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protracted contest, were reduced to submission, or compelled | claimants of the crown. After long hesitation, the French to seek refuge in Africa (1571). The Inquisition was party prevailed, and Charles appointed Philip d'Anjou armed with new and extraordinary power, and the flames his successor. Louis XIV. instantly recognised his grandof the autos da fé blazed in every corner of the Peninsula: son as king of Spain; but the house of Austria advanced that institution was extended by Philip to his Italian do- claims, and William III. of England and Stadtholder of minions. [AUTO DA FE.] The attempt to establish the Holy the Netherlands urged a partition. This led to the war of Office in the Netherlands first provoked a spirit of in- the Succession, which lasted thirteen years, until Philip, surrection in that country (1566), which, soon growing having defeated the allies at Almansa in 1707, became uninto a formidable rebellion. exhausted the immense re- disturbed master of the Peninsula. (Marqués de San sources of Spain, baffled the talents of Alba and Don John Felipe, Commentarios de la Guerra de España, Genova, 1719, of Austria, and ended in the separation of those provinces 4to.; Lord Mahon, Hist. of the War of Succession, Lond., from the Spanish monarchy (1648). The death of the ad- 1832; Coxe, Historical Memoirs of the House of Bourbon, venturous Don Sebastian, who fell in battle with the Moors Lond., 1813.) of Africa near Alcaçarquivir [SEBASTIAN], united Portugal to Spain in 1680. The remainder of Philip's life was passed in designs for subjugating France and England. In the former country he at one time had some hopes of success by secretly allying himself with the queen's mother, Catherine of Medici, and the Romish party, for the destruction of the Huguenots; and afterwards by supporting the Roman Catholic league, under the Guises, against Henry IV. His project for the conquest of England completely failed, and the fleet which he had equipped for the reduction of this island was utterly destroyed. [ARMADA; ELIZABETH.] The execution of his eldest son, Don Carlos, in 1568; the murder of Escovedo; and the subsequent transactions with his private secretary Antonio Perez, have cast a dark shade over the character of this king, who was not deficient either in application to business or talents for administration; but his good qualities were overshaded by bigotry, his ruling passion. He was frequently heard to say that he had rather not be a king, than rule over heretics and infidels.' His Spanish admirers ascribe to him a degree of political wisdom equal to that of his great-grandfather Ferdinand; but as he failed in most of his enterprises, we must suppose his political prudence, if he possessed it, to have been in most instances overruled by his bigotry. (Watson's Philip II.; Vanderhamen, Hist. de Don Felipe el Prudente (Mad., 1625, 4to.); Cabrera, Hist. de Felipe II. (Mad., 1609.)
Under Philip III., who reigned from 1598 to 1621, the decline of the Spanish monarchy began. His extreme indolence led him to entrust the management of affairs entirely to his favourite the duke of Lerma. A peace with England was concluded in 1604, and an armistice with the Netherlands in 1609, and Spain once more traded freely with her colonies; but the benefits attending on these two measures were more than counterbalanced by the total expulsion of the Moriscos, which deprived Spain of a considerable part of her population, in whose hands all the wealth and trade were concentrated (1610).
Fourth Period.-House of Bourbon (1700-1841).-The peace of Utrecht stripped Spain of her European dominions; Belgium, Naples, Sicily, and Milan were given to Austria; Sardinia to Savoy; Minorca and Gibraltar to England; and though Alberoni afterwards conceived the bold design of restoring Spain to her former rank among European nations, the quadruple alliance of England, France, the Empire, and Holland defeated all his plans. In 1724 Philip abdicated the crown in favour of his son Louis; but this prince having died a few months after of the small-pox, he was compelled to resume the government. Philip died in 1746, and was succeeded by his son Fernando.
The reign of Fernando VI. exhibits little more than a contest between the British and French agents in support of the policy of their respective nations. However, as the king contrived to observe a strict neutrality in the European wars occasioned by the rivalry of England and France, Spain began to recover from her late wounds. His wise policy was at first pursued by his brother Charles III., king of the two Sicilies, who succeeded him in 1759; and under the administration of men like Olavide, Campomanes, and Floridablanca, Spain was once more respected and feared. The utmost efforts were made by these enlightened men to promote trade and agriculture; canals were dug and roads opened. Nor was their administrative zeal confined to such measures as these; reform was carried by them even into the church; the power of the Inquisition was restricted, and the Jesuits annihilated at one blow, by the Pragmatic Sanction of April 2, 1767, which banished them from all the Spanish dominions and confiscated their property. Unluckily for Spain, the Bourbon family compact involved her in the war between this country and France (1779-83). The expedition to Algiers miscarried, as well as the attack upon Gibraltar. The impulse given to the various branches of the administration during the reign of Charles III. continued through the early part of that of his son and successor Charles IV.; but Godoy, the queen's favourite, having suc ceeded Count Aranda in the administration, Spain entered on a new career of ruin and misfortune. On the 4th of March, 1793, the French convention declared war against Spain upon the ground of Charles's improper interference with her internal affairs. Spain at first entered with zeal into the crusade against the French republic, and a voluntary contribution, amounting to seventy-three millions of francs, was voted towards the expenses of the war, but Godoy, the favourite, who wished to conduct the operations from his palace, ruined all. Thongh, early in June, the forces of Spain and Portugal united invaded Roussillon, where they occupied Bellegarde and other places of less importance, and though on the 22nd September they defeated the French troops sent to oppose their progress, no advantage was derived from their victory. In 1794 General Dugommier invaded Catalonia, and Godoy was obliged to conclude the discreditable peace of Basle, by which half of St. Domingo was resigned to France. The next step of Godoy, who, on the cessation of hostilities, had received the title of 'Prin
Philip IV. was only sixteen years of age when he ascended the throne. He entrusted the sole management of affairs to his favourite Gaspar de Guzman, count-duke of Olivares, who, though not entirely destitute of talents, was unfit to govern a vast monarchy like Spain. In 1640 Portugal, severely oppressed by the Spanish governors, shook off its bonds by a successful insurrection, which placed John of Braganza on the throne. The war with the Netherlands was renewed, and though the abilities of Spinola, who commanded the armies of Spain, long maintained the Spanish ascendency in those provinces, the Dutch fleets were directed against the New World, and were everywhere victorious. Philip was at last obliged to recognise the independence of the Provinces by the peace of Westphalia in 1648. The war in which France had taken part against Spain and Austria, still continued for eleven years more, until the peace of the Pyrenees (November 7, 1659), by which Roussilion and Perpignan were finally ceded to France, and the marriage of Louis XIV. with a princess of Spain was concerted. A dangerous insurrection in Catalonia, provoked by the im-cipe de la Paz' (Prince of Peace), was to conclude with the prudent measures of Olivares, was only put down after republic, the leaders of which deluded him with the prosseveral years war with the rebels. Philip died in 1665, after pect of placing a Spanish prince on the throne of France, a appointing his widow queen-regent during the minority of treaty of alliance offensive and defensive. By this treaty, his son Charles II., who was only three years old. Charles which was signed and ratified on the 19th of August, 1796, II. reigned from 1665 to 1700, during which time Spain at St. Ildefonso, it was stipulated that either power should, was reduced to the most miserable condition at home by bad in case of war, be entitled to claim from the other fifteen administration, and abroad by the reverses sustained by her ships of the line and an army of 24,000 men. It was furarms. Three successive wars with France ended only in the ther stated in the treaty that these stipulations referred treaties of Aix-la-Chapelle (1668), Nimeguen (1679), and especially to England, which was represented as the sworn Ryswick (1697), all of which were extremely humiliating enemy of Spain on account of her American dominions. to Spain. War was accordingly declared against England; but Spain had soon reason to repent of her alliance with France. Her fleet under Don José de Cordova was defeated and dispersed VOL. XXII.-2 Q
As Charles had no issue, numerous intrigues were formed to prevail on him to name his successor among the various P. C., No. 1396.
| favourite could only escape the popular fury by hiding himself in one of the cellars of his palace. On the morning of the 20th, Charles, wearied with the struggles of the last few days, publicly abdicated, and declared the Prince of Asturias king of Spain.
With a French army in his capital, Ferdinand saw that the stability of his throne depended upon his recognition by the French emperor. He therefore addressed him a note in justification of the late events, and renewed his solicitations for the hand of an imperial princess. In the meantime Charles also wrote to Bonaparte, protesting against his abdication as a forced measure; while the queen impor tuned Murat to save the life of her minion, who had been discovered and imprisoned. Ferdinand, having been persuaded by the French ambassador Savary to leave Madrid and meet the emperor, who was said to be already in Spain, was conveyed a prisoner to Bayonne with all his family, on the 15th of April. Here he had an interview with the emperor, who threw off the mask, and required him to make a formal cession of the Spanish crown; the kingdom of Etruria, lately taken from his nephew, and the hand of one of Bonaparte's nieces, were promised him in return. Ferdinand's conduct on this occasion raised expectations which were afterwards grievously disappointed; he refused to comply with the emperor's wishes, and declared that he would never consent to part with his father's inhe ritance. Shortly after Charles IV., his queen, and Godoy arrived at Bayonne, and Bonaparte had no difficulty in obtaining from the former an edict addressed to the council of Castile nominating Prince Murat lieutenant-general of the kingdom, and directing his orders to be obeyed as emanating from the king. On the 5th of May, Godoy and Duroc concluded and signed a convention by which Charles ceded Spain and the Indies to Bonaparte. Ferdinand was next applied to in order to sign an act of renunciation of all his rights in favour of the French emperor, which he did on the 10th of the same month. Whilst this scene of unexampled perfidy and violence was being acted at Bayonne, the French had so exasperated the Spaniards that the feelings of the nation were roused against them. An attempt to prevent the departure of the regent Don Antonio, and the Infante Don Francisco, Ferdinand's younger brother, from Madrid, brought about the first collision between the French and the Spaniards. The 2nd of May, 1808, will ever be memorable in Spanish annals for the sanguinary conflict between the unarmed inhabitants of the capital and 25,000 well appointed soldiers, and for the slaughter which Murat afterwards caused to be made of the defenceless inhabitants. That day too was like the spark of fire to the mine. No sooner were the events in the capital made known in the provinces, than the ga hering tempest of Spanish indignation broke forth, and the people took up arms against the invaders, although the most enlightened part of the nation espoused the cause of Joseph Bonaparte, whom the French emperor had nominated king of Spain. The Asturians were the first to take up arms in the cause of national independence, the people of Aragon followed, and the rising soon spread to Seville, Badajoz, and Barcelona. Everywhere Juntas were instituted to act against the invaders. A French squadron under Admiral Rosilly was compelled to surrender within the harbour of Cadiz. Moncey was repulsed with considerable loss from before Valencia, and Duhesme failed in an attempt upon Gerona. The Spaniards under Cuesta and Blake having been defeated by Bessières at Rio Seco, the road to the capital was opened, and Joseph made his triumphant entry into Madrid on the 20th July, 1808, though, hearing of the defeat of Dupont by General Castaños at Baylen, he left it a few days after, and retreated to Vitoria. About the same time an insurrection broke out in Portugal, and the alliance of Great Britain with the Spanish nation was proclaimed. A struggle now commenced, which, it is generally admitted, led to the ruin. of the French emperor. Sir Arthur Wellesley, having been sent from England to the assistance of the Spaniards, landed at Coruña on the 20th of August, and having subsequently defeated the French under Junot at Vimeira, Portugal was evacuated by the convention of Cintra. In the meantime discussions were going on in Spain as to the form of government to be adopted. Soon after the outbreak of Madrid, several Juntas had started up, simultaneously and without concert, in the provinces, to repel foreign aggression. At first a sense of common danger made them act in union
by Sir John Jarvis, who was created Lord St. Vincent for his victory. Sir Ralph Abercromby attacked and took the island of Trinidad (February, 1797); and, after a short resistance, Minorca surrendered to General Stuart (November, 1797). In consequence of the entire interruption of the colonial trade, taxes and debts increased, whilst the credit of the nation sunk. Portugal having refused to comply with Bonaparte's demands to admit French and Spanish garrisons into her sea-ports and fortresses until peace with England should be concluded, the invasion of that kingdom was determined on. Forty thousand Spaniards, commanded by Godoy in person, drove the Portuguese beyond the Tagus, and Portugal, seeing her northern provinces also threatened by the French, consented to cede Olivenza to the Spaniards, and to shut her ports against England (1801). By the peace of Amiens, which ensued (27th March, 1801), England restored to Spain all her conquests except the island of Trinidad.
In the war between England and France in 1803, Spain did not join at first, having, it is said, purchased permission to remain neutral by a monthly tribute of five millions of francs to Napoleon; but the British ministry, having conceived the suspicion that the cabinet of Madrid only waited for the safe arrival of the American treasure-ships to declare openly against England, without any previous declaration of war, ordered the seizure of four Spanish frigates which were freighted with the precious metals. This measure, which no principle of international law could warrant, and which afforded a fair pretext to French declamation against England's naval tyranny, roused the indignation of the Spaniards, and on the 12th of December the cabinet of Madrid issued a manifesto calling upon every individual Spaniard to assist in avenging the insults of the tyrant of the sea,' and war was instantly declared against England. The reverses which Spain sustained in the maritime war of 1805 are well known; the battle of Trafalgar inflicted upon her navy a blow from which she has never recovered. In 1807 the secret treaty of Fontainebleau was concluded between France and Spair, by which Charles surrendered to Napoleon his infant grandson's kingdom of Etruria, on condition that he should receive for him the two provinces of Entre Minho e Douro and Tras os Montes, under the name of the kingdom of Northern Lusitania. The more important provinces of Alemtejo and Algarve were to constitute a principality for Godoy, who was the principal negociator of this treaty. Accordingly a French army under General Junot invaded Portugal and took possession of Lisbon, but when called upon to fulfil the conditions of the treaty of Fontainebleau and to instal the Prince of Peace in his dominions, the French emperor refused to admit any partners in his new acquisition, and gave orders to his ambassador Beauharnais to foment the dissensions then exist ing in the Spanish royal family. The Prince of Asturias (Ferdinand) had refused to marry the sister-in-law of Godoy, and, in order to secure himself against the vengeance of the offended favourite, had written to the French emperor for protection, and requested the hand of one of his nieces. He also addressed a letter to his father, exposing the mistakes and abuses of the administration, and requesting to be allowed some participation in the government. This was enough for Godoy. On the 29th Charles was informed that a conspiracy against his life was on foot, and having immediately proceeded to his son's apartments, he disarmed him, seized his papers, and made him a close prisoner. Escoiquiz and the Duke of Infantado were also arrested, and on the following day a proclamation was issued announcing to the nation the atrocious design imputed to the Prince of Asturias, and a solemn thanksgiving was ordered throughout the kingdom for the king's deliverance. The Junta however which was convened for his trial, unanimously acquitted the prince, who was released, and apparently reconciled to his parents. The other prisoners were banished. Thus ended, in November, 1807, the celebrated Process of the Escurial. In the meantime French troops had entered Spain, apparently on their way to Portuga, but in reality to achieve one of the most iniquitous acts of spoliation on record. Through stratagem_they gained admittance into Barcelona, Figueras, St. Sebastian, and Pamplona, and Murat entered Madrid at the head of a strong division. Charles IV. stili received them as allies, but the people of Madrid, driven to desperation, flocked to Aranjuez, where the court was then residing, and having attacked the house of Godoy, plundered it of its valuable contents and set it on fire. The
with zeal and patriotism; but when the intrusive king and his foreign troops had been driven almost to the foot of the Pyrenees, provincial ambition, local and even individual interests, jealousy and intrigues, took the place of patriotism, and each province, with its own governing Junta, stood alone, jealous of every other province, and the necessity of some central executive power began to be felt. Accordingly a Central Junta was installed at Aranjuez on the 26th of September, and the count of Floridablanca was chosen president. Its first measure was a solemn proclamation of Ferdinand VII.
was recalled, in the beginning of July, with 30,000 men from Spain. Suchet abandoned Valencia. King Joseph and Jourdan retreated to Vitoria, where Wellington overtook them, and gained a splendid victory. The French, pursued by Graham and Hill, retreated in disorder over the Pyrenees, and lost all their baggage (June 21, 1813). The conquerors immediately invested Pamplona. The Spaniards, under Count D'Abisbal, occupied the pass of Pancorbo, and Graham besieged St. Sebastian, which was afterwards taken. [SEBASTIAN, SAN.] Shortly after Suchet was compelled to evacuate Catalonia. Thus ended, after six years of continual struggle, one of the most sanguinary wars on record, in which one is at a loss what to admire most, the courage and perseverance of the Spanish nation, or the steady discipline of the British troops and the high military talents of their commander. (Those readers who may wish for more ample information on this interesting period of Spanish history, may consult Ibieca, 'Historia de los dos Sitios de Zaragoza, Burgos, 8vo. 1830-1; 'Memoirs of Ferdinand VII. of Spain,' Lond., 1824; Toreno, Historia del Levantamiento Guerra, y Revolucion de España,' Paris, 1838, 5 vols.; Mémoires du Maréchal Suchet, Duc d'Albufera,' Paris, 1828; and the well known Histories of the Peninsular War, by Southey and Napier.)
Whilst Ferdinand's allies were triumphing over his oppressor, the captive prince had regained his liberty, and entered his kingdom amidst the acclamations of thousands of his subjects who went out to meet him. No sooner however had he set his foot in Spain than he began to show his ingratitude to those to whom he was mostly indebted for his throne. His kinsman the cardinal of Bourbon, one of the late regents, was immediately deprived of the archbishopric of Toledo, which was bestowed on one of the fiercest of the anti-constitutional clergy. Ferdinand refused to take the prescribed oath to observe the constitution of the state, and on the 4th of May, 1814, he issued a decree declaring that the Cortes had been illegally convoked, or rather illegally constituted, and the Cortes were accordingly dissolved, and their constitution abrogated. The Inquisition was re-established, though not with the power of capital punishment; the conventual estates were restored, and the Jesuits recalled; the prisons moreover were crowded with those patriots who had fought for the cause of national independence, and to whom he owed his throne. For six years (1814-20) Ferdinand reigned with absolute power, during which time several unsuccessful attempts were made for the restoration of the constitution, and Porlier, Lacy, and Vidal, who rose in various parts of the kingdom, ended their days on the scaffold. Mina, more fortunate than his companions, escaped. On the 1st of January, 1820, four battalionsmaking part of an expedition destined to suppress the American insurrection-proclaimed the constitution of 1812 at the Isla de Leon, and, with Riego at their head, marched against Cadiz. After some slight skirmishing with O'Don-` nel, the captain-general of Andalusia, Riego occupied Algesiras, entered Malaga, and proceeded through Ezija and Cordova to the centre of the Peninsula. Risings now took place in every quarter; the royal troops sent against the insurgents made common cause with them, and Ferdinand was compelled to yield to the general cry by accepting the constitution, proclaiming a general amnesty, and summoning the Cortes of 1812. The Inquisition was abolished, and obnoxious ministers were succeeded by others favourable to constitutional principles. The monastic orders were abolished, and their lands sold; the laws of entail were abrogated; and several liberal measures were passed by the house of representatives during the first session. But the clergy, thus stripped of their wealth and influence, again excited the lower classes to deliver their king from the fangs of freemasons and heretics, as the liberal party were termed by the hot partizans of absolutism. An Apostolical Junta established itself on the frontiers of Portugal, and bands of peasants, commanded by monks, took up arms for the purpose of restoring the privileges of the crown and the clergy. At the same time Mexico declared itself independent; Lima was occupied by the Chilians under San Martin; and the Spanish part of the island of Santo Domingo was lost by its union with Hayti. The guerrillas, though beaten by the troops, could not be entirely disarmed. In the third session of the Cortes, which began March 1, 1822, the moderate liberal party prevailed over the Exaltados, and tranquillity was in some measure restored; but the intrigues of the Spanish exiles, supported by the French court, kept
On the 8th of November Bonaparte himself entered Spain, and the influence of his superior military talent was immediately apparent. Soult attacked and defeated the centre of the great Spanish army (10th October, 1808). Victor's and Lefebvre's victories at Espinosa and Reynosa on the 11th, opened the way to Asturias and the northern coast. On the 23rd Lannes attacked Castaños and Palafox near Tudela, and defeated them. The mountain-pass of SomoSierra was taken by assault by the French and Poles under Bonaparte, and on the 4th of December the French army appeared before Madrid, which immediately surrendered. During this time, Sir John Moore, who was at Salamanca, found himself opposed to the victorious French armies which were rapidly advancing to cut off his retreat. Giving up all hope of the defence of Portugal, he commenced a rapid and precipitate retreat on Coruña. He was attacked on the 16th January, 1809, by Soult and Ney, at the head of superior forces, and he fell at the very moment when his army had gained the victory. [MOORE, SIR JOHN.]
The war continued with unabated fury in every corner of the Peninsula. The Spaniards, being much inferior in discipline to the French, were invariably defeated in the open field; but the French remained masters only of the places which they occupied, and the guerrillas continually surrounded and harassed them. No line of communication was safe for the French, and their means of support frequently failed. The obstinate defence made by the people of Saragossa [SARAGOSSA] and other towns, considerably thinned their numbers. Two objects chiefly occupied the French generals during the campaigns of 1809 and 1810-the reconquest of Portugal and the march over the Sierra Morena to Cadiz. The former was prevented by the tactics of Sir Arthur Wellesley, who advanced into Castile, and defeated Joseph, Victor, and Jourdan at Talavera (27th and 28th July, 1809); but after the defeat of the Spanish general Arizaga, Ocaña was carried by the French. In January, 1810, Desolles and Gazan took the pass of Despeñaperros; Sebastiani stormed the defile of St. Estevan and took the bridges over the Guadalquivir; Andalusia was overrun, and the cities of Jaen, Cordova, and Seville were taken. In Catalonia, Aragon, Navarre, and Castile, the guerrilla chiefs were not inactive. The Empezinado advanced to the gates of Madrid; and in Navarre the two Minas, uncle and nephew, were the terror of the enemy; and Porlier, Longa, Cuevillas, Rodriguez, and others scoured Old and New Castile. Masters of the country, these undisciplined bands performed great service. They harassed the enemy's communications, cut off his convoys and supplies, and by intercepting couriers, both procured intelligence and defeated the schemes of the French; and though it would be idle to assert that the guerrillas alone could have expelled the enemy from Spain, there can be no doubt that they gave great assistance to the English regular troops. In February, 1810, the French, under Victor, besieged Cadiz, where the Central Junta had retreated on the capture of Seville, but all their efforts to reduce that place were unsuccessful. The taking of Ciudad Rodrigo and Badajoz, and the victory of Salamanca [SALAMANCA], obliged the French to abandon Madrid, and to concentrate their forces in the eastern and northern provinces of the Peninsula. Lord Wellington, after having occupied Madrid, followed the enemy to Burgos, and after several engagements transferred his head-quarters to Fresneda, on the frontier of Portugal. Thus ended the campaign of 1812. Meanwhile the Central Junta had convoked the Cortes of the kingdom, and these deputies, assembled at Cadiz, were occupied in framing a constitution for Spain, which was signed on the 20th of March by the regents, and acknowledged by the allies of Spain. The Inquisition was abolished, ecclesiastical reforms were accomplished, monastic orders were suppressed, and their property taken by the state. At length Bonaparte's disasters in Russia decided the fate of the Peninsula. Soult
discord alive. An attempt made on the 7th of July, 1822, | he restored the operation of the Salic law. However the by some battalions of the royal guards, to put down the con- very next day, after Ferdinand had been announced as stitution, was defeated through the energy and patriotism already dead, and his body had been exposed in one of the of the national militia of Madrid. A regency of the friends halls of the palace, the disease unexpectedly took a favourof absolute monarchy, under the marquis of Mataflorida, able turn, and the king, being made aware of the designs was established at Urgel, near the French frontier; but the of Carlos, dismissed his minister Calomarde, called Zea Bertroops raised by them were beaten by Mina and Milans, mudez to the ministry, and annulled the act wrung from and the members of the regency fled to France in Novem- him in the agonies of anticipated death. Queen Christina ber, 1822. At last the French government aided the equip- having regained the ascendency over the mind of her husment of apostolical soldiers on the French territory, and band, several good measures were determined and carried acceded, at the congress of Verona, to the principle of armed into execution. The universities were reopened, and a geintervention, pronounced by Austria, Russia, and Prussia, neral amnesty for all past political offences proclaimed. The with relation to Spain. The duke of Angoulême, having death of Ferdinand, which happened on the 29th of Sep previously issued a proclamation to the Spaniards declaring tember, 1833, was the signal for a general rising of the adthat France desired nothing but their deliverance from the herents of Don Carlos, in opposition to Queen Isabella, who evils of the revolution, crossed the Bidassoa, whilst Moncey succeeded Ferdinand. The insurrection broke out in the entered Catalonia. The Cortes decreed a general arming northern provinces, where apostolical principles had always of the people, and Madrid being deemed insecure, the seat been strong, and soon spread to Catalonia and other proof government was tranferred to Cadiz. An army of 120,000 vinces. men, in four divisions, commanded by Ballesteros, Murillo, Mina, and D'Abisbal, was sent to arrest the progress of the enemy, who had taken Santoña, Santander, St. Sebastian, and Pamplona. D'Abisbal, being suspected by the Cortes, fled to France. The duke of Angoulême entered Madrid on the 24th of May, and nominated a regency composed of the duke of Infantado, the duke of Montemar, the bishop of Osma, the baron D'Eroles, and Gomez Calderon. On the 26th of June Murillo declared himself against the Cortes, and surrendered to the French. In vain did Quiroga, in Coruña, where Sir Robert Wilson also was, collect troops te defend the place. General de Bourck, after a bloody contest, made himself master of the heights, and the city itself surrendered on the 13th of August. Mina, with only 6000 men, carried on a partizan war in Catalonia, but with no better success. The duke of Angoulême now besieged Cadiz, which, after the fall of the Trocadero, surrendered to him on the 4th of October. The members of the government, and most of the deputies of the Cortes, took refuge in England, where they were received with the respect due to their rank and misfortunes. The war still lingered in Catalonia, but was soon brought to a close by the capture of Riego, who, in violation of the terms of the military capitulation concluded with the French generals, was tried and executed at Madrid. Peace, if not order, was now re-established; but the apostolical party, being displeased with Ferdinand, some of whose measures were deemed too conciliatory and liberal, determined to raise his brother Carlos to the throne. A formidable insurrection in Catalonia (1825) was only put down by the severity of the count d'España and Ferdinand's presence. The fort of St. Juan de Ullóa, near Vera Cruz, surrendered in November, 1825, and the fortress of Callao, near Lima, the last place held by the Spaniards on the American continent, fell also into the hands of the insurgents on the 22nd of January, 1826. The foolish and ill-concerted expedition against Mexico terminated in the surrender of Barradas to Santana in 1829. In the following year Spain was evacuated by the French auxiliary troops. The French revolution of 1830 stirred the Spanish patriots in exile to cross the frontier with a view to recover their liberties; but the country did not rise at their approach, and the undertaking miscarried.
Ferdinand married Christina, daughter of the king of Naples, who, in 1830, bore him a female child named Isabella. By the antient laws of Spain, females could inherit the crown in default of male issue; but the Salic law of France had been introduced with the princes of the house of Bourbon, and females continued to be excluded from the throne until 1789, when Charles IV., by means of a secret sanction of the Cortes, abrogated the restriction, and restored the antient rule of succession. In 1812, howeyer, the Cortes re-established the Salic law; and as Ferdinand had no male children, his brother Don Carlos was heir presumptive.
In 1830 Ferdinand issued a decree placing the right of succession on the same footing as before, and his daughter was thereby capacitated to ascend the throne; but in 1833 the approaching death of Ferdinand seemed to threaten a change in the Spanish succession. On the 17th of September his life was despaired of. His daughter was an infant, and Don Carlos, at the head of a powerful and bigoted party, began publicly to assert his rights. Ferdinand's ministers, eager to secure the favour of Don Carlos, surrounded the death-bed of the king, and made him sign a decree by which
On the 24th of July, 1834, Christina, who had been appointed queen-regent, opened in person the session of the Cortes, in compliance with the Estatuto Real,' a sort of constitution which she had granted to the nation in the preceding month of April, Martinez de la Rosa being primeminister at the time. Among other measures of importance proposed by the government for the consideration of the Cortes, one was a bill for excluding Don Carlos from the throne, which passed both houses without opposition. Shortly after, Martinez de la Rosa, being unable to command a majority in the Cortes, tendered his resignation, which was accepted, and the count of Toreno was appointed to succeed him. In the meantime the rebel prince, who, after a short stay in England, had lately arrived in Navarre, maintained the contest with the same varying fortunes and indecisive results which had characterized the struggle from its commencement. But about the close of the year the enterprising general Zumalacarregui gained some advantages over the queen's forces, and Mina was sent against him. The campaign of 1835 proved unfavourable to the queen's cause; the advances of the Carlists towards Castile became more frequent and bolder; Zumalacarregui beat in succession the divisions sent against him, and all the resources and skill of Mina were insufficient to check the progress of the enemy. General Valdés, who succeeded him in the command of the army, was not more fortunate; and the aspect of affairs grew daily worse, when the death of Zumalacarregui, who was killed before Bilbao (June 25th, 1835), turned the scale in favour of the queen.
Some time before, and at the instigation of England, a convention had been signed between the generals of the two belligerent parties, purporting that prisoners should be treated according to the laws of war among civilized nations, instead of being butchered as before. The ill success of the war carried on against the Carlist insurgents, and the weakness and vacillation manifested by the government of Madrid, occasioned tumultuary risings in various parts of the Peninsula, which were only quieted by the dismissal of the Toreno administration and the appointment of Mendizabal. The new ministry began its career with great vigour and zeal. A levy of 100,000 men was decreed and raised. General Cordova, a young officer of talents, was raised to the command of the army in the north; an auxiliary legion, 8000 strong, recruited in England, and commanded by De Lacy Evans, was added to the army of operations in Biscay. A new electoral law, the liberty of the press, and the abolition of the monastic orders, were among the measures of the new administration. Everything promised fair for Spain; but as the minister, Mendizabal, who relied for support on England in preference to France, was about to conclude a treaty of commerce with Great Britain, France, alarmed at the consequences which the contemplated measure might have on her trade, protested through her ambassador, count de Rayneval, and every intrigue was set on foot to overthrow the Mendizabal administration. General Cordova joined in the plot, and leaving his army under the command of Espartero, proceeded to the capital to hasten the fall of the obnoxious administration. On the 14th of May, 1836, Mendizabal tendered his resignation, and was succeeded by Isturiz, who did not remain long in office.
On the evening of the 12th of August, a battalion commanded by Serjeant Garcia, broke out into rebellion at San Ildefonso, and obliged the queen to sign a decree for the dis
missal of the ministry, and to swear to the constitution of 1812. Meanwhile Espartero, who had succeeded Cordova in the command, had obtained some successes over the Carlists, and he had relieved Bilbao, which the enemy had blockaded. In Catalonia and Lower Aragon however the Carlist chief Cabrera had the advantage. In the year 1837 the Cortes terminated their debates on the constitution of 1812, which the government had submitted to their revision, and on Sunday, the 18th of June, 1837, the new constitution was publicly sworn to by the queen-regent.
In 1839 the cause of Carlos began visibly to lose ground. General Leon pressed Elio in Navarre; a great portion of Biscay and Alava were in the hands of Espartero, and the Basques began to be weary of the civil war, which was at last terminated by the convention of Bergara, on the 31st of August. It was not until September, 1840, that the Peninsula was completely pacified by the breaking up of Cabrera's army in Valencia and the taking of Morella by Espartero. The war being at an end, the two parties, namely, the Moderados and Progresistas, courted the friendship of Espartero and the army, with a view to strengthen themselves in power. The former having obtained a considerable majority in both chambers, an administration was formed under the presidency of Perez de Castro, which immediately proceeded to annul some of the measures carried by the preceding liberal administrations. Having succeeded in carrying through both chambers a most unpopular bill respecting the municipal corporations, whose rights were annihilated at one blow, and having obtained the royal sanction for the same, an insurrection broke out at Barcelona, and the municipality of Madrid refused to give publicity to the obnoxious law. The queen-regent was obliged to change her administration, and shortly after, of her own accord, she resigned the regency, and sailed from Valencia to Marseille, where, on her arrival, she issued a manifesto (November, 1840), declaring her abdication to have been voluntary. A regency was then appointed in Madrid to govern the country until the meeting of the Cortes, which, after a most interesting discussion, which lasted several days, chose General Espartero, Duke de la Vitoria, sole regent of the kingdom. At the moment we are now writing, the partisans of the queen-regent have made an attempt to rekindle civil war, and re-establish despotism, by a marriage between the Duke of Aumale and Queen Isabella; but the firmness and vigour of Espartero have defeated all their plans, and after the execution of General Leon and the principal leaders of the About the beginning of the thirteenth century, three insurrection, the country again enjoys the blessings of principal languages were spoken in the Peninsula. The peace. The following are the best general histories of Castilian prevailed exclusively in the two Castiles and Leon; Spain: La Cronica General de España,' Zamora, 1541, the Catalonian, a dialect resembling the Provençal or Lifol., generally attributed to Alfonso X. of Castile; La mosin of the south of France, was spoken in Catalonia, Cronica de España,' by Florian de Ocampo, historiographer Aragon, part of Valencia, and the Balearic Islands; and, of Charles V. (Alcalá, 1578, fol.), with the continuation lastly, the Cantabrian or Basque, notwithstanding the interby Ambrosio Morales (ib., 1574); Mariana, ‘Historia course of trade and civilization, still maintained its ground, General de España,' written first in Latin (Toledo, 1591), though greatly corrupted, along the western side of the Pyand then translated into Spanish (Mad., 1608). The best renees. [BASQUE PROVINCES.] About the same time the edition is that of Valencia, 1783, in nine volumes, folio, Portuguese, which originated in a mixture of the Galician being enriched with critical notes by a society of literary dialect and the language spoken by the French knights who men; Garibay, Compendio Historial,' Barcelona, 1648, served under Henry of Besançon, became more distinct from 4 vols. fol.; Ferreras, Synopsis Historica Chronologica de the Castilian. [PORTUGAL] How far the Arabic has conEspaña,' Mad., 1775-91, 17 vols. 4to.; Ortiz y Sanz, 'Com-tributed to the formation of the modern Spanish is a conpendio Cronologico,' &c., Mad., 1795, 7 vols. 8vo.; Masdeu, tested point among Spanish critics, some, like Mayans Historia Critica de España y de la Cultura Española,' (Origenes de la Lengua Castellana, vol. i., p. 27), asserting (Mad., 1783-1800, 20 vols. 4to.), an invaluable work, which that it has only borrowed a few words from the language of appeared at the same time in Italian and Spanish; Ascar- the conquerors, whilst Conde (Hist. de la Dom., vol. i., prol.) gota, Compendio de la Historia de España' (Paris, 1840), pretends that the Castilian is so much indebted to the Arabic, and the continuation of Mariana by Sabau (Mad., 1817- not only in its vocabulary, but in its idioms and phraseology, 21), and Miñana (Mad., 1794-5). Of those written in this that it ought to be regarded as a dialect of the Arabic. country, the best is that by Dr. Dunham, in Lardner's Both opinions however are extreme. The former is that of Cabinet Cyclopædia.' a man well versed in the classical writers, but totally unacquainted with the Eastern languages, and who, like other learned men of his age, thought that no advantage whatever could result to his native tongue from an avowed connection with the language of the conquerors; whilst the latter is that of a scholar passionately fond of everything relating to the East, and who spent the best years of his life among the Arabic MSS. which he translated into Spanish, adopting, rather more than was either necessary or useful, the words and style of the Arabic. That the Castilian language has borrowed a considerable number of its words from the Arabic is a fact beyond all doubt. If any one opens the Diccionario de la Lengua Casterana, published by the Royal Academy in 1726, he will find that most werds begin
generally spoken. The northern nations who invaded Spain in the fifth century of our æra made no effort to introduce their own tongue, but adopted that of the natives, and spoke Latin, which they corrupted by making the nouns indeclinable, as in their own rude dialects, and increasing the use of prepositions. They nevertheless introduced several words relating principally to their warlike habits, such as hielmo (helmet), rico (rich), harpa (harp), jardin (garden), daga (dagger), bosque (forest), guantes (gloves), guarda (guard), guerra (war), garras (claws), &c. A provincial dialect of the Asturias, called 'La Lengua Bable,' contains a still greater number of words which have not passed into the written Spanish. Then came the Arabs, whose language at one time must have been very generally spoken in the Peninsula. Alvarus Cordubensis, a writer of the tenth century, in his 'Indiculus Luminosus,' informs us that 'out of one thousand Christians scarcely one could be found capable of repeating the Latin forms of prayer, whilst many could express themselves in Arabic with rhetorical elegance, and even compose verses in that language. Nearly two centuries after the taking of Toledo by Alfonso VI., Árabic was still spoken there in preference to the Castilian, and most legal writings, even between Christian parties, were made in Arabic. Up to the end of the thirteenth century, the kings of Aragon were in the habit of signing their names with the letters of the Arabic alphabet. On the taking of Seville by Ferdinand III., it was deemed necessary to translate the Gospels into Arabic, in order to instruct the Christian population of that city in the duties of religion, which, as well as their native language, they had completely forgotten during their long captivity.
Of these heterogeneous elements the modern Spanish language is formed, although it would be difficult to say at what time it began to assume its present shape. Bouterwek is of opinion that the Castilian tongue had its origin before the Saracen invasion; whilst Dr. Puigblanch has gone so far as to assert that it was the sister of the Latin, and existed as early at least as the times of the Roman republic.' (Opúsculos grammatico-satíricos, Lond., 1828, vol. i., App., p. 4.) But the earliest document written in Romance hitherto discovered bears the date of 1173, and although it might be inferred from the style that the language had existed in a similar form for upwards of a century, we are nowise justified in concluding that the Romance was formed before the tenth century, that is to say, two hundred years after the Mohammedan conquest.
Language. Of the languages or dialects spoken in the Peninsula before it became a Roman province very little is known. Strabo (lib. iii.. p. 139, Casaub.) says that various dialects were in use in his time among the inhabitants of the Peninsula, and that the Turditani had a written code of laws in verse. The Phoenicians and Greeks who settled in Spain must also have introduced their own languages, whilst the Celts, who occupied the north-western districts, spoke their own tongue. During the long period of Roman domination, all these languages seem to have made room for the Latin, except in the north and west of the Peninsula, where the Basque [Basque Language] was always, and is still,