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building extending to and connecting with the house sewer. The house sewer is that part of the main drain or sewer extending from the foundation wall of the building to its connection with the public sewer, private sewer, or cesspool.
A private sewer is a main sewer that was not constructed by or under the supervision of the city authorities; although it may be constructed in a public highway.
Flush fittings or recessed drainage fittings are threaded for screw connections to pipes. The bore of the fittings are flush with the inside of the pipe.
Roughing-in is the installation of the soil, waste, vent, and supply pipes from the points at which they enter a building, or through the walls or floors where the fixtures are to be set. In new buildings, this work is erected before the walls are lathed or the floors are laid.
Finishing is the setting up of the plumbing fixtures, and the connecting of them to the soil, waste, and supply pipes. This work is done after the plastering is finished and the floors are laid.
Solder joints are joints in which the parts are joined together by soft solder.
Brazed joints are those in which the parts are joined or fused together by the use of a solder made of granulated yellow brass.
Wiped joints are those in which the solder is fused on the joints and wiped to a neat smooth finish with a wiping cloth. The accompanying illustration shows different kinds of joints commonly used in plumbing.
A flux is a substance applied to joints to aid the solder in becoming properly fused to the metal, and in flowing into the crevices of the joints.
PIPES AND FITTINGS.
Cast-Iron Soil Pipes.-These should be uniform in thickness and homogeneous throughout. They should be tested with water pressure and then coated with asphaltum before being used.
These pipes come in 5' lengths and are known as extra heavy. The maker's name should be cast on each piece. Any pipe lighter than the following should be rejected.
Cast-iron soil-pipe fittings should correspond with the grade of pipes used. They should have easy curves. No sharp 90° bends or T branches should be used; only obtuse angle fittings. Fittings are made as staple goods at the following angles: 90°, 45°, 2210, 1140, and are known as quarter, eighth, sixteenth, and thirty-second fittings, respectively.
The various forms of cast-iron soil-pipe fittings that are on the market, and their trade names, are given in Figs. 1 and 2.
Cast-iron soil-pipe joints are made with picked oakum and molten lead calked solidly home in the sockets; 12 oz. of soft pig lead must be used in each joint for each inch in diameter of the pipe.
To cut a cast-iron soil pipe, it should be laid on a mound of earth, if practicable, rather than on a stone or a block of wood. A groove is then cut around the pipe either with a cape chisel or a thin and sharp cold chisel. The chisel should not be held square with the pipe, but should be inclined toward the end of the pipe, the object being to chip a V groove around the pipe. After every blow of the hammer the chisel should be shifted, or the pipe should be turned. When the groove has been cut deep enough, the pipe can be broken off clean and square by a sharp blow on one end.
Wrought Iron and Steel Pipes.-When used for drainage purposes these should be stamped with the maker's name. They should be galvanized and conform to the following table:
WEIGHT OF WROUGHT-IRON OR STEEL
Fittings for vent pipes on wrought-iron or steel pipes may be the ordinary cast or malleable steam and water fittings.
Fittings for waste or soil pipes must be the special, extraheavy cast-iron, recessed and threaded, drainage fittings, with smooth interior waterway, and threads tapped so as to give a uniform grade to branches of not less than in. per ft.
All joints must be screwed joints made up with red lead, and the burr formed in cutting must be carefully reamed out. When the male threads are screwed up tightly, the ends should abut each other in the couplings.
Short nipples on wrought-iron or steel pipe, where the unthreaded pipe is less than 1 in. long, should be of the thickness and weight known as extra heavy or extra strong.
Brass Soil, Waste, and Vent Pipes, and Solder Nipples.-These should be thoroughly annealed, seamless drawn, brass tubing