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Sidney, the Duke of Monmouth, and others opposed to the party of the Duke of York, were accustomed to meet. The Mother Wells, whose cakes or "pasties” are celebrated in Webster's Northward Ho (1607) and Haughton's Englishman for my Money (1616, acted 1598), had her establishment in this lane. Burn describes a token of John Lucas at the White Bear “in Abchurch Lane, 1665,-his half-peny." The White Bear was destroyed in the Great Fire of 1666. Five and twenty years later Abchurch Lane could boast of a still more celebrated tavern and eating-house. [See Pontacks.]
Abercorn Place, St John's Wood. Charles R. Leslie, R.A., died at No. 2, on May 5, 1859. He removed here from Pine Apple Place in 1847.
Abergavenny, or Burgaveny House, at the north end of Ave Maria Lane, was the residence of Henry Nevill, sixth Earl of Abergavenny (d. 1587).
At the north end of Ave Mary Lane, is one great house, builded of stone and timber, of old time pertaining to John, Duke of Britaine, Earl of Richmond, as appeareth by the records of Edward II. Since that it is called Pembrook's Inn, near unto Ludgate ; as belonging to the Earls of Pembrook, in the times of Richard II. the 18th year; and of Henry VI. the 14th year. It is now called Burgaveny House, and belongeth to Henry, late Lord of Burgaveny.–Stow, Survey of London, p. 127.
In December 1558 Sir Nicholas Bacon writes to Matthew Parker to come to him “at Burgeny House in Paternoster Row," and the future archbishop in reply inquires at what time he may wait on his “worship at Burgeny or at Newmarket.” 1 The house was afterwards purchased by the Company of Stationers, who made it their Hall. was destroyed in the fire of 1666, and the present hall erected on the site. [See Stationers' Hall.]
Abingdon Street, WESTMINSTER, runs north and south parallel to the Thames from Old Palace Yard to Millbank Street. It is said to commemorate the name of Mary Abingdon, or Habington, sister to the Lord Monteagle, the lady to whom is ascribed the famous letter which occasioned the discovery of the Gunpowder Plot.? But this is very unlikely, as Abingdon Street was only formed under the provisions of the Act 23 Geo. II., 1750, the previous thoroughfare, called Dirty Lane, being “a narrow lane, pestered with coaches, narrow and inconvenient.” 3 Thomas Telford, engineer of the Menai Bridge, lived and died (December 25, 1834) at No. 24 in this street. Richard Bentley, the great critic, and in 1787 Isaac Hawkins Browne, lived here. The gallant Sir John Malcolm lived at No. 12, David Roberts, R.A., at No. 8. In Abingdon Buildings, a turning between Nos. 16 and 17 at the Old Palace Yard end of Abingdon Street, Richard Cumberland lived shortly after his marriage in 1759.4 1 Parker's Letters, pp. 49, 52.
4 Memoirs of Richard Cumberland, 1806, 2 Smith's Westminster, p. 41.
p. 156. 3 Walcott's Westminster, p. 24.
Abney Park Cemetery, STOKE NEWINGTON (3 miles from the General Post Office) consisting of 30 acres, was opened by the Lord Mayor, May 20, 1840. Here is a statue of Dr. Isaac Watts, by Baily, R.A., erected to commemorate the residence for 36 years of Watts at Abney Park, the seat of his friend Sir Thomas Abney, Lord Mayor
The site of the house is included in the cemetery. Among those buried here may be mentioned William Hone, George Offor, the collector of Bunyan's works, and Sir Charles Reed, M.P. (18191881), late Chairman of the London School Board.
Academy of Arts (Royal). (See Royal Academy.]
Adam and Eve, at the corner of the Hampstead and Euston Roads, is supposed to stand on the site of the Old Manor House of Tottenhall, and in July 1796 the General Court Baron of the Lord of the Manor was held at this tavern. The Adam and Eve was at one time famous for its cream cakes and for its menagerie, and the gardens were a favourite resort of pleasure-seekers until the end of the last century, when the character of the visitors deteriorated. Lunardi the aeronaut came down into these gardens in May 1783, after having ascended from the Artillery ground. The rural condition of the neighbourhood in Hogarth's day is seen from his picture of “The March to Finchley." George Barnwell
Determined to be quite the crack, O!
Would lounge at the Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve Court, OXFORD STREET, a turning on the north side, west of Wells Street, and nearly opposite the Pantheon. In a card designed by Hogarth for James Figg, he is described as “Master of ye noble science of defence” dwelling “on ye right hand in Oxford Road near Adam and Eve Court."
Addison Road, KENSINGTON, runs from the Kensington Road, west of Holland House, to the Uxbridge Road, opposite Royal Crescent, named after Joseph Addison, who lived at Holland House after his marriage with the Countess of Warwick.
My Lord Holland has always some of these Highland sheep at Kensington, in his beautiful park and farm, which he disfigured and half spoiled during the building madness of his colleague Robinson's matchless prosperity of 1824 and 1825. When in the former of these years I saw Addison Road come and cut his beautiful farm across, and when I saw Cato Cottage and Homer Villa start up on the side of that road, I said My Lord (and I am very sorry for it) will pay pretty dearly for his taste for the classics.-Cobbett's Northern Tour, p. 88.
Addle Hill, between UPPER THAMES STREET and GREAT CARTER LANE (the lower part cut by Queen Victoria Street); on a token of the 17th century, Adlin Hill. About this time it appears to have been in favour with printers. The Shoemakers' Holiday was printed in 1600 by “Valentine Sims, dwelling at the foot of Adling Hill, near Barnard's Castle, at the sign of the White Swan.” Sims was living there three years earlier, and another printer, Simon Stafford, was “dwelling on Adling Hill” in 1600.
Addle Street, between WOOD STREET and ALDERMANBURY.
Very probable it is that this church (St. Alban's, Wood Street] is at least of as ancient a standing as King Adelstane the Saxon ; who, as the tradition says, had his house at the east end of this church. This King's house having a door also in Adel Street, gave name as 'tis thought unto the said Adel Street, which in all evidences to this day is written King Adel Street. —Antony Munday (Stow, ed. 1633).
The Saxon word Agel or Adel is simply noble. No. 18 is Brewers' Hall. Next No. 23 was Plasterers' Hall.
Adelaide Place, the broad space between KING WILLIAM STREET and the north foot of LONDON BRIDGE. So named after Adelaide, Queen of William IV., in whose reign the approaches to London Bridge were completed. Fishmongers' Hall occupies the west side of Adelaide Place.
Adelaide Street, KING WILLIAM STREET, WEST STRAND. Like Adelaide Place, was so called after Queen Adelaide, the improvements in this part of the Strand having been carried out in the reign of William IV.
The Adelaide Gallery of Practical Science (now Messrs. Gatti's) was built by Jacob Perkins the engineer, and opened in 1832 for the exhibition of models of inventions, works of art, and specimens of novel manufacture. Here was exhibited Perkins's steam gun, and in a canal 70 feet long, containing 6000 gallons of water, models of steamboats, etc.
Adelphi (The). A large pile of building (“ the bold Adelphi ” of the Heroic Epistle) with dwellings and warehouses, erected in the early part of the reign of George III., on the site of Durham House, and called the Adelphi, from the brothers Adam, the projectors and architects. Robert and James Adam were architects of repute—natives of Scotland, patronised by the Earl of Bute, for whom they built Lansdowne House, in Berkeley Square, and by Lord Mansfield, for whom they built Caen Wood House, near Hampstead. When in July 1768 the Adelphi Buildings were commenced, the Court and City were in direct opposition, and the citizens were glad in any
in their power to show their hostility to the Court. The brothers Adam were patronised by the King, and having in their Adelphi Buildings encroached, it was thought, too far upon the Thames, and thus interfered with the rights of the Lord Mayor as conservator of the river, the citizens applied to
Parliament for protection, but lost their cause—through the influence of the Crown, as Walpole asserts. The feeling was greatly aggravated by the brothers coming from the wrong side of the Tweed.
Four Scotchmen, by the name of Adams,
Foundling Hospital for Wit, ed. 1784, vol. iv. p. 189. In order to make the necessary encroachments on the river, a special Act of Parliament was obtained (2 Geo. III. C. 34, 1771).
Durham yard was occupied by a number of small low-lying houses, coal-sheds, and lay-stalls, washed by the muddy deposits of the Thames. The property then was in the possession of the Duke of St. Alban's, from whom the Adams leased it for ninety-nine years, from Lady-day 1768, at a yearly rent of £1200. The leases expired in 1867, when the whole property came into the possession of Messrs. Drummond, who obtained the estate from the trustees of the Duke of St. Alban's. The change effected by the brothers was extraordinary: they threw a series of arches over the whole declivity-allowed the wharves to remain --connected the river with the Strand by a spacious archway, and over these extensive vaultings erected a series of well-built streets, a noble terrace towards the river, and a house with a convenient suite of rooms for the then recently established Society of Arts. But the architecture was not without its critics :
What are the Adelphi Buildings ? Warehouses, laced down the seams, like a soldier's frill in a regimental old coat.-Walpole to Mason, July 29, 1773.
Adam Street leads from the Strand to the Adelphi and its Terrace, and the names of the brothers, John, Robert, James, and William, are preserved in adjoining streets.
When the scheme was first set on foot, Mr. Coutts, of the Strand, being anxious to preserve the fine prospect over the Kent and Surrey hills, which the back windows of his banking house then afforded, purchased a share of the Durham Gardens property, and arranged with the Messrs. Adam that the streets should be so laid out as to preserve their vista, and Robert Street was accordingly so planned as to form a frame for the wealthy banker's landscape. The piece of land between William Street and John Street was at that time occupied by his strong
1 Walpole, Memoirs of George 111., vol. iv. p. 175.
rooms, connected underground with the office, and built up only to the level of the Strand. When it became necessary to enlarge his premises he procured a special Act of Parliament for throwing an arch over William Street. It was recognised as a good omen that, on the day of opening these improvements, Nelson sent to Mr. Coutts for security the diamond aigrette which had been presented to him by the Sultan.
Eminent Inhabitants.—David Garrick, in the centre house, No. 5 (now No. 4), of the terrace, from 1772, when he removed here from Southampton Street, till his death in 1779. The ceiling of the front drawing-room was painted by Antonio Zucchi, A.R.A., an artist introduced by the Messrs. Adam to decorate their buildings. A chimneypiece of white marble in the same room is said to have cost £300. But the back rooms were dark and gloomy, and only the front drawing-room could be called a fine room— Note to Garrick Correspondence. Garrick died in the back room of the first floor; and his widow in the same house and room in 1822. It is now the office of the Literary Fund. Topham Beauclerk (Johnson's friend).
He (Johnson) and I walked away together ; we stopped a little while by the rails of the Adelphi, looking on the Thames, and I said to him with some emotion, that I was now thinking of two friends we had lost, who once lived in the buildings behind us : Beauclerk and Garrick. Ay, Sir," said he tenderly, “and two such friends as cannot be supplied.”—Boswell, by Croker, p. 687.
The Earl of Beaconsfield was said to have been born in the Adelphi on December 31, 1803. During his last illness Lord Barrington one day asked him where he was born. "I was born in the Adelphi," he replied, “and I may say in a library. My father was not rich when he married He took a suite of apartments in the Adelphi, and he possessed a large collection of books, all the rooms were covered with them, including that in which I was born.”—Times, April 20, 1881,
This, however, appears to be a mistake. Isaac D’Israeli lived in James Street until his marriage, and then moved to King's Road, Bedford Row. [See James Street. The notice of Mr. Disraeli's marriage stood as follows :-"10th January 1802 Isaac D'Israeli Esq of the Adelphi to Miss Basevi of Billiter Square."
When the Adelphi was building, Becket, the bookseller in the Strand, was anxious to remove his shop to the corner house of Adam Street leading to the Adelphi ; and Garrick was an applicant by letter to the “dear Adelphi,” for this east "corner blessing," as he calls it, for his friend.—"Garrick to Adam,” Hone's Every Day Book, vol. i. p. 327. The application was successful, Becket obtaining the house, No. 73, north-east corner of Adam Street. It was burnt down (June 28, 1822) and rebuilt on the same plan as before.
Adelphi Hotel, August 8, 1787.-Intelligence extraordinary. This day (August the seventh) the celebrated E. G. arrived with a numerous retinue (one servant). We hear that he has brought over from Lausanne the remainder of his History for immediate publication.—Gibbon to Lord Sheffield.
In Osborne's Hotel, in John Street, the King of the Sandwich Islands (Rhio-Rhio, son and successor of Tamehameha, who placed his