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earlier period it was the standing-place for bakers with their bread panniers. Observe.—In the middle of the alley, against the east wall, a figure of a pannier or baker's basket (or perhaps a loaf) with a boy with a bunch of grapes sitting upon it, and this inscription :

When you have sought the City round,
Yet still this is the highest ground.

August 26, 1688.
Panorama, LEICESTER SQUARE. (See Burford's Panorama.]

Pantheon, No. 359, on the south side of OXFORD STREET, originally a theatre and public promenade, designed by James Wyatt, R.A., and opened for the first time in January 1772.) As at Ranelagh, the room devoted to the promenade was a rotunda, but there were fourteen other rooms. The building was Italian in style, and the decoration of the interior was intended to correspond in character. Noorthouck described it as “a superb building ... dedicated to the nocturnal revels of the British nobility." 2 Dr. Johnson visited it in company with Boswell, and both agreed in thinking it inferior to Ranelagh. The masquerades for which the Pantheon soon became celebrated, were on a more splendid scale than those at Chelsea.

What do you think of a winter Ranelagh, erecting in Oxford Road, at the expense of sixty thousand pounds ? — Walpole to Mann, May 6, 1770.

The new winter Ranelagh in Oxford Road is almost finished. It amazed me myself. Imagine Balbec in all its glory! The pillars are of artificial giallo antico.' The ceilings, even of the passages, are of the most beautiful stuccos in the best taste of grotesque. The ceilings of the ball-rooms and the panels painted like Raphael's loggias in the Vatican. A dome like the Pantheon glazed. It is to cost fifty thousand pounds.--Walpole to Mann, April 26, 1771.

February 7, 1774.–Wednesday your two sisters, Molly Cambridge, and I went to the Pantheon. It is undoubtedly the finest and most complete thing ever seen in England ; such mixture of company never assembled before under the same roof. Lord Mansfield, Mrs. Baddeley, Lord Chief Baron Parker, Mrs. Abington, Sir James Porter, Mademoiselle Himell, Lords Hyde and Camden, with many other serious men, and most of the gay ladies in town, and ladies of the best rank and character; and, by appearance, some very low people. Louisa is thought very like Mrs. Baddeley (a notorious gay lady); Gertrude and I had our doubts whether our characters might not suffer by walking with her ; but had they offered to turn her out we depended on Mrs. Hanger's protection. None of any fashion dance country dances or minuets in the great room, though there were a number of minuets and a large set of dancers. I saw Miss Wilkes dance a minuet, and that was the only name I knew ; some young ladies danced cotillons in the Cotillon Gallery. I met a great many of my acquaintances, and every one complained of being tired after they had been there an hour.--Mrs. Harris to her son, the Earl of Malmesbury (Letters, vol. i. p. 247).

Mrs. Hardcastle. I'm in love with the town but who can have a manner, that has never seen the Pantheon, the Grotto Gardens, the Borough, and such places, where the nobility chiefly resort.-Goldsmith, She Stoops to Conquer, 1773, Act ii.

When Gibbon was writing the first portion of his Decine and Fall he was a frequent visitor to the Pantheon. His plan of early rising

him command of time, and he tells us that he never found his 1 There is a large and good interior view

Earlom in 1772.

There is also a view in the (with figures) of the Pantheon, engraved by European Magazine for May 1784.

2 Hist. of London, 4to, 1773, P. 732.




mind more vigorous, nor his composition more happy than in the winter hurry of society and parliament. In February 1774 he writes to Holroyd, “Don't you remember that in our Pantheon walks we admired the modest beauty of Mrs. Horneck? Eh bien, alas! She is,” etc. This was the wife of Goldsmith's “Captain-in-lace," one of the most abandoned women of her time, who eloped with her husband's brother officer, Captain Scawen. In the following April Gibbon speaks of himself as "a very fine gentleman, a subscriber to the masquerade, ... and now writing at Boodle's in a fine velvet coat, with ruffles of my lady's choosing.” Of this entertainment he says in another letter :

May 4, 1774.—Last night was the triumph of Boodle's. Our masquerade cost two thousand guineas; a sum that might have fertilized province (I speak in your own style), vanished in a few hours, but not without leaving behind it the fame of the most splendid and elegant fête that was perhaps ever given in a seat of the arts and opulence. It would be as difficult to describe the magnificence of the scene, as it would be easy to record the humour of the night. The one was above, the other below all relation. I left the Pantheon about five this morning.–Gibbon to Holroyd.

Masquerades lost their attraction-Fashion turned her back on the Pantheon. When the Opera House was burnt down, 1789, the Pantheon was secured as a temporary home, and opened early in 1791.

February 18, 1791.-—The Pantheon has opened, and is small, they say, but pretty and simple ; all the rest ill-conducted and, from the singers to the scene-shifters, imperfect : the dances long and bad, and the whole performance so dilatory and tedious that it lasted from eight to half-past twelve.--H. Walpole to Agnes Berry.

As an opera house its existence was brief. It was entirely destroyed by fire, January 14, 1792.

It is a remarkable fact that Mr. Wyatt, who was travelling to town from the west in a post chaise with the ingenious Dixon, his clerk, saw the glare of this memorable fire illuminating the sky while crossing Salisbury Plain.—Angelo, p. 96.

A second but less brilliant Pantheon soon rose from the ashes of the first. The management was not successful. Theatrical performances, concerts, lectures, and miscellaneous exhibitions were successively essayed. The building was taken down in 1812, and a third Pantheon opened the following year. It was no more successful than its predecessor, and after being closed for some years it was reconstructed in 1834, and fitted, with then unusual splendour, as a bazaar and picture gallery. Mr. Sidney Smirke, R.A., was the architect, the cost over £30,000. The Oxford Street front is a part of Wyatt's original building, but the portico was remodelled by Mr. Smirke. After the fluctuations usual to such places it was finally closed on March 2, 1867, and is now the wine warehouse of Messrs. Gilbey.

At the Pantheon Miss Stephens, afterwards Countess of Essex, made her first appearance on the stage in the character of Barbarina.

Panton Street, HAYMARKET, and Panton Square, Piccadilly, were so called after Colonel Thomas Panton, a celebrated gamester, who in one night, it is said, won as many thousands as purchased him an estate of above £1500 a year. "After this good fortune," says 26


Lucas, "he had such an aversion against all manner of games that he would never handle cards or dice again ; but lived very handsomely on his winnings to his dying day, which was in the year 1681."] Colonel Panton was the last proprietor of the gaming-house called Piccadilly Hall (see Piccadilly], and was in possession of land on the site of the streets and buildings which bear his name as early as the year 1664. A few years later he was busy building. Sir Christopher Wren, “Surveighor Generall,” had been directed to report on Colonel Panton's operations in 1671.

May it please your Majesty, in obedience to your Majesty's order of May 24, 1671, upon the petition of Thomas Panton, Esq., setting forth that he having purchased with design to build, at Piccadilly, and the two bowling greens fronting the Haymarket, and on the north of the Tennis Court, upon which several old houses were-standing, which the said Thomas Panton demolished to improve the same, and make the plan more uniform : in reference to which he let out the ground, laid several foundations, and built part thereof, before his Majesty's late Proclamation ; and praying his Majesty's permission, under the broad seal, to proceed in the said buildings. Upon which your Majesty ordered the Surveighor Generall to examine the truth of the allegations, and report whether the buildings will cure the noysome. ness of the place; accordingly I have viewed the said place, and find the petitioner's allegations, as far as I can judge, to be true, and that the design of building shown to me may be very useful to the public, especially by opening a new street from the Haymarket into Leicester Fields, which will ease, in some measure, the great passage of the Strand, and will cure the noisomeness of that part : and I presume may not be unfit for your Majesty's licence, provided the said Thomas Panton build regularly, according to direction and according to a design to which his said licence may refer; and that he be obliged to build with brick, with party walls, with sufficient scantlings, good paving in the streets, and sufficient sewers and conveighances for the water; and that the buildings expressed in his patent be registered before the foundations are laid. All which is most humbly submitted to your Majesty's wisdom and farther order hereupon. Christopher Wren.

A few months after this Colonel Panton made his formal application to erect a “fair street of good buildings ” between the Haymarket and Hedge Lane, marked in the manuscript to be called Panton Street, and other "fair buildings fronting the Haymarket upon the said ground." “ Colonel Panton's Tenements” are rated for the first time in St. Martin's poor-books under the year 1672 ; "Panton Street North" for the first time in 1674; and “Panton Street by the Laystall” for the first time in 1675. “ Madame Panton,” the widow, lived in a capital mansion on the east side of the Haymarket as late as 1725. Henry, fifth Lord Arundel of Wardour (d. 1726), from whom Wardour Street derives its name, was married to Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Panton, of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, Esquire. In Panton Street, on the south side, was Hickford's Auction Rooms, the Christie and Manson's Rooms of the reign of George I. The great room was used also as a ballroom. On February 2, 1720-1721, the Westminster scholars performed Otway's Orphan at “Hickford's Dancing-Room, in Panton Street, near Leicester Fields." Prior, an old Westminster, wrote the prologue, and makes allusion to the use to which the room was ordinarily put.

1 Lucas's Lives of the Gamesters, 12mo, 1714, p. 68.

We hired this room, but none of us can dance,
In cutting capers we shall never please ;
Our learning does not lie below our knees.

Prior's Poems, 1733, vol. iii. p. 50. The following curious advertisement is from the Sale Catalogue of a capital collection of pictures, sold by Hickford, March 5, 17281729.

N.B.-Such persons as design to be brought in chairs, are desired to come in at the back door of Mr. Hickford's Great Room (which is on a ground floor), facing the Tennis Court in St. James's Street in the Haymarket ; which is so large and convenient, that, without going up or down steps, the Chair may be carried in to the very room where the Pictures, etc., are shewed.

William Hogarth engraved a “Midnight scene, in the style of the Modern Conversation,” as a shop bill for “Richard Lee, at the Golden Tobacco Roll, in Panton Street, near Leicester Fields."

Panton Square, in Strype's Map (1720) is called Panton Yard, and is described as "a very large place for stabling and coach-houses, there being one large yard within another. This place is designed to be built into streets, taking up a large piece of ground, and according to probability will turn to better advantage than at present.” 1

1762.—The Morocco Ambassador lived in Panton Square, near Coventry Street. One of his attendants happened to displease him : he had him brought up to the garret, and there sliced his head off. It was made no secret : he and his servants thought it was very proper, but the London people, who had somewhat of Christianity were of another opinion. I saw a violent party gather before the house : they broke into it, demolished the furniture, threw everything they could lay their hands on out of the windows, and thrashed and beat the grand Moor and his retinue down the Haymarket, and afterwards attacked them wherever they found them.-O'Keefe's Recollections, vol. i. p. 81.

In 1868 the name Panton Square was abolished, and the name Arundel Street given to it as a portion of the street of that name leading into Coventry Street.

Paper Buildings, TEMPLE, first built "6th James I. (1609), by Mr. Edward Heyward and others.” Dugdale describes them as “eastwards from the garden, 88 feet in length, 20 feet in breadth, and 4 stories high.” This Edward Heyward was Selden's chamber-fellow, and Selden dedicates his Titles of Honour to him.

His (Selden's] chamber was in the Paper buildings which looke towards the gardens . . . staircase, uppermost story, where he had a little gallery to walke in. -Aubrey's Anecdotes, vol. iii. p. 531.

In one of the pleasantest papers of the Table Talk Selden relates the device by which he got rid of a lunatic “person of quality who came to my chambers in the Temple and told me he had two devils in his head."

The Paper Buildings, in which Selden lived, were consumed in the Great Fire, and the tenements erected (1685) in their stead destroyed, March 6, 1838, in the fire which broke out in Mr. (afterwards Justice) Maule's chambers,

I Strype, B. vi. p. 84.

Lord Campbell, when growing into practice, took chambers atNo. 14 Paper Buildings : first floor, four excellent rooms, view up the river to Westminster Abbey, with the Surrey Hills in the distance, equally adapted for health and convenience, for pleasure and for business. The attorneys as they pass by will say : “ Ah ! he is getting on. He must know something about it. We will try him.” ---Campbell to his father, August 8, 1810 (Life, vol. i. p. 261).

Lord (then Sir John) Campbell's chambers were immediately over Maule's, and everything he had in them was consumed.

My chambers in Paper Buildings have been burned to the ground, and not an atom of anything belonging to me saved_furniture, books, briefs, MSS., Attorney. General's official documents, letters, all consumed. ... The fire broke out in Maule's chambers. . . He had gone to bed leaving a candle burning by his bedside.Life of Lord Campbell, vol. ii, p. 107.

George Canning had chambers in Paper Buildings in 1792 when studying for the law and preparing for Parliament. Samuel Rogers lodged in Paper Buildings before removing to St. James's Place. Lord Ellenborough was the previous occupant of the chambers.

I once dined in the chambers Mr. Rogers occupied in the Temple, before he took the house in St. James's Place. The dining-room was a large and cheerful one, on the ground-floor, in Paper Buildings, and commanded a fine view of the river. He had faced the window-shutters with looking-glass, so that from every part of the room there were to be seen views of the river, up and down.-Autob. Recollections, by C. R. Leslie, R.A., vol. i. p. 242.

The buildings in the Elizabethan style towards the Thames were designed (1848) by Sydney Smirke, R.A., and recall “ the bricky towers” of the temple of Spenser's Prothalamion, though among Templar wits they passed by the name of “Blotting-Paper Buildings.”

Papey (The), a house for poor and impotent priests, by London Wall, in Aldgate Ward.

Then come you to the Papey, a proper house, wherein sometime was kept a fraternity or brotherhood of St. Charity and St. John the Evangelist called the Papey, for poor impotent priests (for in some language priests are called papes), founded in the year 1430, by William Oliver, William Barnabie, and John Stafford, chaplains or chantry priests in London, for a master, two wardens, etc., chaplains, chantry priests, conducts (unendowed chaplains), and other brethren and sisters, that should be admitted into the church of St. Augustine Papey in the Wall. The brethren of this house becoming lame, or otherwise into great poverty, were here relieved, as to have chambers, with certain allowance of bread, drink, and coal, and one old man and his wife to see them served, and keep the house clean. This brotherhood, among others, was suppressed in the reign of Edward VI. ; since the which time, in this house hath been lodged Master Moris of Essex; Sir Francis Walsingham, principal secretary to her Majesty; Master Barret of Essex, etc.—Slow, p. 55.

Parade (The), in St. James's Park. The open space before the Horse Guards; part of the old Tilt Yard of Whitehall. [See Tilt Yard.]

Paradise, HATTON GARDEN, an exhibition, popular in the latter part of the 17th century, in which by mechanical contrivances figures of birds and other animals imitated the movements and sounds natural to them. John Locke in his paper of directions for a friend visiting

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