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Crêle, crest; from the same root as 'croître."

PAGE 72. Remblai, embankment.

Rencontre, meeting-point.

Berge, Ital. barga,' overhanging embankment; a very old root. Compare Welsh 'bargodi,' to overhang, from bargawd, Gaelic barrach,' loaded over the rim.

Crénelée, castellated; derived from a Lat. root found in Pliny, crenæ,' notches, incisions.

Verger, garden; from Lat. ' viridiarium.'

Gare, basin, wet dock.

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PAGE 73. Baïonette, so called after the town of Bayonne; but whether because manufactured there, or from having been used first in the assault upon the town 1665, is uncertain.

Gauche, left. Comp. Eng. ' gawky,' awkward, and the O. Eng. ' gawkshaw,' and 'gawkhanded,' for left-handed.' The derivation is quite uncertain.


Fauchées, from Lat. ' falx.'

Mitraille, small shot, grape-shot. The second meaning, small coin,' gives trace of etymology: probably from 'mite,' small coin. Comp. Eng. ' mite.' Déblai, rubbish, excavation.

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Chêne, oak; probably from the old Gaelic cunnadh.' Diez derived it from quercus,' adj. ' quercinus,' inde quernus'=' quesnus;' whence O. Fr. ' quesne,' i. e. ' chêne;' and adduced' chascun,' from ' quisque.'



PAGE 74. Faire sauter, blow up.

Débusquer, dislodge. Etym. dé,' prefix, and bâche,' to drive from the bush.

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PAGE 75. Fougères, fern.

Brume, haze, mist; from Lat. 'bruma,' from 'brevissima,' sub. ' dies,' winter. PAGE 76. Jaillir, to gush out; from Lat. 'jaculari.'


Choc, with the corresponding Eng. shock' and 'shake,' from a Saxon


Bouleversement, overthrow. Der. 'boule,' ball, bowl, and 'verser,'
Ecume, scum, froth; from O. H. Germ. scûm,' i. q. 'schaum.'

Appareiller, to get under weigh, set sail.

PAGE 77. Estoffette, express. The word is connected with the Eng. ' step.' Comp. Gr. στείβω.

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Soucis, from Lat. ' sollicitum ;' like 'aune,' 'haut,' feu,' from ulna,'' altus,' 'felix.'

Gré. Ital. 'grado,' from Lat.' gratum.'

PAGE 78. Moqué, from Gr. μâкоя.

Guerillas: word taken from the Spanish guerrilla,' signifying skirmish;' generally used in the sense of bodies of light troops engaged in skirmishing. That the word is improperly used is evident; since it originally only signifies the mode of warfare.


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à Amsterdam: i. e. Louis Bonaparte.

à Cassel: i. e. Jerôme.

à Naples: i. e. Murat.


Vanter: Ital. vantare;' Eng. ' vaunt;' from post-class. Lat. vanitare,' from

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PAGE 80. Noyau, from Lat. 'nux,' nucleus.

Prado, one of the many royal residences in the neighbourhood of Madrid. Saint-Ildéphonse. The court generally resides either at Aranguez, in the Escurial, or at San Ildefonso.

PAGE 81. Fusiller, to shoot; from the same root as feu,' fire; i. e. from focus,' whence Ital. 'focile 'Fr. ' fusil,' gun.

Egorger, to kill, gorge; from Lat. 'gurges,'' gurgalio.'

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Renfort, reinforcement.

Gêné, hampered, i. e. poor; from O. Fr. gehene,' from Heb. gehenna':


PAGE 82. Duperie, imposition; from Lat. 'decipere,' or ' dubius.'

Réchauffer, derived from Lat. ' calidus.'

Dédommagement, damages; Lat. root damnum.'

PAGE 83. Rôle, part; a very old root found in both Latin and Celtic. Lat.rota,'' rotula;' Germ. ' rollen,' a. o.

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Balcon: Eng. balcony,' from O. H. Germ. ' balcho'=post, pillar. PAGE 84. Aube, with Ital. alba,' dawn, from Lat. albus.' soucis,' p. 76.


PAGE 85, Rez-de-chaussée, ground floor: 'rez' from an old participle ' rès C ras' Lat. ' rasus.'

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PAGE 86. Deuil, mourning, sadness; post-class. Lat. 'dolium,' 'cordolium,' grief, sorrow, from 'dolere.'

Vide note to

Saccadées, abrupt, jolting, jerking.

Tâtonnements, experiments; lit. feeling one's way, groping along. The verb 'tâter' from Ital. 'tastare.' Comp. Eng. taste;' Germ. ' tasten,' i, e. to touch and taste = key of piano, etc. The Lat. root seems to be taxitare,' an iterative form of taxare,' from 'tangere.'




PAGE 87. Maréchal, with the various equivalents, from O. H. Germ. marahsealc.' The first word we find in mare,' an old Saxon root, and the latter in the Celticsgalag' servant. sgalag' servant. The primary signification seems to have been, groom, farrier.

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Haranguer, to harangue, speak publicly, hold forth. The root is the Saxon 'hring,' whence Eng. and Germ. ' ring.'

PAGE 88. Bourgeois, common, mean; the root 'bourg,' Germ. 'burg,' from O. H. Germ. 'burg,' from 'bairgan,' i. e. 'bergen,' to protect, to shield; whence it was imported into the post-class. Lat. 'burgus,' the Gr. #úpyos. Terne, tarnished, dim, dark.

Grille, gate; derived from the same word as the Eng. crate' and 'grate,' viz. Lat. crates,' hurdle; dim. 'craticola.'

Colonel, from Ital. 'colonna' - Lat. 'columna.'

PAGE 90. Epouse, with the equivalents, spouse;' Ital. ' sposo' and 'sposa ;' from Lat. 'sponsare.'

PAGE 91. Tốt, soon; from Ital. 'tosto. According to Diez, contraction from 'tot-cito,' who adduces instances of superadding 'totus,' as in toute-àl'heure.'

Plaques, decorations, various orders of knighthood; from Gr. πλág. Comp. Germ. 'flach;' Eng. 'flat,' 'plate,' a. o.

Lamartine (A. de), born at Macon, Oct. 21, 1790; entered the army 1814; but retired after the return of Napoleon from Elba. His first production, “Méditations Poétiques," created a great sensation. He was appointed to the legation of Florence, and spent some time in London, Naples, and Florence, in his official capacity. His "Nouvelles Méditations Poétiques," though more polished than the first, were not quite so successful; still less the "Mort de Socrate," 1823. The "Dernier Chant du Pélerinage d'Harold," 1825, and “Le Chant du Sacre," in which he described the coronation of Charles X, followed soon after. He was elected a member of the Academy 1829, and was about to start as ambassador to Greece, when the revolution of 1830 put an end to his career. Though the new government offered to retain him in office, he declined; and was found, at the outbreak of the revolution of 1848, among the opposition. His most celebrated works were, Souvenirs, Impressions, Pensées, et Paysages pendant un Voyage en Orient," Paris 1835; " Histoire des Girondins," 1847; "Histoire de la Révolution de 1848;" "Histoire de la Restauration, 1851."


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Gantois, inhabitants of Ghent.

Gouvernante (des Pays-Bas), Margaret duchess of Parma.

PAGE 92. Connétable, in Lat. ' comes stabuli.'

Paroiser (se), to be dressed, decked.


PAGE 93. Bouffon, fool, i. q. fou; the latter from an old root 'ffwl'in Welsh. Comp. Heb., unsavoury, foolish, Lam. ii. 14.

A l'étourdir, amazingly. Comp. slang, 'stunningly.' The derivation from the same root as Welsh 'twrdd,' tumult, seems most appropriate.

PAGE 94. "Ricos hombres," nobles, lit. rich men.

Poutre, post, timber. Comp. Germ. 'pfosten ;' Lat. ' postis.'

En croupe, behind; 'sauter en croupe,' to jump up behind. Comp. Eng. crupper.'

PAGE 95. Espiégleries, tricks; from the Germ. 'spiegel;' Lat. speculum.' 'Eulenspiegel,'ulespiègle.'


Exempt, police-officer.

PAGE 96. Hébétée, dull, heavy; from Lat. 'hebes ;' Gr. åμßλús.

Anse, creek or cove.

PAGE 97. Phare, lighthouse; derived from the island of Pharos, famous for its lighthouse; hence, in Greek, ó pápos, the lighthouse.

Roche, with Eng. rock;' Ital. rocca ;' from an old and extensive root. Comp. Gael.roc,' or 'roic;' Gr. púέ, a. o.

Proue, Lat. prora.'

Esquif, with the equivalents, skip' and 'ship;' Germ. 'schiff;' Ital. and Sp. schifo,' from O. H. Germ. 'skif."

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Poulie, from Eng. 'pulley.'

Ivre, drunk; from Lat. ' ebrius ;' like 'avoir,' 'cheval,'' aveugle,' from 'habere,' caballus,'' aboculus.'

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PAGE 98. Canon (d'un fusil), barrel.

Escabeau Lat. scabellum.'

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Paroi, side-wall, side; Lat. 'paries.'

Cruche, cruse; from an old Gaelic root, 'cruisgean;' Welch, 'crwth.' Comp.


Germ. 'krug' provinc. kruke;' whence Eng. crockery.'

Paille, with Ital. ' paglia,' from Lat. ' palea.'


Gésir, from Lat. 'jacere;' the infinitive is but seldom used. There are at present only the third pers. sing., the plural of the present ind., the imperfect, and the present participle, in use. Most frequently occurs in the third pers. sing. of the present, gît,' in connection with 'ci' or là.' Blafard, dim, dingy; from O. H. Germ. root. PAGE 99. Enfleure, swelling; from Lat. ' inflare.' Ecorce, rind, rough exterior; from Lat. ' cortex.' PAGE 100. Glaner, to glean. Fétu, wisp.


Comp. Welsh glan,' i. e. clean.

PAGE 101. Pourrie, rotten; Lat. ' putridus.'
Moisi, musty; 'moisir,' from Lat. mucescere.'


Lucarne, small window; from Lat. 'lucerna.' Comp. Irish luacharn,' light, lamp; Welsh llygorn.'

Geôlier, jailer; from an old root. Comp. Welsh' geol,' prison.

PAGE 102. Bruit, noise. The older etymologists derive from Lat. 'rugire.' It is evidently onomatopoetic, since it occurs in so many languages. Comp. Welsh broth,' commotion; Irish, bouidhean,' noise, strife; Gael.bouaillean," tumult, noise, confusion.


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PAGE 103. Grommeler, a similar word to the former, with even a more extended vocabulary. Comp. Eng. grumble,' with the sibilant to scream;' the Heb., to roar, thunder; Welsh' grwm,' murmur, a. o.


PAGE 104. Porte-clefs, i. q. geôlier. French compound words of this sort are not infrequent. Compare brûle-gueule,' 'passe-partout,' porte-feuille,'' tirebouchon,' 'tire-botte,' coupe-tête,' 'porte-dîner,' and others; so also brisetout,' same page.

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PAGE 105. Trou, hole.
PAGE 106. Ras, i. q. ‘rez.'
Aboutir, abut, adjoin.
Nager, swim; Lat. "navigare.'

Bourreau, executioner. Diez gives a doubtful etymology from Ital. ‘boja,' fetter, chain.

PAGE 109. Epaules, with the Ital. 'spalla;' from Lat. ' spatula.'
Sueur, Lat. 'sudor.'

Comp. Gr. Tρúw.

Vide note to p. 85.


PAGE III. Lézard, from Lat. ' lacerta.'

Voûte, with Ital.' volta ;' from Lat. volvere ;' part. ' volutus.'


Patrouille, connected with 'patte. Comp. Ital. pattuglia,' where the 'r, which is often inserted, disappears. This again from πáros, naтeîv.

Shako, from Hungarian 'csákó,' cap.

PAGE 112. Machiavel (Nicolo di Bernardo dei Machiavelli), born 1469 at

orence, became early chancellor of the republic, and very soon after secretary. e died in poverty and misery, June 1527, at Florence. Of his works, the Istorie Fiorentine," 1215-1492,' written 1532, is the most important, though e is most famous for his political writings, "Discorsi" 1502; "Arte della juerra," 1521; and especially "Il Principe," 1515. Granit, from Lat. granum.' Pouce, from Lat. 'pollex.'

Ciment, from Lat. cementum.'

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Tambour, the hollow axis of a winding staircase.

PAGE 115. Atre, hearth; from O. H. Germ. 'astrih,' which is the modern 'estrich.'

PAGE 116. Besogne, another form for 'besoin.'

PAGE 117. Caillou, flint; perhaps from Lat. calculus.' The Gaelicsgilleag' has the same signification.

PAGE 118. Fer-à-cheval. When two nouns are joined by à,' the second is put in the singular, when used to specify the first; and only when the sense of this qualification requires a plural, the latter is correct. So we say, 'un bâteau à vapeur,'' un clou à tête,'' un fusil à vent,' 'une table à tiroir; but we say 'une bague à diamants,'' une chaise à porteurs.' There are however instances where both forms occur, viz. montagne à glace,' and 'à glaces,'' une plante à fleur blanche,' and 'à fleurs blanches,'' fruit à noyau,' and 'noyaux,' a. o.

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Boyau, from Lat. ' botellus.'



Galerie, from the Germ. ' wallen,' which one often finds; Fr. 'aller.' Menage's derivation seems unsatisfactory. The old French verb ' galer'=' se réjouir,' gives a better one: "galerie, lieu ou salle de réjouissance."

Bâillonner, to gag; from bâiller:' the Ital. 'badare,' signifying to gape, to wait for, to desire, from ba.' The very act of pronouncing the word gives the


PAGE 122. Aïeul, from dim. ' aviolus,' from Lat. ‘avus.'


Cabanis (Pierre), a celebrated physiologist, born at Cosnac 1757; died 1803.
PAGE 123. Chevet, from chef
PAGE 125. Toile, from Lat. ' tela."'


Fardeau, of the same root as Eng. 'burthen;' whether derived from Arabic, according to Diez, or Gaelic farach,' is not certain.


Linceul Ital.lenza,' 'lenzuolo,' from Lat. ' lintea.'

PAGE 129. Fainéants, idlers, lazy persons; lit. ' ceux qui ne font rien.'

Néant Ital.' niente;' from 'ens,' with negation.


PAGE 130. Vague, from O. H. Germ. ' wâc' mod. ' woge.'

Fantôme, from Gr. pávraoμa, through the Lat.

Lame, wave; from Lat. 'lamina.”

Crampe, from O. H. Germ. kramf" PAGE 132. S'engourdir, with the Ital. dull, silly; 's'engourdir,' to become stiff,

PAGE 131. Planche, plank; faire la planche,' to float on the back. mod. krampf;' Eng. cramp.' gordo,' from Lat. 'gurdus’ dull.

PAGE 133. Rafale, squall.

PAGE 134. Mouette, sea-gull.

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PAGE 135. Bordées (courir des). Vide note to p. 33.

PAGE 136. Aviron, oar; prob. from root 'vertere,' to turn.


Tartane, a vessel provided with one mast, bearing a large lateen sail, also rigged with foresail.

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