ELLERY W. DAVIS, Secretary of the Committee.
NOTE.-In accordance with the decision of the editorial committee papers are grouped according to subjects into botanical, geological, mathematical, and zoological; and under each topic are arranged alphabetically according to authors, except in the case of those papers so closely connected in subject-matter as to necessitate another order. All papers included in the program of the last meeting of the Academy are printed here so far as they have been received from the authors, and have not been published elsewhere.