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pilio turnus, very similar to his European brother. Of swallow-tails, there are a great many varieties; the yellow color of the one is almost entirely superseded by black. Many European species are indigenous here, among other, many Vanessa species, the admiral (V. Atalanta), the morio (V. Antiopa), the great and small brownish-red Papilio (V. polychlorus and V. urticæ), and the C. bird (V. C. album). Very frequent is the painted lady (V. Cardui), which rocks on flowers in all parts of the globe.

The view of such a Papilio flying from flower to flower, and parading in the most magnificent colors, reconciles us with many of its troublesome fellow-creatures. An image of the fickleness of beauty and a symbol of transitoriness, he inculcates high wisdom, and while exhorting us, during the short span of our mortal life, to enjoy what God's beautiful world proffers us, he admonishes us that the end of our earthly career is not very far off.


WHEN people in the Eastern States speak admiringly of the extraordinary fertility of the soil of Illinois, they will often add some remark, expressing their fears in regard to the fever and ague said to prevail there, just as though the state of health in Illinois was so miserable as to counterbalance all the great advantages that a residence in the State offers to the industrious settler. Were this really the condition of things, how could the population of the State increase at such an enormous rate as it does now, and would not many of the families, after a residence of a few years in Illinois, leave the State in order to select a more healthy residence ? Just the contrary is the case, as will at once appear from the fact, that the tide of immigration from the Eastern States to Illinois, swells enormously every year, and but very few families residing in the State are known to remove beyond its limits.

Everybody knows that of all diseases the ague occurs most frequently in Illinois, but they will know also, that while new ground is annually subjugated to culture, the disease is confined to more and more narrow limits; and further, that it depends very much upon the particular plan of abode, and manner of living, whether the fever is to visit a family or not. Whosoever resides in the bottoms, or close by swamps, or in districts where the water-owing to the ground being rather too level, cannot rapidly flow off, will be more exposed to the fever, than one who resides on the high, rolling prairie. Moreover it is perfectly safe to presume that one-half of those who are down with this fever, have to ascribe this to nothing but their own imprudence, and the use of improper food.

To the latter cause must be added, drinking of stagnant water, or a too immoderate use of fruits, lard, eggs, or fish; and, further, nobody should needlessly expose himself to the night air, but live in substantially-built dwellings and sleep in well-ventilated rooms; wearing by day thin clothing, and in the evening, when exposed to the night air, warm, thick clothing, and making a fire in the grate, whenever, even in the midst of summer, a change of temperature should occur, especially when it begins to rain. But few of those strictly following these rules, will ever be visited by the fever.

Mankind would undoubtedly be happy, were there no graver diseases than fever and ague, which, though disagreeable, are certainly not deleterious, much less dangerous. Deaths in consequence of fever and ague are nowhere reported, however closely the long lists and bills published by the newspapers, of the mortality prevailing in the various, most widely separated, cities may be examined. And where would the ague pot be met with ? the ague, which more or less occurs on newly-broken land, or meadows, or lands with a very rich humus, from which the golden fruits are gathered that fill the farmers' barns. The fever exists as well on the eastern seaboard, and in Europe, as in the Western States. Nobody will ever venture to call Hoboken, a pretty little city situated opposite New York, a place infected with fevers; though many cases of fever occur in those parts of it touching on meadowy ground, few of those residing in the vicinity of which, along the Hackensack River, having yet escaped being visited by this unwelcome guest, the ague. And on the other side of the ocean, in Europe, you will find the ague in the rich low lands of the Vistula, the great granary of Prussia, on the marshes of the Oder, and in the rich marshy lands of East Frieseland.

Should this book be doomed to reach the hands of none but those residing in Illinois, it would hardly be necessary to say anything concerning the sanitary condition of the State; every inhabitant being from his own experience sufficiently acquainted with it; but as it is designed to furnish information of a reliable character to such as intend to seek their homes in Illinois, the state of health of that country cannot be passed over in silence. The importance of the question as to the salubrity of a country, for those wishing to settle in it, being selfevident, we have felt it incumbent upon us to gather the opinions of men long resident in the State, and we now submit to the reader, the results arrived at by private gentlemen and doctors residing within its limits, from many years personal experience; to which is added the testimony of a gentleman from Massachusetts, who travelled through Illinois in every direction, for the purpose of comparing the state of her affairs with those of the former. First, however, let us hear the doctors.

Daniel Stahl, M. D., of Quincy, Adams County, a resident of the United States for 22 years, and of Illinois for 14 years, a physician by profession, writes the following:

“We have here in autumn, bilious diseases, more or less; for instance, the ague, the intermitting, and the properly called bilious fever. In very rare cases, however, do these diseases prove dangerous or deleterious; every new resident of the West acquiring in a short time the knowledge of the very simple remedies by which their cure is effected. Fifteen. or twenty years ago, these diseases, together with those always sure to accompany them, the hepatical diseases, hypochondriasis and jaundice, held such a formidable sway, that they spared but very few, especially of the immigrants. But as the land is becoming subjected to culture, as forests are cleared, and swamps and marshes dried up, these diseases more and more rarely occur, so that I now only render professional services to one-third of the number of feverd patients I formerly had in treatment, some ten or fifteen years ago. Diarrhoea prevails to some extent, but always in a mild form, being very rarely, if ever, dangerous. Infants suffer in great cities, from the “ cholera infantum,” which disease can nowhere be met with in the country; all those diseases, however, which are caused in all other countries by the rapid change of temperature, occur also here.

“Upon comparing the state of health of this country with that of Eastern Pennsylvania, of which I was a former resident, I must arrive at the conclusion, that we live in a comparatively very salubrious district.

The following is taken from a letter of Dr. J. G. Zeller, M. D., a physician of Springbay, Woodford County.

“In summer, miasmatical fevers prevail. Those residing along the ravines of rivers, or in their valleys, are usually visited by them; sometimes, also, particularly in a moist spring, the inhabitants of the prairies suffer from them. In fall and winter, the abdominal typhus fever sometimes occurs; but never the real typhus, properly speaking, as the miasma proceeding from morasses appears to be antagonistic to the typhus miasma. A regular habit of living can do much against these miasmatical diseases, and after a sojourn of two years in these regions, you may consider yourself acclimated.”

T. A. Hoffman, M. D., a physician and resident since 1835, of Beardstown, Cass County, communicates the following:

“The tracts of uncultivated soil at that time, and the superabundance, especially in the rich bottom lands, of the exuberant vegetation which, if not used, was left to putrefy, caused, as in all western countries having a rich humus, intermitting fevers, particularly in fall, when the plants cease to perform their office of purifying the air. Ever since, however, the plains overgrown with tall grasses, were converted into fertile, arable land, and the morasses into meadows; whilst the stagnating waters were drained off by ditches dug for that purpose, the state of health has visibly improved.”

Frederick Brendel, M. D., a physician of Peoria, communicates to us as follows:

“ Intermitting fevers are the principal diseases of the country. As is the case in Peoria, the malady will remain confined to those portions of a city stretching along some river, whose opposite bank is marshy, while almost all those residing along rivers, both banks of which are dry, will be spared. Near houses on the more elevated prairies, whose inmates are down with the fever, you will almost always discover a pool of stagnating rain-water. Bilious fevers appear towards the end of summer, intermitting fevers in September and October, and in the latter part of autumn, typhus fevers, which, though lasting a long time, prove but very rarely dangerous. Diarrhoa also prevails. At the time of the raging of that great epidemic, cholera appeared here in a mild form ; but in the last years it was chiefly confined to the immigrants, most of whom brought the disease with them. Pulmonary diseases seldom occur; those who came hither afflicted with them, manage to live longer than would have been elsewhere the


F. Wenzel, M.D., of Belleville, St. Clair County, communicates the following:

“The state of health is everywhere very satisfactory, save in marshy districts. The cases of fever, particularly of the intermitting and remitting bilious fevers decrease in number, from year to year. The time in which southern Illinois might with propriety be denounced

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