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Popham and Sir Francis Popham resided here. Bridget Fleetwood, the eldest daughter of Oliver Cromwell, was buried here September 5, 1681. She married General Ireton, and after his death General Fleetwood, and resided many years at Stoke Newington. Dr. Isaac Watts was from 1696 to 1702 tutor in the family of Sir John Hartopp here, and afterwards spent the last thirty years of his life in the house of Sir Thomas and Lady Abney. A spot containing an arbour said to have been a favourite haunt of the great divine, and where many of his hymns were written, is still railed off; and a statue, erected to his memory by public subscription in 1845, stands in one of the principal walks. The old manor house belonged to the prebendaries of Newington, but was leased at the beginning of the 16th century to William Paten, and in 1571 assigned by him to John Dudley. After Dudley's death his widow appears to have let the house to the Earl of Leicester about 1582, and to the Earl of Oxford a few years later. It was probably a visit made by Elizabeth to one of these courtiers that gave rise to her association with an avenue in this estate, which still bears her name. Mrs. Dudley, after her second marriage to Thomas Sutton, again lived on her Newington estate. Through the marriage of John Dudley's daughter Anne to Sir Francis Popham the manor passed into the Popham family, in which it remained till 1669, when it passed by sale to Thomas Gunstor. He built a new mansion, and in 1695 the old one was pulled down and part of the estate let on building leases. His sister Mary, who inherited the manor, married Sir Thomas Abney, some time Lord Mayor of London. The Abney estate was converted into a cemetery under the title of Abney Park Cemetery, and opened in 1840. (See Abney Park Cemetery.]

Stone Buildings, LINCOLN'S INN, a handsome range of stone houses (hence the name) built 1756 from the designs of Sir Robert Taylor, The working drawings were made by a young man of the name of Leach, then a clerk in Taylor's office, who afterwards became a student of Lincoln's Inn, and died filling the high and lucrative office in the law of Master of the Rolls. Leach's drawings are preserved in the library of Lincoln's Inn. Pitt's chambers appear to have been in Stone Buildings. Canning's father was "for some time with a Serjeant Walker who then resided in Stone Buildings.” The south end was added 1844-1845 under the direction of Philip Hardwick, R.A.

Store Street, TOTTENHAM Court Road to GOWER STREET. Mary Wollstonecraft went to live here in 1791, and, according to Godwin

In a commodious apartment, added to the neatness and cleanliness which she had always scrupulously observed, a certain degree of elegance, and those temperate indulgences in furniture and accommodation, from which a sound and uncorrupted taste never fails to derive pleasure.-Godwin's Memoir, p. 95.

Storey's Gate, BIRDCAGE WALK, St. James's PARK, was so called after Edward Storey, who lived in a house on the site of the present gate, and was keeper of the Volary (Aviary) to King Charles II. He died in 1684 and was buried in St. Margaret's, Westminster.

April 25, 1682.-About nine, this night, it began to lighten, thunder, and rain. The next morning, there was the greatest flood in S. James's Park ever remembered. It came round about the fences, and up to the gravel walks—people could not walk to Webb's and Storie's.

April 3, 1685.—This afternoon nine or ten houses were burned or blown up, that looked into S. James's Park, between Webb's and Storie's.Diary of Philip Madox, MS., formerly in the possession of Thorpe, the bookseller (Notes and Queries, No. 8).

Their late Maties King William and Queen Mary by Lres Patents under the Great Seale bearing date the 7th of June, 1690, did demise to Richard Kent and Thomas Musgrave, Esqrs., at the nominacon of St Henry Fane, A certain Peece of Land in the Parish of St. Margarett's Westm". without the wall of St. James's Parke extending in length from the north end of a Tenement late in the possion of John Webb to the south end of some shedds late in the Tenure of William Storey, Five Hundred and Seaventy Feet or thereabouts To hold for Fifty years from the date at the Yearly Rent of Six Shillings and Eight Pence.-Harl. MS., No. 6811, Art. 3.

Dropt in St. James's Park, September the 3d, 1705, betwixt Mr. Story's and the Duke of Buckingham's House, a Gold Minuit Pendulum Watch, etc. ; if offered to be Sold or pawn'd you are desired to stop the same and give notice to Mr. Pading. ton at his house in Princes Court near Mr. Story's. The Daily Courant, September 5, 1705.

From nine to eleven I allow them to walk from Story's to Rosamond's Pond in the Park. - Tatler, No. 113.1

August 5, 1746.—I don't know whether I told you that the man at the Tennis Court protests that he has known Lord Balmerino dine with the man that sells pamphlets at Storey's Gate, and says “he would often have been glad if I would have taken him home to dinner."--Walpole to Montagu, vol. ii. p. 46.

Strand (The), one of the main arteries of London, reaching from Charing Cross to the site of Temple Bar (now marked by a huge decorated pedestal). The portion between King William Street and Charing Cross is now called West Strand. In the last century it only reached “from Charing Cross to Essex Street,"2 the portion of the road from Essex Street to Temple Bar being called "Temple Bar Without.” The Strand was originally a low-lying road running near the banks of the Thames, and hence it obtained its name.

I send, I send here my supremest kiss
To thee my silver footed Thamasis.
No more shall I reiterate thy Strand
Whereon so many stately structures stand.

Herrick, Teares to Thamasis. At the digging a Foundation for the present Church (St. Mary-le-Strand), the Virgin Earth was discovered at the Depth of Nineteen Feet; whereby 'tis manifest that the Ground in this Neighbourhood originally was not much higher than the River Thames; therefore this Village was truly denominated the Strand, from its Situation on the Bank of the River.-- Maitland's History of London, p. 739.

In 1315 a petition of the inhabitants of Westminster represented the footway from Temple Bar to the King's Palace at Westminster as so bad that the feet of horses and rich and poor men received constant damage, and that the footway was interrupted by thickets and bushes.

1 Pennant has an erroneous statement about dark passage leading into the Park, which prethe origin of the name. " Where the iron gates

but was corruptly called at the bottom of that noble street, George Street, Storey's Gate. are placed, stood a storehouse for the Ordnance in the time of Queen Mary. I remember a dirty 2 Parish Clerks' Survey, 12mo, 1732.

serves its



An ordinance of Edward III. in council, dated 1353, directs the laying of a tax on all goods carried by land or water from the City to West minster, "in order for the repairing the highway leading from the gate of London called Temple Bar to the gate of the Abbey at Westminster, that highway being ... become so deep and miry, and the pavement so broken and worn as to be very dangerous both to men and carriages." The Strand was long very little more than “ a way or street "2 between the cities of Westminster and London, and was not paved before Henry VIII.'s reign, when (1532), it being then “full of pits and sloughs, very perilous and noisome," an Act was passed for “paving the streetway between Charing Cross and Strand Cross, at the charge of the owners of the land."

One of the first ascertained inhabitants of the Strand was Peter of Savoy, uncle of Henry III., to whom that king, in the thirtieth year of his reign (1245), granted "all those houses upon the Thames, which sometime pertained to Briane de Insula, or Lisle, without the walls of the City of London, in the way or street called the Strand.” The Bishops were the next great dignitaries who had inns or houses in the Strand, connecting, as it were, the City with the King's Palace at Westminster. “ Anciently,” says Selden in his Table Talk, “the noblemen lay within the City for safety and security; but the bishops' houses were by the waterside, because they were held sacred persons whom nobody would hurt.” As many as nine bishops possessed inns or hostels on the south or water side of the present Strand, at the period of the Reformation. The Bishop of Exeter's inn was afterwards Essex House. The Bishop of Bath's inn was afterwards Arundel House. The inns of the three Bishops of Llandaff, Chester, and Worcester were swallowed up by the palace of the Protector Somerset, on the site of the present Somerset House. Near the site of the present church of St. Mary's stood “Strand Cross."

Opposite to Chester Inn stood an antient cross . . . in the year 1294 and at other times the Judges sat without the city, on this cross, to administer justice. Pennant's London, p. 144.

The Bishop of Carlisle’s inn (west of the Savoy) was afterwards Worcester House, the mansion of the Dukes of Beaufort, hence the present Beaufort Buildings. The Bishop of Durham's innoccupied the site of the Adelphi ; and the inn of the Archbishop of York was conveyed, in the reign of James I., to Villiers, first Duke of Buckingham, whose name and titles are preserved in several streets between the Adelphi and Charing Cross. The upper or north side of the road lay open to the fields, to St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, St. Giles-in-the-Fields, and Covent Garden, as late as the reign of Charles I. A few noblemen's mansions, however, had been previously erected. Burghley House, the London lodging of the great Lord Burghley, on the site of the present Exeter Street and Exeter 'Change, and Bedford House, on the site of the present Southampton Street and Bedford Street, were built 1 Rymer's Fædera, vol. v. p. 762.

2 Stow, p. 164. VOL. III.


in the reign of Elizabeth. Salisbury House, on the site of the present Cecil Street and Salisbury Street, and Northampton, now Northumberland House, were built in the reign of James I. Middleton, the dramatist, describes it not untruly at this time as “the luxurious Strand.”1

The stables of Durham House were taken down in 1610 to erect the New Exchange; York House was taken down in 1675; and Burghley, or Exeter House, in 1676, and Exeter 'Change erected the next year on the principal site. Arundel House was taken down in 1678; Worcester House in 1683 ; Salisbury House in 1696; Bedford House in 1704; Essex House in 1710; the New Exchange in 1737, and the Adelphi afterwards erected on the same site : old Somerset House was taken down in 1775; Butcher Row in 1813; and Exeter 'Change in 1829, when the great Strand improvements at the West End were made pursuant to 7 Geo. IV., C. 77.

The Lawyer embraced our young gentleman and gave him many riotous instructions how to carry himself : told him he must acquaint himself with many gallants of the Inns of Court, and keep rank with those that spend most, always wearing a bountiful disposition about him, lofty and liberal ; his lodging must be about the Strand, in any case, being remote from the handicraft scent of the City.-Father Hubburd's Tales, 4to, 1604 (Middleton's Works, vol. v. p. 573).

For divers yeares of late certain fishmongers have erected and set up fishstalles in the middle of the street in the Strand, almost over against Denmark House, all which were broken down by speciall Commission, this moneth of May, 630, least in short space they might grow from stalles to shedds, and then to dwelling houses, as the like was in former time in Olde Fish Street, and in Saint Nicholas Shambles, and in other places. -Howes, ed. 1631, p. 1045.

Come let us leave the Temple's silent walls,
The business to my distant lodging calls :
Through the long Strand together let us stray,
With thee conversing I forget the way.
Behold that narrow street, which steep descends,
Whose building to the shining shore extends ;
Here Arundel's fam'd structure rear'd its frame,
The street alone retains an empty name :
Where Titian's glowing paint the canvas warm’d,
And Raphael's fair design with judgment charm’d,
Now hangs the Bell-man's song, and pasted here,
The coloured prints of Overton appear.
Where statues breath'd the work of Phidias' hands,
A wooden pump or lonely watch-house stands ;
There Essex' stately pile adorn'd the shore,
There Cecil's, Bedford's, Villiers',—now no more. -Gay, Trivia.
Where the fair columns of St. Clement stand,
Whose straitened bounds incroach upon the Strand ;
Where the low pent-house bows the walker's head,
And the rough pavement wounds the yielding tread;
Where not a post protects the narrow space,
And strung in twines combs dangle in thy face;
Summon at once thy courage, rouse thy care,
Stand firm, look back, be resolute, beware.
Forth issuing from steep lanes, 2 the Collier's steeds

1 Middleton's Works, by Dyce, vol. v. p. 578.

2 Milford Lane.

Drag the black load ; another cart succeeds,

Team follows team, crowds heap'd on crowds appear.—Ibid. The Strand is now given up entirely to business purposes, and the “luxurious” mansions of the nobility and gentry must be sought for farther westward. The Strand is remarkable as containing more theatres than any other street in London. In it are to be noticednorth side: Adelphi, Nos. 410, 411; Vaudeville, No. 404 ; Lyceum, No. 354: Gaiety, No. 345; Opera Comique, No. 299. South side: Strand, No. 168 ; and Terry's, Nos. 105, 106. Besides these the Royal Italian Opera House, Drury Lane Theatre, the Globe, the Savoy, Toole's, and the Avenue only lie a short distance off the Strand. [See these respective headings.] The business of the Strand now forms a kind of connecting link between the hurry and bustle of the City and the comfort and leisure of the West End.

Eminent Inhabitants (not already mentioned).—Sir Harry Vane the elder (temp. Charles I.), next door to Northumberland House (then Suffolk House), where now stands the Grand Hotel ; 1 this was long the official residence of the Secretary of State.

Mr. Secretary Nicholas was living here in Charles II.'s reign. William Lilly, the astrologer (d. 1681), at “the corner house, over against Strand Bridge." He was servant for some time to a man of the name of Gilbert Wright, and performed many of the menial offices of his houseswept the street before his door, cleaned his shoes, scraped the trenchers, and played the part of tub-boy to the Thames in carrying water for his master's use. "I have helped,” he says, "to carry eighteen tubs of water in one morning." Lilly got on in life, married his master's widow, and came at last to possess the house in which he had performed so many menial occupations. William Faithorne, the engraver (d. 1691), “at the sign of the Ship, next to the Drake, opposite to the Palsgrave Head Tavern, without Temple Bar.” Pierce Tempest, the engraver of the Cries of London, which bear his name :

There is now Published the Cryes and Habits of London, lately drawn after the Life in great Variety of Actions, Curiously Engraved upon 50 Copper Plates, fit for the Ingenious and Lovers of Art Printed and Sold by P. Tempest over against Somerset House in the Strand. — The London Gazette, May 28 to 31, 1688. At “No. 18 in the Strand” lived J. Mathews the bookseller, and father of Charles Mathews the actor, and in this house the latter was born. Jacob Tonson, the bookseller and friend of Dryden, at “Shakespeare's Head, over against Catherine Street, in the Strand,” now No. 141; the house (since rebuilt) was afterwards occupied by Andrew Millar, the publisher, and friend of Thomson, Fielding, Hume, and Robertson; and after Millar's death by Thomas Cadell, his apprentice, and friend, and the publisher of Gibbon. Thomson's Seasons, Fielding's Tom Jones, and the Histories of Hume, Robertson, and Gibbon were first published at this house. Millar was a Scotchman, and distinguished his house by the sign of “Buchanan's Head.” James Northcote, R.A.,

1 This house was No. 1 in the Strand, and was the first house in London that was numbered. -Smith's Nollekens, vol. i. p. 236.

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