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Sterling's Club; which, having honestly paid the shot for itself at Wills' Coffee-house or elsewhere, fancied its bits of affairs were quite settled ; and once little thought of getting into Books of History with them !-Carlyle's Life of Sterling, 2d ed., 1852, p. 208.

Stew Lane, a narrow passage between No. 51 and No. 52 LOWER THAMES STREET, leading to Stew Quay by the Thames. This name was given to the passage as leading to a landing-place to which the Doll Tearsheets were probably restricted in passing to or from the Stews on the opposite bank.

January 20, 1608.-Grant to George Chester and Wingfield Moulsworth to use Stew Quay and Sennocke Quay, near the Custom House, as free quays for lading and unlading goods.-Cal. State Pap., 1603-1610, p. 396.

Stews, or STEWES BANK. [See Winchester House, Southwark ; Cardinal's Cap Alley.) A small district on the Bankside in Southwark, the houses of which were “whited and painted, with signes on the front, for a token of the said houses.” 1 “The Bordello or Stews,” says Stow, “a place so called of certain stew-houses privileged there, for the repair of incontinent men and the like women." These “allowed stewhouses" were originally eighteen in number, and were situated between the Bear Gardens and the Clink prison. They "had signs on their fronts towards the Thames, not hanged out but painted on the walls, as the Boar's Head, the Cross Keys, the Gun, the Castle, the Crane, the Cardinal's Hat, the Bell, the Swan, etc.” 2 The houses were under strict parliamentary and municipal regulations, dating from the 8th Henry II., and confirmed or modified in several later reigns. On the City side were such ordinances as that (temp. Edward I.) which directs that “no boatman shall have his boat moored and standing over the water after sunset; but they shall have all their boats moored on this [the City] side of the water . . . nor may they carry any man or woman, either denizens or strangers, unto the Stews, except in the day-time, under pain of imprisonment." 3 These houses, which then belonged to William Walworth, Lord Mayor of London, who leased them from the Bishop of Winchester, were “spoiled” by Wat Tyler and the Kentish rebels—a circumstance that may have helped to nerve the arm of the loyal mayor when he encountered Tyler in Smithfield a few days later. In 1506 a royal ordinance closed the doors of the Stews, but shortly after they were allowed to be reopened, the number being reduced from eighteen to twelve. Forty years later (1546) they were finally suppressed and all similar privileges abolished.

Latimer, in his third sermon before Edward VI. (March 22, 1549), alludes to the suppression of the Stews. “You have put downe the Stues, but I praye you what is the matter amended. ... I dare say there is now more whoredom in London than ever there was on the Bancke. These be the newes I have to tell you, I feare they be true.” So also says Alexander Barclay in his Eclogue of the Cytezen and Uplondysman, printed by Wynkyn de Worde. 4

1 Proclamation of April 13 (37th Henry VIII.) in the Library of the Society of Antiquarians. 2 Stow, p. 151. 3 Liber Albus, p. 242. 4 See the Percy Society reprint, p. 29.

Blessed Saynt Saviour
For his naughty behaviour

That dwelt not far from the Stewes
For causyng infidelitie
Hath lost his dignitie

Of him we shall have more newes.
A Booke entitled the Fantassie of Idolatrie (circ. 1540); Foxe, vol. v. p. 406.

In the time of Henry II. (1154) the Stews, regulated hitherto by Custom (“Customarie” of long before is quoted), were legally recognised, and they so continued to be until 1535, when they were proclaimed by sound of trumpet and as far as possible publicly and entirely suppressed. In the reign of Richard II. the rebels under Wat Tyler “brake down the Stews near London Bridge,” then held by frowes of Flanders of the Lord Mayor, Sir William Walworth.

The Castle and the Cardinal's Hat, two of these houses, are noted in the book of expenses of Sir John Howard, the first Duke of Norfolk of that time.

Stinking Lane, NEWGATE STREET to LITTLE BRITAIN, now King Edward Street, was so called as leading to the slaughter-houses of St. Nicholas Shambles, and probably not often visited by the scavenger.

Then is Stinking Lane so called, or Chick Lane, at the East End of the Grey Friars Church, and there is the Butchers' Hall.–Stow, p. 118.

It was afterwards called Blowbladder Street, next Butcher Hall Lane, and last of all, about 1844, King Edward Street.

Stock Exchange, Capel Court, and 7, 8, 9 Throgmorton Street. The ready-money market of the world, which had its origin in the National Debt. The Stockbrokers originally met at New Jonathan's Coffee-house in Change Alley, and on July 14, 1773, they “came to a resolution that instead of being called New Jonathan's it should be called “The Stock Exchange,' which is to be wrote over the door, the brokers then collected sixpence each, and christened the house with punch." In 1801 a new building was erected, and opened March 1802. In 1854 this gave place to the present edifice, erected after the designs of Thomas Allason, jun., which, after being enlarged on two several occasions, was supplemented in and after 1884 by a magnificent annexe, equal in size to, but of an entirely different shape from, that of the original building. This was designed by J. J. Cole, architect, and comprises the additions in Throgmorton Street and in Old Broad Street. The interior of the New Exchange with its second dome is lined with marbles. Capel Court, in which it stands, was so called from the London residence and place of business of Sir William Capel, ancestor of the Capels, Earls of Essex, and Lord Mayor of London in 1504. The members of the Stock Exchange, about 3200 in number, consist of brokers and dealers (or jobbers) in British and foreign funds, railway and other shares exclusively ; each member paying an annual subscription of £10. A notice is posted at every entrance that none but members are admitted. A stranger is soon detected, and by the custom of the place is made to understand that he is an intruder, and turned out. The admission of a member takes place in committee, and is by ballot. The election is only for one year, so that each member has to be re-elected every Lady-day. The committee, consisting of thirty, and called the “Committee for General Purposes," is elected by the members at the same time. Every new member of the “house,” as it is called, must be introduced by three members, of not less than four years standing, each of whom enters into security in £500 for four years. An applicant for admission who has been a clerk to a member for the space of four years has to provide only two securities, each to enter into a similar engagement for £300. A bankrupt member immediately ceases to be a member, and cannot be re-elected unless all his liabilities have been discharged in full. The usual commission charged by a broker is one-eighth per cent upon the stock sold or purchased; but on foreign stocks, railway bonds and shares, it varies according to the value of the securities. The broker generally deals with the “jobbers," as they are called, a class of members who are dealers or middle men, who remain in the Stock Exchange in readiness to act upon the appearance of the brokers, but the market is entirely open to all the members, so that a broker is not compelled to deal with a jobber, but can treat with another broker if he can do so more advantageously to his client. The fluctuations of price are produced by sales and purchases, by continental news, and domestic politics and finance. Those who buy stock which they cannot receive are called "Bulls,” or who sell stock which they have not, are in Exchange Alley called “Bears.” These nicknames were in use as early as the reign of Queen Anne, but their meaning is now somewhat altered ; a Bull is one who speculates for a rise, and a Bear one who speculates for a fall.

Stocking Weavers' Hall. [See Weavers' Hall.]

Stocks Market. A market for fish and flesh in Walbrook Ward, on the site of the present Mansion House. It was established in 1282 by Henry Walis, Lord Mayor, “where some time had stood (the way being very large and broad) a pair of stocks for punishment of offenders ; this building took name of these stocks.” 1

On November 1, 1319, the “sworn wardens for overseeing the flesh-meat brought to the shambles called “les Stokkes' ... caused to be brought before the said Mayor and Aldermen two beef carcasses, putrid and poisonous, the same having been taken from William Sperlyng of West Hamme, he intending to sell the same at the said shambles.”—Riley's Memorials of London, p. 133.

The Stocks Market remained a market for the sale of meat and fish until destroyed in the Great Fire of 1666. When rebuilt it was converted into a market for fruit and vegetables.

Instead of Flesh and Fish sold there before the Fire, are now sold Fruits, Roots and Herbs; for which it is very considerable and much resorted unto, being of note

1 Stow, p. 85.

am Stockwell Stockwellth and Brisight

for having the choicest in their kind of all sorts, surpassing all other markets in London.-Strype, B. ii. p. 199.

In the market stood a statue of Charles I. and one intended to be taken for Charles II., of which latter, however, Pennant gives the following account:

In it stood the famous equestrian statue, erected in honour of Charles II. by his most loyal subject Sir Robert Viner, lord mayor. Fortunately his lordship discovered one (made at Leghorn) of John Sobieski trampling on a Turk. The good knight caused some alterations to be made, and christened the Polish monarch by the name of Charles, and bestowed on the turbaned Turk that of Oliver Cromwell.

Walpole 2 says that the statue “came over unfinished, and a new head was added by Latham.” Stocks Market was removed at Michaelmas, 1737, to the site of the present Farringdon Street. Here it lost its name, and was known as Fleet Market (which see). The mutilated statue, after remaining for some time among rubbish, was presented by the Common Council to Mr. Robert Vyner, a descendant of the Lord Mayor, who removed it to his county seat in Gautby Park, Lincolnshire.

Stockwell (Surrey), an ecclesiastical parish, but one of the eight wards of the parish of Lambeth, lies between Wandsworth and Brixton. Lysons, writing in 1810, says “the hamlet of Stockwell contains about one hundred houses.” At that time Stockwell was a surburban hamlet, but it has now lost all its rural character. Rather more than a century ago (in 1772) this place became noted as the scene of the famous “ Stockwell Ghost,” who created a great sensation by causing the furniture, etc., to dance. The maid-servant is said to have afterwards acknowledged to having practised the imposition, but after the death of the lady of the house in 1790 the “ dancing furniture” sold at extravagant prices.

The parish church of St. Michael was erected in 1840, and enlarged in 1864, and accommodates about 1400 persons. Here in the Clapham Road is Mr. Spurgeon's Stockwell Orphanage, founded in 1867. Stockwell Green, formerly an open space at the junction of Stockwell Road and Landor Road, fell a prey to the builder in 1874, after a struggle with the inhabitants.

Stoke Newington (MIDDLESEX), in the Finsbury division of Ossulstone Hundred, is bounded by Hornsey, Islington, Hackney, and Tottenham. Lysons describes Stoke Newington as containing in 1810 “about 550 acres of land, 18 of which are occupied by market gardeners; the remainder almost wholly meadow and pasture.” Now it is a populous suburb of London, and contained, in 1881, 3544 inhabited houses and a population of 22,780. In old records the name is written Newtone, or Neweton. The word Stoke occurs in the names of several places as a distinguishing addition, and is probably derived from the Saxon Stoc, a wood. It was first prefixed to the name of this place in the 15th century, at which time the manor contained about 100 acres of woodland.1 Morris explains the word Stoke as denominating “a place by the water.”

i London, p. 577. 2 Annals, ed. Dallaway, vol. iii. p. 152. 237 ; and Hone's Every Day Book, vol. i. (January 3 See Lysons's Environs of London, vol. i. p. 7, 1825), p. 62.

The old parish church, dedicated to St. Mary, was a low Gothic structure, and according to Stow repaired or “rather rebuilded” in 1562. Further enlargements and alterations were made in subsequent years, and in 1858 a new church was erected exactly facing the old one. The new church, also dedicated to St. Mary, now serves as the parish church, but divine service is likewise performed in the old church, which still retains many of the characteristics of a rural place of worship. The new church, a handsome edifice of the Early Decorated style, was built after the designs of Sir Gilbert Scott. In the old church are monuments to John Dudley (d. 1580), with effigies of himself and his wife (who afterwards, married Thomas Sutton, the founder of the Charter House); Sir John Hartopp, Bart. (d. 1762), the monument by Banks; Dr. Samuel Wright (d. 1787), the famous nonconformist preacher, etc. Amongst the ministers at the presbyterian chapel on Newington Green may be mentioned Dr. Price (d. 1791), famed for his moral and metaphysical writings, but especially for his “Treatise on Reversionary Payments” and his “ Observations on Civil Liberty, and the Justice and Policy of the War with America ;” Dr. Towers (d. 1799), the author of British Biography and other works; Rochemont Barbauld (d. 1808), husband of the more noted Mrs. Barbauld, who was buried in the churchyard. Clissold Park, or Newington Park as it was formerly called, which was for many years the residence of the Crawshays, was acquired as a public park in 1889. The New River passes through the grounds.

Eminent Inhabitants.—Here in 1817, at the school of the Rev. John Bransby, Edgar Allan Poe, the American poet, “was for the first time placed under the restraint of regular school discipline."2 Poe has himself described the house in his “partly autobiographical" story of “William Wilson.” There, however, he speaks of “the five years of my residence in the quaint old building," and adds, “Encompassed by the massy walls of this venerable academy, I passed, yet not in tedium or disgust, the years of the third lustrum of my life.” But this must be taken as a poetic fiction, as his biographer expressly states that he was only two years in England, -1817-1819, i.e. from his ninth to eleventh year. Daniel Defoe resided in Church Street about 1710,3 The house was pulled down some years ago to make room for a new street, which was named after him Defoe Street. Thomas Day (d. 1789), the author of Sandford and Merton. John Howard, the philanthropist and pioneer of prison reform in England, took lodgings here after his first tour abroad, and after being nursed by his landlady through a severe illness, married her, although twenty-seven years her junior. Lord Chief Justice 1 Lysons's Environs, vol. iv. p. 15, etc.

2 Gill's Life of Poe, pp. 26, 28. * 3 Harl. MSS., No. 7001.

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