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positive; when we are as certain as we are of any right to | by the hard contrasts of Caravaggio, when he adopted the use the words can and cannot, that there cannot be a limit style of that master. to either space or time? Those who examine the views of Stung by a contemptuous remark of Guido's upon a different writers on the first principles of science, see a great picture that he had painted, Spada determined to avenge variety of modes of expression on this point, but a uniform himself by opposing a bold and natural style to the delicale practical use of nothing more than the denial of finitude, and ideal style of Guido. He accordingly went to Rome accompanied by the mere expression of incapacity to attain and became the scholar of Caravaggio, who then, as the infinity ; resolutely coupled, in many cases, with a deter- rival of Cesari, was at the height of his reputation. Spada mination not to allow any words capable of expressing the accompanied Caravaggio to Malta, and returned to and absolute notion of infinity which actually is before the established himself at Bologna, master of a new style thoughts. Now it should be the object of elementary writ- much after the manner of Caravaggio; as bold as Caraing, while guarding the arenues to error which branch in vaggio's, but less vulgar, and softer and more barmonious. all directions from an improper use of the word infinite, to His design is natural, though not choice ; his chiaroscuro acknowledge the existence of the idea, and to make a gra- | powerful and rich; his colouring brilliant and true, thougir dual preparation for its correct and legitimate use. Both rather red in the shadows; but this may be the effect or infinitely
' : mall and infinitely great ought to become terms time, for Malvasia appears to have considered him unsurwhich may be employed without fear; and the student who passed as a colourist. has been trained to the natural and healthy use of all his Spada's works were much admired by Tiarini, with whom notions, will in the end succeed better than the one who has he painted in competition several times ; but some of his had some of them lied up from the beginning because they rivals in Bologna contemptuously styled him · La Scimia,' are somewhat difficult to use at first.
or the ape of Caravaggio. He however soon earned the As soon as an attempt is made to fetter one branch of reputation of being one of the best painters of his time, and thought, the effect is sure to be immediately felt in others. he received several orders for great works in Reggio, MoThe infinite divisibility of space is a truth of the same sort dena, Parma, and other neighbouring cities; and in conseas its infinite extension. Matter may not be divisible with quence of the successful execution of these works, Spada out end, and the truths of modern chemistry would seem to was appointed his court painter by Ranuccio, duke of show that there are ultimate particles inseparable by che- Parma: his fortune now equalled his reputation, and he mical, and still less by mechanical, means. But there is a spent the remainder of his life, which was however not a solvent which every one has it in his power to apply to long one, at the court of Ranuccio. He appears to have space; it is the intuitive conviction that every portion of it, been of a very humorous and satirical disposition (many however small, except that ultimate notion which is called a specimens of his humour are recorried by Malvasia), and point, is divisible inio parts, which are themselves divisible presuming upon the great esteem and friendship of the into parts; a process which may be continuerl without end. duke for him, he made himself much disliked by the courNow a person who trifles with the notion of infinite exten- tiers and nobles of Parma; and upon the sudden death of sion, and persuades himself that he has not the idea, will Ranuccio by apoplexy, Spada found himself deserted. probably end by denying infinite diminution: and as mo- This appears to have had a great effect upon his mind, and tion, however small it may be, requires the succession of although in the prime of life, he shortly followed the duke positions answering to an unlimited separation of the time to the grave. He died in 1622, in the 46th year of his age. of motion into parts, the next step will be to deny the infi- Spada superintended the decorations of the celebrated, nite divisibility of time, and the possibility of motion, as and at that time unrivalled, theatre of Parma. The genecommonly conceived. Change of place will be imagined to rality of his compositions are half-figures, of the natural be plıysically impossible, if it be asserted that between the size, after the manner of Caravaggio and Guercino. Holy first and last positions there have been an infinite number of Families by Spada are not rare in the galleries of Bologna others: and the mind will be driven, in order to avoid the and Lombardy; the Execution of John the Baptist was also notion of infinity, into a sort of opinion that motion is a very a favourite subject of his. His masterpiece is generally large (but finite) number of annihilations and re-creations; considered to be the great picture of San Domenico burnannihilation in one spot, and re-creation a little farther on, ing the proscribed books of the heretics, in the church of without anything intermediate. This is no imaginary case; that saint at Bologna. The following works also gained and it seems to us that when this theory of motion is once him great reputation :-The Miracle of St. Benedict, at attained, nature has taken a very proper revenge for the at the monastery of S. Michele in Bosco; a picture which so tempt to smother her conceptions.
pleased Sacchi when he saw it, that he took a sketch of it; The errors which arise from the improper use of the Susannah at the Bath, and the Return of the Prodigal notion of infinite lie mostly in the idea that all that is proved Son, at Modena; a Madonna, at Reggio; and a St. Jerome, of finite space or time must necessarily be true of the in- and a Martyrdom of a Saint, at Parma ; the two last pictures finite. · We pass over the error that all infinites must be are painted more in the style of the Caracci than any of his equal, as being that of the merest beginner; there are earlier works. Spada wrote verses, some specimens of enough remaining to claim great caution. The process which have been preserved by Malvasia. He left several adopied in the article INFINITE is perhaps the best way of scholars, and has had some imitators; Pietro Desani of habituating the young mind to the rigorous attainment of Bologna, and Orazio Talami and Sebastiano Vercellesi of results; provided only that the understanding is duly ap- Reggio, were the most distinguished. (Malvasia, Felsina prised that such a course of proceeding is not pursued be- Pittrice; Lanzi.) cause there is not infinity, but because there is, and because SPADIX, a form of the inflorescence of plants, in which the notion, though inevitable, is not easily used. The road the flowers are closely arranged around a thick tleshy axis need not be carried over any unsafe foundation, but that is and the whole surrounded by a large leaf or bract called a no reason why the quicksand and the marsh should be left spathe. The flowers of the Arum maculatum, cuckoo-pint, out of the map.
or wake-robin, are arranged in this manner. In this plant SPACES, in Music, the intervals between the five lines the central fleshy axis or rachis is much extended beyond forming the staff. (STAFF.]
the point on which the flowers are situated, forming a soft SPA'DA, LIONELLO, a distinguished painter, both in club-shaped mass, which is variously coloured. This is an fresco and in oil, of the early part of the seventeenth cen- instance of the same kind of development as occurs in the tury, and one of the best colourists of the Bolognese school. production of the spine at the growing point of the branch, He was born in Bologna, of very poor parents of the labour-only in the one it is soft and blunt, in ihe other it is hard ing class, in 1576. He was employed whilst a boy as a and sharp-pointed. This form of intlorescence is seen in colour-grinder by the Caracci; but through an observing all the plants belonging to the natural orders Araceæ and mind and an ambitious disposition, he was led himself to Acoraceæ. This term is also applied to the collection of attempt design, and incited to an endeavour to emulate the female flowers of the Zea Mays, common maize, and to the great works by which he was surrounded. He at first copied inflorescence of Palms. in the school of the Caracci, but afterwards became the SPAGNOLETTO. [RIBERA.] scholar of Baglione, and contracted a friendship with his SPAHIS (or rather Sipahis, froin the Persian sipar, fellow-scholar Dentone. From Dentone Spada learnt per- meaning a cavalry soldier), are a body of Turkish cavalry spective, and most probably acquired that correct taste and organized by Amurath I. (Múrad), who was also the founder true feeling for chiaroscuro for which his works are conspi- of the Janissaries. Their number varied according to circuous, and which prevented him from being carried away cumstances, but amounted sometimes to 20,000. They
enjoyed many privileges in common with the Janissaries. | if we except the wstuary of the river Nervion and the bay Their pay was twelve aspers a day, unless employed on spe- of Santander, neither of which is a spacious harbour. AN cial service, when they received a higher pay. They were the other indentations, which are rather numerous, are only composed of two classes ; the spahaoglari, who had red, and narrow inlets of no great length, which are used by small the silkhadar, who had yellow banners Those who held coasters. These inlets go by the naine of rias, as they fiefs from the sultan were called Timari-sipháhis. Their generally constitute the mouths of small rivers. The whole usual arms were a sabre, a lance, a jereed or dart about line is rocky, and the rocks nearly always approach the sea, two feet long, which they hurled with great dexterity and where they form a mural line varying in height between strength, and a second sabre, or rather broadsword, at- 30 and 300 feet. But with the exception of one or two tached to the saddle. Some of them had also a carabine places, the coast is free from rocks and islands, and the and one or two pistols. At one time they were the most water is deep up to the shore. The coast farther west, formidable body of cavalry in the Turkish army; but being between Punta de los Cairos and Cape Ortegal, preserves an undisciplined and unruly militia, they were, together the same character, except that the inleis which occur along with the Janissaries, dissolved by the last sultan Mahmud. this short distance are wider, and the headlands project
SPAIN (España), a country in Europe, occupying the farther. From Cape Ortegal to Cape Finisterre, and ihence greater part of that peninsula which is divided from France to the mouth of the Minho, the coast is less elevated, ihough by the mountain-range of the Pyrenees, from which cir- it is rocky, and the rocks come up to the beach. It is also cumstance it is sometimes called the Pyrenean Peninsula, very broken, and several headlands advance some miles into or brietly the Peninsula. It is situated beiween 36° and the sea, and some of the inlets enter several miles into the 43° 46' N. lat., and 2° 15' E. long. and 9° 10' W. long. land, and form spacious harbours. The most remarkable The most northern point is Cape Ortegal (43° 46' N. lat.), is the Bay of Betanzos, which divides into three inleis, and the most southern Tarifa (36° 2'). From its most which form the barbours of Ferrol, Betanzos, and La Coruña. north-western point, Cape Finisterre, to the most eastern, South of Cape Finisterre are four rather large bays, called Cape Creus, is a distance of nearly 600 miles ; from Tarifa Ria de Muros y. Noya, Ria de Arosa, Ria de Pontevidra, to Fuentarabia, near the boundary of France, on the Bay of and Ria de Vigo, all of which are deep and have good anBiscay, nearly 540 miles; and from Cape Ortegal to Cape chorage. Along this line of coast there occur several small de Gata, the most south-eastern promontory, about 556 rocky islands. miles. The area of Spain is stated by some authors to be The coast-line of the Atlantic, between the mouth of the nearly 190,000 square miles; but most probably it does not Guadiana and the Punta de Europa, is of a different characmuch exceed 185,000 square miles, being larger than that ter. From the hills on which ihe town of Ayamonte is of the British Islands by about one-half their extent, and built, at the mouth of the Guadiana, a low shore begins and not quite oue-tenth smaller than that of France.
extends eastward to the harbour of Huelva, which is formed Spain is washed on the east by the Mediterranean, and by the æstuary of the rivers Odiel and Tinto. The coaston the south by the narrow sea which connects the Mediter- line is well defined, but skirted by low and sandy islands. ranean with the Atlantic and terminates on the west in Between the harbour of Huelva and the mouth of the river the Strait of Gibraltar, and partly by the Atlantic. On the Guadalquivir the coast is extremely low, swampy, and west it is bounded by Portugal, and on the north-west by sandy. Even small vessels cannot approach the beach. the Atlantic. On the north is the Bay of Biscay and South of the mouth of the Guadalquivir the shores are France. Spain is divided from France by the mountain- again well defined, though low and occasionally swampy range of the Pyrenees, whose highest portion, constituting Approaching Cape Trafalgar, at Torre de Roche, the coast the watershed between the rivers which run south and begins to rise, and a moderately high shore runs along the north, forms the boundary between these two countries, northern side of the Strait of Gibraltar, and into the Bay of with the exception of the Vale of Arran, which contains the Algeciras to the town of that name. The remainder of the sources of the Garonne, and belongs to Spain, though bay has a low and sandy shore, with the exception of the situated on the northern declivity of the mountain-chain. rock on which Gibraltar stands. Towards the Bay of Biscay, where the Pyrenees sink down The coast of the Mediterranean froin Punta de Europa 10 into hills, a chain of heights which separates the basins of Cabo de Palos is in general elevated and rocky. The the rivers Niève and Bidasoa is a boundary, but for a few western portion, between the Strait and the mouth of the miles from the sea the boundary is formed by the course of river Guadalfeo near Motril, does not rise to a great heighi, the last-mentioned river. Spain bounds Portugal on the and occasionally sinks down nearly to the level of the sea. north and on the east. Along the northern line the boun- East of Motril the coast is generally very high, sometimes dary between Spain and Portugai is not marked by any several hundred feet, and there is no fiat along the sea. natural object, except that the river Minho separates both The road, which runs not far from the shore, passes from one countries for about 30 miles from its mouth. The western mountain to another, and descends only in a few places, boundary of Spain towards Portugal is generally more dis- where the mouths of the small rivers occur. This elevaierl tinctly marked. North of 41° N.lat it is formed by the coast extends to Cabo de Gala, and north of it to the town south-south-western course of the river Duero. Between of Moxacar. From Moxacar to Cabo de Palos the rocks the Duero and the Tajo, the two countries are separated by along the coast are of moderate elevation, and in a few the rivers Turones and Erjas, of which the former joins the places interrupted by tlats. This extensive line of rocky Duero, and the second the Tajo; and by the mountains coast has no indentations, and no harbour wbich vessels of in which these rivers rise, which belong to the Sierra de moderate size can enter, with the exception of the excellent Gata. The Tajo runs along the boundary for 30 miles as harbour of Cartagena and the harbour of Malaga; the far west as the mouth of the river Sever. The lower course latter is partly artificial. The open bay of Almeria, between of the Sever, and farther south a range of heights, separate Punta de Elena and Cabo de Gata, has good anchorage, Spain from Portugal between the Tajo and Guadiana. The but it is too much exposed to southern, south-eastern, and Guadiana runs along the boundary-line for nearly 30 miles south-western winds, and to the violent gales which someto 38° 30' N. lat., but farther south, as far as 37° 55', the times blow from the mountains that surround the bay. dividing-line traverses some ridges and valleys. Near 37° At Cabo de Palos a low and sandy coast begins, which 55' N. lat. the river Chanza, an affluent of the Guadiana, extends as far north as Cabo de Santa Pola, a short distance begins to separate the two countries, and continues to be south of Alicante. It has no harbours even for small vesthe boundary to its confluence with the Guadiana, which sels or large boats, though it is intersected by several then separates Andalusia from Algarve.
creeks, which in some places form small lagoons. Near Coasi.-The coast-line of Spain, without taking into ac- Cabo de Palos is the large lagoon of Encañizada de Murcount the numerous small inlets, is 1370 miles, of which cia, which is very shallow. From Cabo de Santa Pola to 602 are washed by the Atlantic and 768 by the Mediter- Villajoyosa the coast-line is generally low, but rocky, anu
The coast between the boundary of France and in some places the ridges, which traverse the adjacent the mouth of the river Minho is 478 miles, and that between country, terminate on the sea with steep bills of small exthe Guadiana and the Punta de Europa, the most southern tent and moderate elevation. From Villajoyosa to Denia point of the tongue of land on which Gibraltar stands, is the coast is almost without exception rocky and high, but 124 miles.
does not rise to a great elevation. Between Cabo de Palos The northern coast of Spain, from the boundary of and Denia there is no harbour, except that of Alicante. France to the Punta de los Cairos (7° 15' W. long.), runs From Denia to the mouth of the Ebro the coast is low fearly in a continuous line, without any considerable break, I and sandy. North of Castellon de la Plana a few low ridges
terminate on the sea, forming a moderately high shore. a narrow glen, in which the river Navia descends to the This coast line has no harbours even for vessels of mode- Bay of Biscay. For about 40 miles the range runs northrate size; and Grao, the port of Valencia, is only a bad ward, until it approaches the Bay of Biscay within about roadstead. Along this low coast there are many small | 12 miles, when it again turns westward, and after having lagoons, called albuferas. The largest is Albufera de Va- run about 20 miles in that direction, turns southward, dilencia, noted for the great quantity of salt which is male viding the basin of the upper Minho from the lower counon its banku. South of the mouth of the Ebro is the Puerto try which lies to the west of it. The elevation of this chain de los Alfaques, which can only be entered by vessels not is not known, but from the cold climate of the upper valley drawing more than 15 feet.
of the Minho, it may be inferred to be 6000 feet above the From the mouth of the Ebro to the boundary of France sea-level. Near the town of Orense the mountain-chain the coast is alternately high and low, and both the low and terminales, or rather, there is a depression through which the high shores generally continue for many miles. The the Minho flows; for on the east of the river rises another coast however does noi rise to a great elevation, except at ridge, the Sierra de S. Mamed, which runs east-south-east, Cape Creus, and thence 10 the boundary-line. In this part and soon attains a considerable elevation, 7710 feet abore there occur several harbours for small vessels; and two are the sea-level. This chain continues east-south-east until deep enough for large ships, Barcelona and Rosas. The it approaches the Duero, where it begins to form the bounGulf of Rosas is an excellent barbour, but is very little dary between Spain and Poriugal. At this point it is used, as the neighbouring country is only partially culti- connected with the Serra de Roboreda, which lies within vated. The small harbour of Salou, which is the port of Portugal, and extends, parallel to the course of the Duero, Reus, is only fit for small ressels.
to the point where the river turns to the west. Surface and Natural Divisions.--Spain presents greater The high grounds which divide the table-land from the and more marked differences in the form of its surface basin of the Ebro cannot be considered as a mountain-ridge than any other country of Europe of equal extent. The in all their extent. Towards the western extremity of the interior is an elevated table-land, whose surface is from 2000 river-basin, between the Sierra de Sejos and the great road to 3000 feet above the sea-level. Though situated at the which leads from France to Madrid, no mountain-range western extremity of Europe, and near the sea, which sur- divides it from the table-land. East of the road and of the rounds that part of the world, its elevation is higher than town of Burgos rises the Sierra de Oca, which attains the that of any oi her table-land of Europe. The elevated plains elevation of 1980 feet, or about 2000 feet above the adjawhich surround the northern base of the Alps are only be- cent parts of the table-land. It extends from west-northtween 1000 and 1300 feet above the sea-level, and are about west to east-south-east, and is followed by the Sierra de 700 feet lower than the lowest part of the table-land of Cameros, whose highest summit, the Pico de Urbion, is Castile, as that of Spain is called. The table-land compre- 7200 feet above the sea-level. Contiguous to it, and in the hends nearly the wbole country which lies between 38° and same direction, is the Sierra de Moncayo, which rises to 43° N. lat., and extends from near lo to near 8° W. long. 9600 feet at its eastern termination near 2° W. long. Froin It does not advance to the sea, but on the north an, west it this point the edge of the table-land is less marked. It ruus is divided from the Bay of Biscay and the Atlantic by a to the river Xalon, which it crosses near Calatayud, and comparatively narrow tract of mountainous country. Nor afterwards in a south-eastern direction along ihe high does it extend to the base of the Pyrenees, being separated grounds which form the right bank of the river Xiloca, from them by the basin of the river Ebro. Between the table- which gradually rise into mountains near the town of Montland and the Mediterranean there is also a lower country, alban, whence the mountain-chain continues to the boundary which in some parts is hilly and even mountainous, and in between Aragon and Valencia, where the Sierra de Peñaothers extends in wide plains. South of the table-land is golosa attains 6000 feet. From this summit the edge of the the basin of the river Guadalquivir, by which the table-land iable-land runs southward along the elevated ridge which is separated from another more elevated and more moun- extends east of the river Turia or Guadalaviar. It crosses tainous region, that of the Sierra Nevada, which extends this river north of Requena, and afterwards the river over the southern part of Spain along the Mediterranean Xucar below its confluence with the Cabriel, and then conand the Strait of Gibraltar. Thus Spain contains six great tinues southward, leaving the town of Almansa to the west, natural divisions--the Table-land, the Northern and West- to the vicinity of Villena. South of the Xucar the edge of ern Maritime region, the Basin of the Ebro, the Eastern the table-land is not marked by a continuous ridge, though Declivity, the Basin of the Guadalquivir, and the Mountain some isolated mountains occur along it. Near Villena is Region of the Sierra Nevada.
the Sierra del Carache, which runs first south-west, and I. The Table-land comprehends the eastern districts of afterwards north-west, to the neighbourhood of Albacete Galicia, the whole of the kingdom of Leon, that of Old 139° N. lat. and 1° 55' W. long.). "The Sierra del Carache Castile, with the exception of about one-fourth of its arca seems to rise
ly a litile above ihe table-land, but it presents which lies in the basin of the Ebro and along the Bay of a considerable ascent from the deep valley of the Segura, and Biscay, the whole of New Castile and Estremadura, the that of the Mundo, a tributary of the Segura. south-western districts of Aragon, and the northern districts Along the southern border of the table-land extends that of Murcia. According to a rough estimate it extends over range, or rather mountain region, which is called Sierra a surface of about 92,000 square miles, or over nearly one- Morena. It begins on the east, a short distance west of half of the area of Spain.
Albacete, with two ridges which run south-west, including The table-land is nearly surrounded by mountains. Along the narrow valley of the river Guadarmena, and are called its northern edge rise wiih a steep ascent the mountains of Sierra de Alcaraz. From the western of these ridges the Asturias, which in elevation nearly rival the Pyrenees, but mountain region extends westward to the boundary of Poroccupy a smaller extent of country. That part of the Montes rugal. It consists of a great number of short ridges, running de Asturias which is at the source of the Ebro is called south-west towards the east, and south-east iowards the Sierra de Sejos, and attains an elevation of 5700 feet above west. These ridges, which enclose very narrow valleys, are
Farther west the elevation increases. The Sierra connected by other ridges, lying frequently along their d'Alba, situated where the boundaries of Old Castile, Leon, northern extremityor close to the extremity of the table-land, and Asturias meet, rises to 6960 feet, and the Sierra de Pa- but sometimes also in the middle of the mountain region. jares, farther west, to 8628 feet. At the mountain-kuot Towards the east the Sierra Morena does not occupy more which occurs near the sources of the river Sil (near 6° 20' than 30 or 40 miles in width; but in proceeding westward it W. long.) the chain attairfs its highest elevation, one of the grows wider, and near the boundary of Portugal it is about summits, the Sierra de Peñaranda, rising to 11,000 feet, 80 miles across. Some of the ridges advance a considerable and far above the snow-line. This mountain is only about distance into the basin of the Guadalquivir. At its western 600 feet lower than the Pico de Mulhacen, the highest extremity one of its branches extends southward along the summit of the Sierra Nevada, and only 300 feet lower than river Chanza and the lower course of the Guadiana, termithe Pico de Neton, the highest summit of the Pyrenees. nating near the sea in the hill on which the town of West of thi large mountain-mass the chain lowers, but Ayamonte is built. North-east of that place is a sumrait apparently not much, for the Sierra de Peñamarela, which called Monte Gordo, which is 2235 feet above the sea. This lies near 7° W. long., is 9450 feet above the sca-level. So is the only summit of the Sierra Morena wliose elevation far the direction of the chain is from east to west, or nearly has been determined by actual measurement. The dilliculty so, but in this part of the runge the highest edge of the which is encountered in traversing these mountains, and mommans runs south-west, but soon turns north, enclosing, which is obietly if not entirely to be a tributed to the
oreadth and the steepness of the ridges, led to the opinion | Madrid, the level sinks down to about 2500 feet above the that the general level must be at least 6000 feet above the sea; Burgos, which is on a hill, being 2873 feet. On the sea-level; but this supposition is not consistent with what north of the river Duero the plain is nearly a level, here we know of the climate, as few parts are covered with snow and there interspersed with small groups of low detached more than three months.
hilis. The country is not fertile. The lower tracts are enOther mountain-ranges occur on the table-land itself. tirely destitute of trees, and generally even of bushes. The One of them constitutes a continuous range, traversing the hills are partly overgrown with light thin woods and numeplaiu in all its extent from east to west. It begins on the rous low bushes. The woods consist almost exclusively of east near the high summit of the Sierra de Moncayo, and evergreen oaks and a kind of cistus. On the hills there are runs, under the name of Sierra de Deza, south-west until it small miserable villages at a great distance from one anapproaches 44° N. lat., when it turns to the west north of other; they are surrounded by a few vineyards and cornthe town of Siguenza. In this direction it continues to the fields. Farther west, along the road which connects Segovia place where it is crossed by the road leading from France to with Valladolid and Valladolid with Palencia, the soil imMadrid. The mountain-pass through which this road runs proves and cultivation increases. The level of the plain is 4950 feet above the sea, and this may be considered as does not seem to be lower, but the rivers, having descende the mean elevation of the Somasierra, as the range here is deeper, have excavated beds from 2 to 4 miles wide, which called. From this pass the range runs south-west, and is are from 100 to 200 feet below the general level, which is as called the Sierra de Guadarama. The mean elevation of dat as a table, and covered with heath, nor is the view inthis part of the range does not seem greater than that of the tercepted by any tree. These elevated Hats are without Somasierra, as the mountain-pass from Madrid to Segovia, cultivation, and only used as pasture-ground for goats and in its highest point, is only 4657 feet above the sea; but sheep. But the valleys which extend along the beds of the not far from it stands the Sierra de Peñalara, whose summit rivers possess a considerable degree of fertility, and produce attains 7756 feet. The continuation of the Sierra de Gua- all kinds of grain; and the slopes of the higher grounds are darama is called Sierra de Avila, the branches of which well stocked with trees and vines. The soil consists of a enclose the small plain on which the town of Avila is built, mixture of clay and sand. Towards the boundary-line of 3485 feet above the sea. West of Avila the range makes a Portugal the higher grounds which divide the valleys along bend to the south, encircling the upper course of the river the rivers are not quite level, but extend in gently sloping Tormes, an affluent of the Duero. At the southern ex- plains. These plains are likewise destitute of trees; but the tremity of this bend the range attains the greatest elevation, soil, being more retentive of moisture, is more feriile; and the Sierra de Gredos rising to 10,548 feet, and considerably even the higher grounds are here sown with wheat, rye, above the snow-line. After the range has resumed its barley, and Indian corn. This part of the plain is rather south-western direction it is called Sierra de Gata, and thickly inhabited, and villages occur at short distances from enters Portugal, where it again attains a considerable ele- one another. vaton in the Sierra d'Estrella, and continues to the shores of The Table-land of New Castile and Estremadura comthe Atlantic Ocean, where it terminates with the Cabo da prehends these two kingdoms, with the south-western Roca, west of Lisbon. The table land is divided by the districts of Aragon and the northern part of Murcia. The mountain-range just mentioned into two parts, which do not surface is much more diversified by hills and mountains differ much in extent. That portion which lies north of it than that of the northern plain. The mountain-chains are is called the table-land of Old Castile and Leon, and con- of considerable extent, but they do not form continuous tains about 44,000 square miles. The other part south of ranges, being interrupted by several depressions, which the range is called the table-land of New Castile and Estre- sink nearly to the level of the country. In the eastern madura, and contains about 48,000 square miles.
districts of the table-land is the Sierra Molina, which begins Table-land of Old Castile and Leon.—The north-western north-west of the town of that name, and south of the concoruer of this region is a mountainous country, which extends fluence of the Xiloca with the Xalon, in 41° N. lat. and over the eastern districts of Galicia. The mountain-range, 1° 30' W. long. It does not appear to be connecied with which separates it from the plain to the east of it, is con the Sierra de Deza by a mountain-ridge, but only by high nected on the north with the mountain-knot of the Sierra ground. The Sierra de Molina runs southward, and does de Peñaranda, and on the south joins the Sierra de Segun- not rise much more than 2000 feet above the general level dera, which is part of the Sierra de S. Mamed. This range of the country in the northern parts. The road from Molina is called, at least in its greatest exient, Sierra de los Cille- to Teruel rises on the Sierra de Menara to 4333 feet above ros. Its mean elevation probably does not much fall short the sea-level. Farther south it rises still somewhat higher. of 6000 feet. The country between the Sierra de los Cille- Where the rivers Tajo and Turia originate, it is from 4500 ros and the southern prolongation of the Montes de Asturias to 4600 feet high, and at this place it sends off a branch, the comprehends the valleys of The rivers Minho and Sil before Sierra de Albaracin, which runs south-east between the their confluence. It is a very elevated country. The Turia on the east and the Xucar on the west, and extends winters are cold, and the frost usually lasts for three months, to the edge of the table-land, near the town of Requena. sometimes without interruption. These facts lead to the This ridge rises to a great height, but its elevation has not conclusion that the higher districts of the valleys are not been determined. From the sources of the Tajo the Sierra less than 4000 feet, and the lower at least 3000 feet above de Molina runs south-west, but near 40° S. lat., west of the the sea-level. The valleys are, with a few exceptions, rather town of Cuenca, it turns again to the south, and soon subnarrow; but the hills, which are contiguous to the level sides into hills, which are slightly elevated above the level grounds, have generally a gentle slope, so that they admit of the country. The Sierra de Molina is of very inconsiof cultivation to a considerable distance up the declivities. derable width, but it constitutes the watershed between They do not rise so high as the mountains which enclose the rivers which fall into the Mediterranean and those that this region. Those parts of the bills which cannot be culli- run to the Atlantic. vated are used as pasture-grounds for cattle, sheep, and West of Cuenga a ridge of low mountains branches off goats. But many large tracts are covered with forests, and from the Sierra de Molina, and runs westward, dividing the the dockyards of Ferrol are chietly provided with timber upper branches of the Tajo from those of the Guadiana. It from these mountains. The valleys are not adapted to the terminates probably near Tarrancon, east of Aranjuez. In cultivation of maize, but wheat, barley, and tlax succeed our maps this range is continued south-west, and afterwards well. Chesnut and walnut trees are very numerous. This west to the Sierra de Toledo, but this appears to be incorregion contains about 7600 square miles, and is nearly equal rect. The two great roads from Madrid to Manzanares and to Wales in extent.
from Toledo to Ciudad Real traverse this tract, but traThe remainder of the table-land of Old Castile and Leon vellers who have gone over it do noi mention having passed is a plain which extends over the greater part of these two or even seen a range of mountains, though they speak of tingdoms, and contains about 36,400 square miles. The having crossed some broken ground risirig into hills. eastern portion of the plain, between the Sierra de Moncayo | No mountain-range therefore exists between these two on the north and the Sierras of Deza and Somasierra or roads or in their vicinity; and the watershed between the the south, is probably not less than 3000 feet above the sea- | Tajo and Guadiana is only formed by high ground broken level. The surface is rather hilly, and the soil partly stony into steep hills. The Sierra de Toledo seems to rise west 0. and partly sandy; its fertility raiher indifferent, and large 4° W. long., and to extend to 5o W. long., running east and tracts are quite unfit for cultivation. Farther west, where west; but we are very imperfecily acquainted wish this the plain is crossed by the road leading from Burgos to ridge. It does not appear to occupy a great width, nor to
rise more than 1000 feet above the plain. It is not traversed | without the least injury in the open air. The productive by any road. Near 5° W. long. it sinks down to the level powers of this region differ greatly in different parts. In of the plain, but another range rises out of it, called the the districts north of the Tajo there are wide valleys, conSierra de Guadalupe, which extends westward to the boun, taining much level ground, between the ridges of the Sierra dary of Portugal, and enters that kingdom, where it is called de Gata ; they have a rich soil, are well cultivated, and yield Sierra de Portalegre. The Sierra del Guadalupe resembles good crops. The hilly tract between the Tajo and Guathe Sierra Morena more than the mountains of Toledo. It diana is nearly a desert. The summits of the ridges are consists of a number of narrow steep ridges, whose general bare; their slopes are clothed with forests of the evergreen direction is north-east or north-west, and they are some oak, but the lower parts are destitute eren of bushes. They times connected by other ridges running east and west, but are never cultivated, but preserved as the pasture-grounds frequently unconnected, and separated by flats. These flats of the merino sheep in winter. The cultivated spots are or valleys are commonly much wider than in the Sierra only found in the narrower valleys, and they are few and of Morena, and hence this mountain-tract does not oppose so small extent, even in the level country on the banks of the many obstacles to travelling. The width of this region is Guadiana, between Merida and Badajoz. To the south of considerable, as it fills nearly the whole tract between the the Guadiana the country improves. "At no great distance rivers Tajo and Guadiana, west of 5° W. long. None of the from the river are plantations of olive-trees, which increase summits attain a great elevation above the level of the in number as we proceed up the valleys of the Sierra country.
Morena. Some level tracts of considerable extent and The eastern portion of the table-land of New Castile and great fertility are enclosed by the ridges, as at Llerena, Estremadura, comprehending the province of Cuença, the Zafra, and Jerez. northern districts of Murcia, and the adjacent countries, is Rain is comparatively scarce on the table-land of Spain. the highest part of the table-land, and about 3000 feet above It is stated that the annual quantity on an average does not the level of the sea. The surface is very uneven, with amount to more than 10 inches, which is partly to be asthe exception of the higher ground between the river-basins, cribed 10 the elevation of the more level part of the tablewhich in some places extends in plains, and in others is land, and partly to the circumstance that it is in most parts diversified by numerous hills or low ridges. A very small bounded by mountains which rise considerably above the portion of this region, which lies in the valleys along the general level of ihe plain, and prevent the moisture from rivers, and in some depressions of the plain, is under culti- reaching the Hat country. The rain generally falls in the vation; the remainder has rather a sterile and very dry soil, winter, and only a few slowers occur in other seasons. and is either quite useless or only used as sheep-walks, The least quantity of rain falls in the mouniain region of sheep constituting the principal wealth of the inhabitants. the Sierra de Guadalupe, and on the high plains of Cuenca In some places wheat is cultivated, and in others there are and Murcia, where sometimes eight or nine months pass tracts planted with vines and olive-trees. Saffron is rather without a drop falling. To this scarcity of rain the want of extensively grown. Fruit-trees are abundant in the lower cultivation is chietly to be attributed which is observed in tracts. The higher grounds are quite destitute of wood, and the two last-mentioned regions. In summer excessive heat, covered with heath and odoriferous plants, on which nume- and in winter a great degree of cold, are experienced. Thougii rous bees feed. Wax and honey are sent to other parts of Madrid is 10° south of London, the mean annual temperature Spain, and also wool of an inferior quality.
of the winter at Madrid is 43.70, or only 4° higher than at LonThe central region of the table-land is between 3° and 5° don. But during every winter a degree of cold is experienced W. long. It consists of two plains, the Plain of Madrid and for some days which is very rare in London. In 1830 the therToledo, which lies north of the mountains of Toledo, and mometer sunk to 9:5° Fabr., and a great quantity of snow the high broken ground which forms the watershed between fell. Every year for several nights the thermometer falls the rivers Tajo and Guadiana ; and the Plain of La Mancha, several degrees below 32" and the rivers are covered with which lies to the south. These two plains are about 2000 ice, though it generally disappears in the day. The mean feet above the sea-level. According to Bauza, Madrid is temperaiure of the three summer monthis is 76•2°, or 150 2222 feet and Toledo 1868 feet above it. In the plain of higher than in London. But during the south-eastern La Mancha the town of Val de Peñas is 2119, and that of wind, which is called the soluno, the thermometer freVillaria 1947 feet above the sea level. The productive quently rises to 90° and even 100°. With the exception of powers and the surface of these two plains are nearly the the injurious effects of such changes in the temperature, the same. The country consists of extensive levels, intersected climate of the table-land is very healthy. by short ridges of low hills and rocks. It is destitute of II. The Maritime region of ihe Atlantic and Bay of Bistrees, except some groves of evergreen oak, which are cay surrounds the table-land on the north-west and north, found near the hills, and plantations of olive-trees and vines and contains the western districts of Galicia, the province near the villages. The villages are large and well built, of Asturias, and the northern portion of Old Castile. Thai buc at great distances from one another. The level tracts portion which lies south of Cape Ortegal is hardly more than vetween them produce wheat, but as part of these tracts 40 miles in width, and is traversed by numerous ridges, are at a great distance from the villages, in which alone the which have usually gentle slopes, so as to admit of cultivafarms are situated, a large portion of them is badly culti- tion to a considerable distance from their base. Their sumvated, and some tracts are partly overgrown with broom mits are crowned with forests. The lower country, wbien and the flax-leaved daphne (Daphne Gnidium). The crops about Santiago de Compostella stretches out in extensive however are tolerably good. The best cultivated and richest plains, is tolerably fertile and well cultivated. The farmers part of the plain is that which lies along the southern base live in single farms dispersed over the country. The climate of the Sierra de Guadarama, where the soil is a rich clay, is wet. Besides the cultivation of the common kinds of and the country presents a succession of vineyards, olive- grain, great attention is paid to vines and fruit-trees, among plantations, and excellent pastures, with numerous corn- , which the chesnut plantations occupy large tracts, and the fields. The farmers of this tract are more wealthy than chesnuts furnish the ordinary food of the poorer classes. those of other districts in Spain.
The heat of the summer is moderate, and ihe winters far The western portion of the table-land of New Castile and from being severe, except when the gullegos, or north winds, Estremadura comprehends the country from 5° W. long. to blow, but they are not of long duration. the boundary of Portugal, or the province of Estremadura.
The country between Cape Ortegal and Cape Ajo is This country has a very mountainous surface. The ridges of a different character. The Montañas de Asturias, of the Sierra de Guadalupe cover nearly ail the country be- which descend southward to the plain of Old Castile and tween the Tajo and the Guadiana. North of the Tajo Leon with a very rapid slope, decline towards the north several tfsets of the Sierra de Gata traverse the country in in long ridges, which grow lower as they approach the Bay a south-western direction. South of the Guadiana several of Biscay. In the vicinity of the principal range these branches of the Sierra Morena advance within a short dis- lateral ridges are too steep and too high to be cultivated, and tance of the river. Plains of some extent occur only along are only used as pasture-ground for cattle and goats: a conthe banks of the principal rivers. They are small on the siderable part of them is covered with forests. Towards the banks of the Tajo, but rather extensive on those of the sea the ridges are lower and their declivities less steep, and Guadiana. The general level of the country is lower than here cultivation has ascended to some distance froni ibeir in the piains farther east, as we may infer from the circum- base. The valleys which lie between these ridges are nar Atance that snow and frost are not common in the Sierra de row and elevated near the great chain, but they grow wider Guadalupo, in which the merino sleep pass the winter towards the sea. They have a tolerably fertile soil, and ar