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and the wood, The covert of old trees, with trunks all hoar, But light leaves, young as joy, stands where it stood, Offering to him and his a populous solitude. Byron. Childe Harold.

Hoan-FRost, according to many Cartesians, is formed of a cloud, and either congealed in the cloud, and so let fall, or ready to be congealed as soon as it arrives at the earth. Hoarfrost, M. Regis observes, consists of an assemblage of little parcels of ice crystals, which are of various figures, according to the different dispositions of the vapors when condensed by the cold.

HOARD, n.s., v. a, & v. n. Saxon hono;

Hoard'ER, n.s. Teutonic hord, a treasure. A store laid up in secret; a hidden stock; a treasure: to lay up in store; to store or preserve secretly: sometimes it is enforced by the particle up.

Ful riche was his tresour and his hord, For which ful fast his counter dore he shet. Chaucer. The Shipmannes Tale.

He feared not once himself to be in need,

Nor cared to hoard for those whom he did breed.

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because they understand Chaucer, would hoard him up as misers do their grandam gold, only to look on it themselves, and hinder others from making use of it. Id. Since commodities will be raised, this alteration will be an advantage to nobody but hoarders of money. Locke. They might have even starved, had it not been for this providential reserve, this hoard, that was stowed in the strata underneath, and now seasonably disclosed. Woodward. A superfluous abundance tempts us to forget God, when it is hoarded in our treasures, or considered as a safe, independent provision laid up for many years. ers. You will be unsuccessful, if you give out of a great man, who is remarkable for his frugality for the pubtick, that he squanders away the nation's money; but you may safely relate that he hoards it. Arbuthnot's Art of Political Lying. HOARE (William), was born in the year 1707, of respectable parents, at Eye in Suffolk, and received the advantages of education in a school at that time of high repute for classical instruction. He discovered an early disposition for painting; and, after he left school, his father carried him to London, and placed him under

the tuition of Grisoni, an Italian painter. From the skill of Grisoni the scholar could derive little profit; but it is probable that from his conversation he imbibed that ardent desire of visiting the works of the Italian masters, which prompted him to set the example of a system afterwards pursued with so much avidity and success by most of our young students in painting. The name of William Hoare stands first on the list of those English painters who have resorted to Italy, with a view to professional improvement. Arriving at Rome, he placed himself in the school of Francisco Imperiali, and was the fellow pupil of Pompeio Battoni. During a residence of nine years in Italy he made numerous copies of the historical works of the great masters, and he returned to England filled with visionary hopes, and an ardent love of his profession, which did not desert him even at the latest period of an extended life. Finding himself a stranger in London, and without the means of rendering his talents known, he accepted an invitation from some of his friends who resided at Bath, in Somersetshire, and there found such constant employment in painting portraits, that he was induced to settle in that city. From the study of Rosalba's pictures, he added the practice of crayons to that of oil-painting, and carried it to a degree of excellence second only to the powers of that celebrated paintress. He maintained at Bath a very high character as a portrait painter. He gave to the altar of St. Michael's church, at Bath, a figure of our Saviour, as large as life; and afterwards painted for the octagon chapel, in that city, an historical composition, representing “The Miracle at the Pool of Bethesda.” These exertions procured him commissions for a few historical pictures, the principal merit of which consists in the display of an elegant taste, and faithful study of nature. Residing at a distance from the metropolis, where the competition of younger artists was continually accelerating the advance of English art, he retained to the last the style which he had adopted in the Italian school. His most celebrated portrait in oil is a half-length of William Pitt, the first earl of Chatham. On the formation of the Royal Academy he was elected one of the original members, and was a constant exhibitor for many years. He died at Bath in 1792. HOARHOUND, Lat. marrubium. A plant. Hoarhound has its leaves and flower-cup covered very thick with a white hoariness: it is famous for the relief it gives in moist asthmas, of which a thick

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The raven himself is hourse, That croaks the fatal entrance of Duncan Under my battlements. Id. Macbeth. I oft have heard him say, how he admired Men of your large profession that could speak To every cause, and things mere contraries Till they were hoarse again, yet all be law. Ben Jonson. The voice is sometimes intercluded by an hoarseness, or viscous phlegm. Holder. I had a voice in heaven, ere sulph'rous steams Had damped it to a hoarseness. Dryden. King Arthur. The bounds at nearer distance hoarsely bayed; The hunter close pursued the visionary maid. - Dryden. The want of it in the wind-pipe occasions hoarsenets in the gullet, and difficulty of swallowing. Arbuthnot on Aliments. HoAaseness is a diminution or temporary loss of the voice, sometimes attended with a preternatural asperity or roughness of utterance. The parts affected are the trachea and larynx. It is occasioned by a slight inflammation of the mucous membrane covering those parts; and is relieved by mucilaginous linctuses; warm diluting drinks, such as bran-tea, linseed-tea, &c.; assisted by opiates and sudorific medicines taken at bed-time. HOBBES (Thomas), born at Malmsbury in 1588, was the son of a clergyman. He completed his studies at Oxford, and being afterwards patronized by the Devonshire family, attended one of the sons in his travels through France and Italy, during which he translated Thucydides. In 1626 his patron the earl of Devonshire died; and in 1628 his son died also. In 1631 the countess dowager of Devonshire desired to put the young earl under his care, who was then about the age of thirteen. In 1634 he re-published his translation of Thucydides, which he had previously given to the world in 1628. The same year he accompanied his noble pupil to Paris, where he applied his vacant hours to the study of natural philosophy. From Paris he attended his pupil into Italy, where at Pisa he became known to Galileo, soon after which he returned with the earl of Devonshire into England. Afterwards, foreseeing the civil wars, he went to seek a retreat at Paris; where he became intimate with the famous Des Cartes, with whom he afterwards kept up a correspondence upon several mathematical subjects, as appears from his letters published in Des Cartes's works. In 1642 Mr. Hobbes first printed a few copies of his book De Cive, which, in proportion as it became known, raised him many adversaries, who charged him with instilling principles of a dangerous tendency. While in France Sir Charles Cavendish, brother to the duke of Newcastle, proved a constant friend and patron to Mr. Hobbes; who, by engaging, in 1645, in a controversy about squaring the circle, became so famous, that in 1647 he was recommended to instruct Charles II. in mathematics. In 1647 was printed in Holland, by M. Sorbiere, a more complete edition of his De Cive; to which are prefixed two Latin letters to the editors by Gassendi, and F. Mersenne, in

commendation of it: and in 1650 was published at London a small treatise of Mr. Hobbes's, entitled Human Nature; and another, De Corpore Politico. All this time he had been digesting his religious, political, and moral principles, into a complete system, called the Leviathan, which was printed at London in 1650 and 1651. In 1660, upon the Restoration, he came up to London, where he obtained from the king an annual pension of £100. But in 1666 his Le: viathan, and his treatise De Cive, were censured by Parliament; which alarmed him very much, as did also a bill brought into the house of commons to punish atheism and profaneness. . In 1669 he was visited by Cosmo de Medicis, afterwards duke of Tuscany, who gave him *. marks of his esteem; and having received his icture, and a complete collection of his writings, caused them to be deposited among his curiosities, in the library at Florence. He was also visited by foreign ambassadors and other strangers, who were curious to see a person whose opinions had been so widely celebrated. In 1672 he wrote his own Life in Latin verse, when he had completed his eighty-fourth year; and in 1674 he published a poetical English version of the four books of Homer's Odyssey; which were so well received, that he translated the whole Iliad and Odyssey, which he likewise published in 1675. About this time he went to spend the remainder of his days in Derbyshire: where, notwithstanding his advanced age, he published several pieces, to be found in his works. He died in 1679, aged ninety-two. In his last sickness his frequent questions were, whether his disease was curable 2 and when intimations were given that he might have ease, but no remedy, he said, ‘I shall be glad to find a hole to creep out of the world at; ' which are reported to have been his last sensible words. Hobbes's style is incomparably better than that of any other writer in the reign of Charles I. “He has in translation,’ says Granger, “done Thucydides as much justice as he has done injury to Homer. But he was for striking out new paths in science, government, and religion; and for removing the land-marks of former ages. His ethics have a strong tendency to corrupt our morals, and his politics to destroy that liberty which is the birth-right of every human creature. He is commonly represented as a sceptic in religion, and dogmatist in philosophy; but he was a dogmatist in both. e main principles of his Leviathan are as little founded on moral or evangelical truths, as the rules he has laid down for squaring the circle are in mathematical demonstration. His book on human nature is esteemed the best of his works.’ HOBBIMA (Minderhout), an eminent landscape painter, born about 1611 at Antwerp. He studied entirely after nature, and his choice was exceedingly picturesque. He was particularly fond of describing slopes diversified with shrubs, plants, or trees, which conduct the eye to some building, ruin, grove, or piece of water, and frequently to a delicate remote distance. The figures which he designed are but indifferent. Conscious of his inability in that respect, he admitted but few figures into his designs, and usually placed them somewhat removed from the immediate view at a prudent distance from the front line. However, most of his pictures were supplied with figures by Ostade, Teniers, and other famous masters, which gave them a great additional value. They are very scarce. HOB'BLE, v. n. & n.s. Hob'BLER, n.s.

Gothic hoppe, a horse; Fr. hobin, a Hob'BLINGLY, adv. acing horse. An Hob'BY, n.s. rish or Scottish horse; a pacing horse; a garran: to walk lamely or awkwardly upon one leg more than the other; to hitch; to walk with unequal and encumbered steps; to move roughly or unevenly: hence an uneven awkward gait. Feet being ascribed to verses, whatever is done with feet is likewise ascribed to them. Hobblingly in its literal and figurative acceptation is clumsily, aukwardly, with halting gait: hobby the name of a small pony; a stick on which boys get astride to ride; a stupid fellow. I have studied eight or nine wise words to speak to you, which these hobby horses must not hear. re. For twenty hobblers armed, Irishmen so called, because they served on hobbies, he paid sixpence a-piece per diem. Davies. Those grave contenders about opinionative trifles look like aged Socrates upon his boy's hobby horse. Glanville. The friar was hobbling the same way too. Dryden. Those ancient Romans had a sort of extempore poetry, or untuneable hobbling verse. Id. As young children who are tryed in Go-carts, to keep their steps from sliding, When members knit, and legs grow stronger, Make use of such machine no longer; But leap pro libitu, and scout On horse called hobby, or without. While you Pindarick truths rehearse, She hobbles in alternate verse. Id.

Some persons continued a kind of hobbling march

Prior.

on the broken arches, but fell through. Addison. No hobby horse with gorgeous top, Could with this Rod of Sid compare. Swift.

Was he ever able to walk without leading-strings, without being discovered by his hobbling 2 Id. HO'BBY, n.s. Fr. hobereuu. A species of hawk. They have such a hovering possession of the Waltoline, as an hobby hath over a lark. Bacon. The people will chop like trouts at an artificial fly, and dare like larks under the awe of a painted hobby. L’Estrange. Larks lie dared to shun the hobby's flight. - Dr.

HOBGOB'LIN, n.s. According to Skinner, for robgoblins from Robin Goodfellow, Hob being the nickname of Robin: but more probably according to Wallis and Junius, hopgoblins empusae, because they do not move their feet: whence, says Wallis, came the boys' play of fox in the hole, the fox always hopping on one leg. A frightful fairy. Fairies, black, grey, green, and white, Attend your office and your quality : Crier hobgoblin, make the fairy o-yes. Shakspeare.

HOBLERS, or HobiLERs, hobelarii, in an cient English customs, were men who, by their tenure, were obliged to maintain a light horse or hobby, for the certifying any invasion towards the sea-side. The name was also used for certain Irish knights, who used to serve as lighthorsemen upon hobbies.

HOB'NAIL, n.s. From hobby and nail.

Hob'NAiled, adj. $ A nail used in shoeing a hobby or little horse; a nail with a thick strong head.

Steel, if thou turn thine edge, I beseech Jove on my knees thou mayest be turned into hobnails.

Shakspeare.

We shall buy maidens as they buy hobnails, by the hundred. Id.

Wouldest thou, friend, who hast two legs alone, Wouldest thou, to run the gauntlet, these expose To a whole company of hobnailed shoes? Dryden.

HOB'NOB. This is probably corrupted from hab nab by a coarse pronunciation. See HAB NAB. His incensement at this moment is so implacable, that satisfaction can be none, but pangs of death and sepulchre : hobnob is his word; give’t or take’t. e. HOCHE (Lazarus), a celebrated general in the service of the French republic, was born on the 24th of June, 1768, in the suburbs of Versailles. His father was the keeper to Louis XV's dog-kennel. Such an origin precluded him from the advantages of a liberal education. By the kindness of his aunt, who was a green grocer at Versailles, he was taught to read and write, and finally engaged as a stable-boy at Versailles. But an accidental glance at a work of Rousseau's determined him to travel. For this purpose he enlisted for the East Indies, but was removed into the French guards. He was only sixteen when he was ordered to join his regiment at Paris. Anxious to make up for the deficiency of his education, he employed all his leisure hours, and even part of those usually spent in sleep, in embroidering caps, the profits of which labor he devoted chiefly to the purchase of books. These he read with avidity, and soon made himself master of the theory of military tactics. His merit now attracted notice, and he was raised to the rank of corporal in 1788. The French guards were the chief cause of turning the scale against the court in favor of the people, on the 14th of July, 1789, at the attack on the Bastile; and Hoche was one of the first in leading on the assault. When La Fayette new-modelled the corps, Hoche was promoted; and soon after, Servan, then minister of war, sent him a lieutenant's commission in the regiment of Rouergue; which he joined, June 24th, 1792, in the garrison at Thionville, where he first distinguished himself in action. After this, being drafted into the army of the Ardennes, he performed the most essential services under general Leveneur; particularly at that oritical eriod when the treachery of Dumourier and Miranda had endangered the destruction of the army of the North. But it would swell this article beyond all due bounds were we to follow our hero through all the scenes in which he was engaged, from the time that he was ap

pointed general in chief; or attempt to delineate his brilliant actions at Wert, Weissembourg, Freischweiller, Germersheim, Worms, Spire, Fort Vauban, &c. It was in the midst of this career of victory that the envy of his enemies procured him to be apprehended and lodged in the corciergerie at Paris, from which he was not liberated till the memorable 9th of Thermidor, 1795. Upon his liberation he was sent to subdue the insurgents of La Vendée ; and his well arranged plans were the chief cause of the failure of our unfortunate expedition to Quiberon. Hoche's zeal for his country led him to think, that an invasion of England or Ireland was not only practicable, but that it would be crowned with success. The latter measure was at last attempted, and its failure is well known. Our hero's feelings may be easier conceived than described. His narrow escape in the Fraternité, through the midst of the British fleet, hardly lessened the disappointment. Being, however, afterwards appointed to the command of the army of the Sambre and Meuse, he led his troops to new victories; and Montabour, 1)ierdorff, Altenkirchen, &c., witnessed their valor.—But the career of this great general was now drawing near a close. The excessive fatigues he had undergone had impaired his constitution, and brought on a gradual decay, attended with an incessant cough and difficulty of breathing; while the unsettled state of affairs at Paris added to his distress of body, by increasing his anxiety of mind. He died September 17th, at Wetzlar, in the thirtieth year of his age, not without suspicion of poison. His last words were, “Farewel my friends! Desire the Directory to take care of Belgium.’ He was interred with great pomp at Coblentz.

HOCHSTETTER (Andrew Adam), a protestant divine, born at Tubingen in 1698. He was professor of divinity in that university, and afterwards rector. His chief works are, 1. Collegium Puffendorsianum; 2. De Festo Expiationis et hirco Azahel; 3. De Conradino, ultimo ex Suevis duce; 4. De Rebus Albigensibus. He died in 1717.

HOCHHEIM, a small town in the duchy of Nassau, four miles from the Rhine, celebrated for the wine termed Hock. It stands on a small eminence occupied by vineyards finely exposed to the sun, and the best wine of the place is produced on a little elevation of eight acres, sheltered from the north; the average produce is twelve large casks of wine, which are said to fetch, as soon as made, from £120 to £150 sterling. The town is twenty miles west of Frankfort, and four north-east of Mentz.

HOCHSTADT, a town of Bavaria, at the influx of the river Egwied into the Danube. It is remarkable as the scene of many bloody conflicts. 1. The imperialists were defeated near it by the elector of Bavaria in 1703. 2. In 1704 (13th of August) the French and Bavarians sustained a most signal defeat in this neighboorhood from the duke of Marlborough and prince Eugene. 3. In 1800 the French, under Moreau, obtained a considerable victory here over the Austrians. Population 2300. Nineteen miles north-west of Augsburg, and twenty-nine west of Neuburg.

HOCK, n. s. & v.a. " " The same with hough, Hock'le, v. a. }s. boh. The joint between the knee and the fetlock. Hock and hockle to disable in the hock. Hock, n.s. From Hockheim on the HockAMoRE. $ Maine. Old strong Rhenish. Restored the fainting high and mighty, With brandy, wine, and aqua vitae ; And made 'em stoutly overcome With hachrach, hockamore and mum. Hudibras. Wine becomes sharp, as hock, like vitriolick acidity. Floyer. If cyder-royal should become unpleasant, and as unfit to bottle as old hockamore, mix one hogshead of that and one of tart new cyder together. Mortimer. Ring for your valet, bid him quickly bring Some hock and soda-water; then you'll know A pleasure worthy Xerxes the great king ; For not the blest sherbet, sublimed with snow, Not the first sparkle of the desert spring, Nor Burgundy in all its sunset glow, After long travel, ennui, love, or slaughter, Wie with draughts of hock and soda water. Don Juan. HOCK'HERB, n.s. Hock and herb. A plant; the same with mallows. HOCKHOCKING, a river in the state of Ohio, United States; it has its rise near a branch of the Scioto, and, running south-west, falls into the Ohio at Tray, in N. lat. 38°57', after a course of about eighty miles. It is navigable to Athens, forty miles from its mouth, for large keel boats; about six miles above this are rapids, which prevent any further ascent. HOCUS Pocus. Swed. hokus pokus. The original of this word is referred by Tillotson to a formula of transubstantiation in the Romish church, in which they say hoc est corpus, this is the body (of the Lord). Junius derives it from Welsh hocced, a cheat, and poke and pocus a bag, jugglers using a bag for conveyance. It is corrupted from some words that had once a meaning, and which, perhaps, cannot be discovered. A juggle; a cheat. . This gift of hocus pocusing and of disguising matters is surprising. L’Estrange. HOD, n.s. R Corrupted perhaps in conHob'MAN, n.s. tempt from hood, a hod being HoD'MANDoD. $ carried on the head; perhaps from Teut. herrd, or hotte, a wicker basket; a kind of trough in which a laborer carries mortar to the masons: hodman a laborer that carries mortar: hodmandod a fish. Those that cast their shell are the lobster, the crab, the crawfish, and the hodmandod or dodman. Bacon. A fork and a hook to be tampering in clay, A lath, hammer, trowel, a hod or a tray. Tusser.

HODGE-PODGE, n.s. French hache poche, hochepot quasi hachis en pot. A medley of ingredients boiled together. Ye han not knowe the wille of your true frendes olde and wise, but ye han caste alle hir wordes in au hoche-pot, and enclined your herte to the more part and to the greter nombre, and ther be ye condescended. Chaucer. The Tale of Melibeus. They have made our English tongue a gallimaufrey, or hodge-podge of all other speeches. S It produces excellent corn, whereof the Turks make their trachana and bouhourt, a certain hodge-podge of sundry ingredients. Sandy's Travels.

HODGES (Nathaniel), M.D., a learned En#. physician, son of the Rev. Dr. Thomas

odges, dean of Hereford. He was educated in Westminster, and graduated at Oxford in 1659. He settled in London; practised with great success during the plague in 1665, and was made fellow of the college of physicians in 1672; but was afterwards confined in Ludgate jail for debt, where he died in 1684. He wrote, 1. Vindiciae Medicinæ et Medicorum, 1660, 8vo. 2. 1672, 8vo. This work was translated into English by Dr. Quincy, and printed at London in 8vo., 1720. It gives an historical account of the rise, progress, symptoms, and cure of the plague.

HODIER'NAL, adj. Lat. hodiernus. Of to

aV. ãody (Humphry), a learned English divine, born in 1659. At twenty-one years of age he published his celebrated Dissertation against Aristeas's history of the seventy interpreters; which was received with great applause. He treated the subject more fully twenty years after, in his De Bibliorum Textibus Originalibus, Versionibus Graecis, et Latina vulgata, libri IV. In 1689 he wrote the Prolegomena to John Melala's Chronicle, printed at Oxford; and in 1690 was made chaplain to bishop Stillingfleet. The derivation of the nonjuring bishops engaged #. in a controversy with Mr. Dodwell; which recommended him to archbishop Tillotson, to whom, as well as his successor, Dr. Tennison, he was for some time chaplain. In 1698 he was made regius professor of Greek at Oxford, and archdeacon in 1704. On the controversy about the convocation, he, in 1701, published a history of English Councils and Convocations, and of the clergy's sitting in parliament, &c. He died in 1706, leaving in MS. an account of those learned Greeks who retired to Italy on the taking of Constantinople, &c., which was published in 1742 by Dr. Jebb. HOE, n.s. & v. a. Goth. hog ; Teut. howe; Fr. houe; Dut. houwe. An instrument to cut up the earth, of which the blade is at right angles with the handle: to cut or dig with a Oe. They must be continually kept with weeding and ina. Mortimer. They should be thinned with a hoe. Id. A Hoe is somewhat like a cooper's adze, to cut up weeds in gardens, fields, &c. This instrument is of great use in hacking and clearing the corners and patches of land. HOEING, in the new husbandry, is the breaking or dividing the soil by tillage while the corn or other plants are growing thereon. It differs from common tillage (which is always performed before the corn or plants are sown or planted) in the time of performing it; and it is much more beneficial to the crops than any other tillage. HOESCHELIUS (David), a learned German, born at Augsburg, in 1556. He was made principal of the college of St. Anne; and, being also librarian, he enriched the library with a great number of Greek books and MSS. He o editions of Origen, Basil, Philo udaeus, Gregory of Nyssa, Gregory of Nazian

zen, Chrysostom, Appian, Photius, Procopius, Anna Comnena, Hori Apollinis Hieroglyphica, &c., some with Latin translations, others in Greek only with notes. In 1595 he published a cata logue of the Greek MSS. in the Augsburg library, which, for order and judicious arrangement, is esteemed a masterpiece. He died at Augsburg in 1617, much regretted. HOF, Hoff, or STADT zum Hof, an old town of Franconia, on the river Saale, belonging to Bavaria. It was founded in the eleventh century, and admitted to the privileges of a free imperial town. The manufactures are woollens, cotton, and leather: here are also extensive breweries; and in the neighbourhood fine quarries of marble. In 1759 prince Henry of Prussia defeated in this place a party of Austrians, under count Palfi. Population 5000. Twenty-two miles N. N. E. of Bayreuth, and forty-six north-east of Bamberg. on (Andrew), a Tyrolese chieftain, born at Passeyer in 1765, and who kept an inn in that town. The Tyrol being transferred to Bavaria by the treaty of Presburg, when the war with Austria was in 1809 renewed, the inhabitants rose in a mass to drive out the Bavarians, and place themselves under the Austrian dominion. Hofer was now elected their chief, and obtained some advantages over the enemy; but, the peace of Vienna having confirmed the cession of his country to Bavaria, he laid down his arms. He was however accused of having endeavoured to excite disaffection to the new government, and a F. was set on his head. After a long search e was found hidden in a cabin on the summit of a lofty peak, surrounded by snow and glaciers. January 27th, 1810, his hut being surrounded by a body of grenadiers, he surrendered; and was conducted to Botzen, and afterwards to Mantua, where he was condemned by a council of war to be shot. The sentence was almost immediately executed. After his death he was revered by his countrymen as a r; and the emperor of Austria has ennobled his son. HOFFMAN (Daniel), a German divine, born in 1539. He was professor of the university of Helmstadt from 1598, and maintained that phi. losophy was a mortal enemy to religion; and that what was true in philosophy was false it. theology. These absurd tenets occasioned a warm and extensive controversy. At length Hoffman was compelled by Julius, duke of Brunswick, to retract his invectives against philosophy, and to acknowledge, in the most open manner, the harmony and union of sound philosophy with true and genuine theology, He died in 1611, aged seventy-two. Hoffman (Frederic), M.D., an eminent physician, born at Hall near Magdeburg in 1660. He took his degree in 1681; was made professor of physic at Hall in 1693; and filled the chair till his death, in 1742. His works were collected at Geneva in six large volumes, folio, 1748 and 1754. When travelling through Holland he became acquainted with Paul Hermann, and not long after with the celebrated Boyle, whom he cured of a dangerous disease. He also attended the emperor Charles VI, and his em

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