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that an open door is left for those messengers, times walked to the water's edge, in snow nearly who may yet visit any part of this interesting two feet in depth, and rowed herself, in her boat, portion of the Lord's vineyard.”
Her family are bright examples. Two One of the Friends engaged on the foregoing of her brothers are now convinced.”
In 1846, the meeting for sufferings gave its visit, remarks :
sanction to the re-printing in the Danish lan“As regards the little flock in and around guage of Robert Barclay's Apology; engaging Stavanger, it is a comfort to be able to confirm to bear three-fourths of the expense. the view already impressed on the minds of those ment was entered into with a printer in Stavanwho have been in frequent correspondence with ger, to print one thousand copies. After much them. Solid and orderly in their deportment, deliberation, in order to adapt it to the Danish and weighty in spirit before the Lord, they ap- language of the present time, it was concluded to pear as the “savour of life unto life.'
have the work revised by a competent person“We remark, amongst ourselves, that their great change in the construction of the langravity, and faithful maintenance of the princi- guage having taken place since the last edition ples and testimonies professed by them, amidst was printed. surrounding difficulties; the tenderness of their Friends of Stavanger have also lately printed spirits, and daily walk, are deeply interesting two little tracts, in addition to the short account and instructive."
of George Fox, already noticed, viz. : The Guide In reference to the education of children, he to true Peace, well known to Friends in Eng
land; and Extracts from the Writings of Wilremarks :
liam Smith. They were assisted in the expense “According to the plan established here, a of the latter, by our friend, James Midgley, of schoolmaster is appointed by the clergy to a cer- Rochdale. tain district, within the limits of which he is ex- The Friends who lately visited them, were pected to teach ; and the law provides, that the much impressed with the necessity of extending inhabitants should receive him into their houses, to them some assistance with regard to the proalternately, to lodge; and that a room shall be per education of the children, both of those who set apart for tuition, to which the children of the are members, and of such as attend their relineighborhood are required to come. The ques- gious meetings, though not members. Elias tion has been raised, "If the Bible is the class- Tasted has hitherto been the principal teacher; book of the school in lieu of the Lutheran Cate- but on account of his advancing years and infirm chism, will Friends be satisfied ?' This subject health, and want of proper support to the school, claimed serious attention in the conference. The it has been given up. The Friends of Stavantender care manifested by the Friends of Sta- ger proposed that Absjorn O. Kloster, a young vanger, lest by seeking relief from the present man in a good degree convinced of our princiburdens, they should in any manner become in- ples, though not a member, should come over to volved in (fresh) trials, was striking; and we England to be instructed in our language. The endeavored to encourage their honest desire, pa- meeting for sufferings, on being consulted, gave tiently to suffer, rather than take any step not its consent, agreeing to defray the chief part of sufficiently satisfactory.
the charge. Accordingly, in the Third month “ It is agreed that, in future, an account of of 1847, he came over, and was sent to Friends' sufferings shall be prepared and brought up an- Agricultural School, at Ayton, to be under the nually to the Yearly Meeting, to be held in the tuition of George Dixon. After spending sis Sixth month, beginning the last First-day. months in that establishment, he was for a similar
“We have visited the families in this place— period with Robert Doeg, of Harraby Hill, near both those of members, and such as are accus- Carlisle, where he made good progress, and tomed to attend our meetings. The tenderness greatly endeared himself to the family, by his we have witnessed amongst them, and their cor- sweet, innocent deportment, and pious frame of dial reception of our visits, in their humble mind. He returned home about the close of the dwellings, have been much to our comfort; and, Fourth month, 1848, and has since entered upon in not a few instances, have we been ministered his duties as a schoolmaster, in a room hired for unto-though not by word, yet by the salutation the purpose, and has had good success. of their spirits in love. From day to day, we The government lays great stress on all chilfeel our responsibility, and the necessity for dren receiving proper school instruction; and as watchfulness, amongst this awakened people. Friends cannot conscientiously avail themselves
“We were yesterday on an island, half a mile of the Lutheran schools, it is, on every ground, from this town, called Hundvaag. We had peculiarly desirable that proper steps should be twelve religious opportunities, and a meeting in taken to promote and secure this important obthe evening, where about one hundred were ject. present.
The number over whom Friends may be exA
young woman of the island, in her lively pected to exercise some care, in these respects, is zeal to attend the meeting at Stavanger, has at I now very considerable.
8th mo. 4th, 1846.-Elias Tasted, in a letter overpowered by immense numbers of the Turks, to a Friend, expresses his satisfaction with the they were slaughtered by thousands—their wives visit of the three Friends. “I can say it was a and children driven captive and sold for slaves tendering visit to all of us, and to many others. and their property taken away. They were very much favored in speaking to the This unhappy island was the birth-place of different states amongst us, and with great labor “Amanda," who was born about the year 1815. they visited the families of Friends, as well as Her father was a rich merchant, her eldest brosingle persons, in their own houses. They have ther was slain in the civil war, and her mother had many meetings amongst us, and one for the died of a broken heart. Shortly after, a band of town's people, in which they delivered several Turkish ruffians attacked the merchant's house, good testimonies, which were well received. and plundered his property. He escaped with They have also had a public meeting at Bergen, his two remaining children, Amanda and a broand have travelled to Christiania. Endre Dahl ther two years older, and took refuge in the cothas been their interpreter the whole time.” tage of a Turkish woman, to whom he had been
Another Friend writes, “The true brotherly kind in the days of his prosperity; but on hearlove is no respecter of persons. This we per- ing that he was pursued by the Turks, he was ceived in a high degree, when the Friends were again obliged to flee with his son ; the poor little visiting us. May we, then, all be preserved in Amanda was unable to accompany them, and he true love to God, praying for the Spirit of Christ, gave her in charge to the woman, who promised by which only can we make intercession one for to protect her. When the Turks demanded the another. May every one that the Lord has laid father, they were assured that he was not there; his work upon, take heed to his high and holy enraged at not finding him, they seized Amanda calling; depending only on that living fountain by the hair, declaring she was a Greek : and from which alone the thirsty soul can be refresh- were dragging her away, when the woman cried ed. I desire that I may so walk before the Lord, out, she is my own daughter, and you dare not as that I could, in truth as well as in words, call destroy the child of a Turkish mother. This myself thy friend and brother in Christ.” stratagem of the merciful woman, although (To be continued.)
faulty, saved the life of the innocent Amanda from the cruel hands of the ruffians. At mid
night the father returned to fetch his child, and AMANDA, THE YOUNG GREEK GIRL. with tears, expressed his gratitude for her preThe early part of this Narrative was related by the servation. missionary who conveyed the two orphan children to Early the next morning, with his loved Switzerland.-J. YEARDLEY.
Amanda and her brother, he took advantage of a Stamford Hill, First Month, 1851. vessel just sailing for Ancona, on the coast of
Italy, where he arrived in safety. In this for"I love them that love me; and those that seek lorn situation he was visited by a missionary, me early shall find me."'-PROVERBS viii, 17.
who was returning to Switzerland, not finding in The traveller who makes a voyage in the Gre- Greece any room for the gospel message; but the cian Archipelago, may have a beautiful view of poor merchant had received his death-blow. The one of those mountainous islands, that was re- loss of his son, his wife, and his property were presented by English travellers in bygone days, too much for him to bear, and the missionary as a "Garden inhabited by a happy people.” was made instrumental in leading him to faith in The natives are a hardy race. The dress of the that All-sufficient Saviour, who alone could give men consists of a short jacket and waistcoat with him rest; when hopeless of life, he consigned out a collar, a red sash round the waist, a small his precious children to the care of this gospel red cap on the crown of the head, and sandals on messenger, who received them as a gift from their feet: they wear mustachoes, which give heaven, and engaged to place them in the Inthem a fierce appearance. The women are con- stitution at Beuggen, in Switzerland. The sidered beautiful, and have intelligent counte- merchant's heart was relieved, he clung to his nances, their dress simple, and their occupation Saviour and died in peace. laborious.
Amanda was only six years old, when these Agriculture is not in a high state of cultiva- distressing scenes occurred, but they made an tion on the island. The mode of threshing is impression on her susceptible heart not to be forstill that mentioned in scripture-treading out gotten ; and a trait of pensive sorrow was ever the corn by oxen.
after stamped upon her countenance. The pious
. Many of the Grecians were wealthy merchants, missionary faithfully fulfilled his charge, and conand the inhabitants, who lived in the more re- veyed the two orphans to the Institution, and mote parts of the island, were peaceable ;-but committed them to the care of the excellent Prowhen the Greek Revolution broke out, in the fessor Z-, the director, and it was under his year 1821, they were compelled to take up arms pious instruction that Amanda first evinced a and join the Insurrection; the Greeks made a bias in favor of religion. great effort to obtain their liberty—but being These orphans remained a few years at Beuggen, and by their progress in learning gave sa-, she was overpowered by the feeling, and retired tisfaction to their teachers, when it was con- in tears. During her residence in Switzerland, cluded by some pious friends who were interested she had acquired a knowledge of the German for them, that it would be better to remove them and French languages, and the requisite acquireto the Institution at Locle. When they entered ments for becoming a teacher. The minister this Asylum, the excellent foundress, M. A. from America recommended the attention of Calame, was struck with the pensive air of Friends in England, to the case of this interestAmanda, and hearing the affecting circumstances ing orphan. of her history, became much interested for her;
(To be continued.) indeed, M. A. C. possessed a particular talent for entering into the individual character of her
CULTIVATION OF COTTON IN AFRICA. pupils, and exercised a powerful influence on their minds, by directing their attention to the A few suggestions on the importance of the Culconvictions of the Holy Spirit in their own hearts,
tivation of Cotton in Africa, in reference to which she had many proofs was early experi.
the abolitim of Slavery in America. enced by children. Amanda evinced a very By the true philanthropist of the present day, susceptible mind in this respect, and these feel- whose sympathies are enlisted for the oppressed ings were cherished by her adopted mother, to of all countries, and of every race, any suggestion whom she became tenderly attached. The boy that may lead to even a partial improvement of was placed under the care of the master, and also condition will be received with favor.
And on received a portion of M. A. C.'s maternal care the people of the United States chiefly rests the and counsel. He remained some years at Locle, responsibility of discovering the best mode of and was then placed with a merchant at Mar- emancipating three and a half millions of bondseilles, and from all we have heard, is a steady, men in their midst; and of providing for their respectable character.
future welfare, when emancipated. This has Amanda received instruction with so much been deemed so difficult a subject--s0 complex ease and avidity, that it was concluded to edu- in its political, social, and economical bearings, cate her for a teacher, and she was placed in the that many well-disposed persons have been willfirst class; her pious turn of mind and amiable ing to pass it by, as a question to be solved by manners had an inviting influence on those who time, or by the superior wisdom of a future age; surrounded her, and they often conversed to- although aware that every successive year ingether on the love of their blessed Redeemer, creases and strengthens the evil. and the necessity of seeking the direction of His But there are some who believe that the presSpirit, in retirement; with this view, Amanda ent is the proper time for action, and that they and another of their little company, were depu- have a duty to perform in this great work, that ted to solicit from their beloved superintendent, should not be neglected. To such it is desired a closet, where they might retire to wait upon to make a few suggestions, under a belief that, the Lord, and for prayer. M. A. C. was de with proper effort, much may be done now to lighted with this proof of early piety, and im- effect the desired result, and that measures may mediately allotted a place for the purpose, with be commenced immediately, which will eventua desire that the Divine blessing might rest upon ate at no distant period, in a general emancipait.
tion, without violence of any kind, and without It was at this period that the Institution was any collision with the laws of the land. visited by a gospel minister from America, a na- As slavery originated in the spirit of gain, by tive of France, and thoroughly capable of enter- which alone it is still sustained, it is proposed to ing into all its interesting minutiæ. Upon him make use of the same agency to accomplish its the anointing oil was richly poured, and he had overthrow. It is generally conceded that the religious meetings with the various classes in the profit derived from the culture of cotton is the Asylum. The hearts of these dear children were chief support of slavery in America, and this deeply penetrated with the gospel truths he ut- being the most vulnerable point, is that towards tered. M. A. C. informed him of the request which the attack on the institution should be that had been made, for the closet as a place for directed; for whatever shall prove available in prayer; she also told him that Amanda had con- making slave labor unprofitable, must of course fessed a desire, that was raised in her heart, to cause the demand for that labor to cease.
It is instruct the young women, on her return to her proposed to accomplish this result by means of own country, in the truths of the gospel. Amanda the cultivation of cotton in Africa, with the use was introduced to the minister, who expressed of free labor. As the soil of Africa is much much sympathy with her, and strongly encour- more fertile than that of the United States, and aged her to abide under her religious impressions, is particularly adapted to the growth of cotton, telling her that two ministers of the Society of the advantages in its favor must be apparent to Friends, in England, were intending, in a few the most superficial observer; for not only can months, to pay a religious visit to the Grecian all the best varieties at present cultivated in the Isles, and probably they might conduct her there; United States, be more cheaply raised in West
ern or Central Africa, but there are several kinds, in Africa ; for it is not to be supposed that slaindigenous to that continent, of superior quality, very will continue long anywhere when it is found that have been highly approved in the English to be unprofitable. market. When it is remembered that this plant All the Bible arguments of southern theolois perennial in Africa, and produces very much gians, or the patriotic appeals of pro-slavery polimore than it does in America, where it must be ticians, will not avail to sustain an institution planted annually, the superiority of the former that occasions a clear loss to every individual over the latter will be very obvious; but in com- connected with it. Both slavery itself and its paring the cost of labor in the two countries, the adjunct, the fugitive slave law, will then be numdifference is still greater in favor of the free labor bered with the things that were. Instead of of Africa, over the slave labor of America. laws for the protection of this species of property,
To make this apparent to the most skeptical, we shall see, as John Randolph predicted, the it is only necessary to compare the value of slaves master running away from the slave. Succeedin Africa, with the market price of the same ing generations will read the history of the presclass of laborers in the United States. The fo- ent time, in constant wonder that such an instireign slave traders usually pay from ten to fifteen tuțion as human slavery could have existed so dollars for each slave, in trade-goods at an enor- long among a professedly Christian and enlightmous profit; so that the cash value of a good ened people, glorying in an eminent degree in field-hand may be safely estimated at from five to the republican principles of their government. ten dollars; while the same laborer in America Assuming, then, that the free labor of Africa would cost from five hundred to one thousand may be made available, if properly applied, to the dollars. This comparison shows the real differ- abolition of slavery in both countries, the quesence in the value of labor to be estimated in cal-tion will naturally arise, as to the best mode of culating the relative cost of the production of accomplishing so desirable an object, in the this important staple, the variation in the price shortest time possible; and also that the greatest of which so seriously affects our commercial pros- amount of good, as well as the chief profit, shall perity as to make the information respecting it result to the advantage of the entire African of the first importance on every arrival from Eu- race. rope. As this comparison, however, is only be- To this end, care should be taken that the tween slave labor in the two countries, and as the business of collecting, cleaning, pressing, and exobject of encouraging the increased production of porting the cotton, should not be monopolized cotton in Africa, is to liberate the bondman there either by English or American capitalists, nor by as well as here, some may be inclined to doubt any associations of white men, with even very whether the native African in a state of freedom philanthropic views in regard to the abolition of can be so stimulated by the love of gain and the slavery. The most suitable agents to promote hope of improving his condition, as to compete the success of the measure, whose exertions could successfully with the compulsory labor used here. be made to advance their own interest and that But it must be remembered how vast is the pop- of their posterity, while they were using the most ulation of Africa, and that the employment of effective measures for eradicating one of the even a very small part of it, for a few hours each greatest evils of the present age, are enterprising day, would give a greater amount of labor than colored men from the United States, properly that obtained by compulsion from the smaller educated, so as to be qualified for the work; and number in the United States. And when we who are capable of appreciating the immense take into view the difference in the cost of liv- benefits to the world, that must result from their ing, the exceeding productiveness of the soil, and labors. These men could form settlements on that much less clothing is required in that tropi- the whole Western coast of Africa, between the cal climate than with us, may we not reasonably parallels of 20 deg. north and 20 deg. south laticalculate from these facts, that cotton more than tude, which would include Upper and Lower equal to the whole product of the United States, Guinea and Gambia--selecting, of course, the can be obtained from the free sons of Africa in most eligible points on the coast, not already postheir native land, at less than one-half of its sessed by other powers, from whence they could present cost, while amply compensating the la-gradually extend themselves into the interior. borer and, at the same time, greatly improving They would thus be enabled to control the vast his condition in other respects? This plan is, and continually increasing commerce of a hitherto then, simply to make the immense profits at pres- unexplored region, comprising the larger and ent derived by the slave-trader from his iniqui- better portion of Central Africa-sufficient of ittous business, together with the great emolument self, with the improvements in cultivation natuaccruing to the planter in the United States from rally introduced by civilization, to form a large the unrequited labor of his slaves, both available and very lucrative portion of the commerce of the to the African himself. And the same process world. that thus benefits the free laborer, as a necessary The important results that must follow from consequence, liberates the bondman in America, the success of this scheme, cannot fail to strike and emancipates the uncounted millions of slaves I every one who will give it attention. The down
fall of American slavery is inevitable, and with or rest, the key of which is confided to the guide. it the whole system of servitude throughout the It was a quarter to five in the morning while the world; for with the great advantages thus shown party was engaged here in refreshment: accordthat Africa possesses for the cultivation of cotton ingly, they found it impossible to reach the sumover the more expensive lands and labor in mit soon enough to see the sun rise, and hastened America, is it to be doubted for a moment that to the brow of a neighboring hill for that it can be profitably raised at much less than one- purpose. half of the price it has commanded in the United From this eminence we could command an exStates, for many years past ?
C. tensive view of the Italian coast, having in the (To be continued.)
background the bold and varied outline of the
Calabrian mountains. Then, indeed, the cold WATSON'S ASCENT OF MOUNT ETNA. and fatigue of the night voyage were soon forThe following notice of the ascent of Mount gotten in the contemplation of this wonderful Etna, is extracted from the acount of “ A cruise sight. The usual precursors of sunrise, the gray in the Ægean,” performed in 1845 by Walter clouds, the red mist, and the golden halo, sue
cessively cleared away, and the glorious orb rose Watson, of London.
in cloudless majesty between the southernmost The ascent was made by our voyager, in com- peaks of the Apennines. As there is no twilight pany with the Captain and Surgeon of the ship, in this altitude, the greater part of the island while coasting the island of Sicily. They made was thus suddenly displayed before our gaze, their departure from Catania at five o'clock in except where the mountain still intercepted the the afternoon, in order to reach the summit by sun's rays. The deep shadow not finding space, daybreak next morning.
on account of its great length, to be contained It must be borne in mind that the ascension within the limits of the land, rested on the gray of this mountain must be made from the very sea-mist far away over the blue waves of the level of the sea, not, as in the ascent of Mount Mediterranean, where the vapory outline of the Blanc, from a valley situated at an altitude of mountain seemed to be bent upwards into the more than 3,000 feet, which is reached by a air. The increasing warmth rapidly dispersed gradual, almost imperceptible, change; and the the morning mist, and opened to us a panoramic keen, bracing air invigorates the traveller, who view, which, though far inferior to that seen has here to contend with the enervating effects from the crater, will yet-abundantly repay the toil of an Italian sun. In this extreme change of and expense incurred by any one who has had temperature, probably, consists the real danger the good fortune to ascend even thus far in fine of the excursion, and, as will be seen in the weather. The thermometer now stood at 45°, course of my narrative, it was most severely felt and the bracing air, which was delightfully reby our lamented friend, the captain ; indeed, I freshing, invigorated us for the toil of climbing question whether it was not, in some respects, the crater-in itself a small mountain rising to the remote cause of his premature death. the height of a thousand feet, and, as we found
In the darkness of the night they are depicted to our cost, more steep and difficult of access as making the ascent, advancing through the than all the rest of the volcano together, as far forest, without being able to distinguish a tree as we had to do with it. Seen from a little disfrom a mass of lava, while the wind whistled | tance, it appears almost perpendicular, such is through the trees and the keen air afflicted their the steepness of the side; and the work of assenses, with nothing to guide or guard them but cending is more than usually toilsome from the the instinct and sure-footedness of the mules, deep coating of soft ashes and scoriæ, where the who “ seemed to feel their way in the dark with foot sinks without gaining a firm foothold—for their hoofs, as the blind do with their hands." half the step forward is lost in slipping backFor two hours during the ascent our travellers wards again. I have accomplished many a steep slept on the backs of the faithful animals. Hav- climb in Switzerland, where at least every step ing arrived at the grotto Casa delle Neve, they was so much distance gained; but never enhalted, but soon mounted again. The road grew countered a task to be compared with this cruelly rougher, and the wind more piercing, as they deceptive hill, which, when we started, it seemed emerged from the “wooded” into the “ desert” a bare balf-hour's task to scale. The approach region. The cold completely benumbed the ex- to the crater from the house of refuge lies over 8 tremities, and strange visions visited each sleep- deep bed of lava, cracked and broken, and tumwaking, half-clairvoyant adventurer. The black-bled about in masses of every possible shape and ness of the ground they traversed sufficiently ac- dimension, as if the Cyclops had been wont to counted for the intense darkness which sur-empty in this place the refuse from this vast rounded them, though the cloudless sky above forge. This uncomfortable walk, where a false was bespangled with brilliant stars. bivouacked at “ La Casa Inglese," a rough, sub- at least, extends about a quarter of a mile, with
They step would infallibly be marked by a broken shin stantial building, about 40 feet by 12, consisting occasional beds of firm snow to revive one's of three rooms, and erected as a place of refuge courage and comfort the feet. We had not