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4. AVOIRDUPOIS Weight. 16 Drams make

1 Ounce, marked,

- dr. oz. 16 Ounces

1 Pound, 28 Pounds* 1 Quarter,

qr. 4 Quarters

1 Hundred weight. cwt. 20 Hundred wt. 1 Ton,

T. By a late law of this State, 25 make a qr. * By this weight are weighed all things of a coarse nature; such as leather, cheese, grocery wares, bread, and all metals except gold and silver. It is our common steelyard weight.t

Note.—5760 grains=115. Troy; 7000 grains=1th. Avoirdupois; therefore the weight of a pound Troy, is to a pound Avoirdupois as 5760 to 7000, or as 144 to 175.

5. Cloth MeASURE. 4 Nails, or 9 inches, make 1 Quarter, marked, 4 Quarters

1 Yard, 3 Quarters

- 1 Ell Flemish, - E. FI 5 Quarters

1 Ell English,

E. E 6 Quarters

1 El French,

E. Fr. Note.—We buy Scotch and Irish linens by our American yard, and Dutch linens by the ell Flemish ; but we sell them here by the same measure, the yard.

* Most of the merchants and traders in the United States, now call 25 lbs. only, a quarter of a cwt. † A Firkin of Butter is 56 lb.|| A Quintal of Fish 112]b. A firkin of Soap 64A stone of Iron

14 A Barrel of Beef

220||A

Gallon of Train Oil 7 Pork

22020 Things make 1 Score, Potashes 400||12 do.

1 Dozen. Soap 956||12 Dozen

1 Gross. Butter 224||144 do.

1 Great Gross. Flour

196 A Quire of Paper 24 Sheets. Gunpowder 112|| A Ream of Paper 20 Quires. Raisins

112||A Bale of Paper 10 Reams. Fish 30 gallons|| A Roll of Parchment 60 Skins. Hoops and Staves are now reckoned five scores to the hundred in this State, by a late law.

A ton in weight for Ships is 2000 lb.
A ton for goods, boxes, cases, &c. is 40 cubic feet.

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} 1 Degree,

Deg.

6. LONG MEASURE. 3 Barley Corns make 1 Inch, marked Bar. In. 12 Inches 1 Foot,

Ft. 3 Feet, 1 Yard,

Yd. 54 Yards, or 164 Feet 1 Pole, Rod or Perch, Rod. 40 Poles or Rods 1 Furlong,

Fur. 8 Furlongs 1 Mile,

Mi. 3 Miles 1 League,

Lea. 60 Geographical, or 691 Statute Miles 360 Degrees make the circumference of the Earth.

By this measure distances are measured. 66 feet, or 4 rods, make a Gunter's chain, containing

100, links, each of which is 7% inches. 6 feet make a fathom, in measuring depths. 5 feet make a geometrical pace. 4 inches make a hand, in measuring the height of

horses. 6ft. 44in=a French toise. 1 French post=2 Fr. Leagues=51. Eng. miles. I German short mile=3,806 Eng. miles. 1 Eng. mile=1}+Russian verst.

7. LAND OR SQUARE MEASURE. 144 Square inches make 1 Square Foot, marked In.Ft. 9 Feet 1 Yard,

Yd. 304 Yards or

1 Rod, Pole or Perch, Rod. 2721 Feet 40 Rods

1 Rood or of an acre, Rood. 4 Roods 1 Acre,

Ac. 640 Acres 1 Mile,

Mi. By this measure, surfaces are measured.

It is long measure squared, or multiplied into itself.

8. CUBIC OR SOLID MEASURE. 1728 Solid Inches make 1 Foot, Marked In. Ft. 27 Feet

1 Yard,

Yd. 50 Feet of hewn, or

T. 40 Feet of round Timber

1 in breadth and 4 By this measure the contents of solids are obtained, or things that have length, breadth, and depth. It is long measure cubed, or multiplied by itself, twice,

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}1 Ton or Load, 128 Feet, infis feet ini henethe }1 Cord of Wood,Cor.

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9. DRY MEASURE. 2 Pints make

1 Quart, marked

Pt. Qt. 4 Quarts

1 Gallon,

Gal. 2 Gallons

1 Peck,

Pk. 4 Pecks

1 Bushel,

Bus. 8 Bushels

1 Quarter,

Qr. 36 Bushels

1 Chaldron,

Chal. 8 bushels a Hogshead of Salt.

Note.—The diameter of the Winchester or common bushel is 184 inches, and its depth 8 inches.

The gallon dry measure contains 2684 cubic inches.

Corn, grain, beans, peas, flax-seed, salt, coals, &c. are measured by striked measure ; but pears, apples, turnips, potatoes, onions, &c. are heaped to a handsome rounding measure. The bushel contains 2150% +cubic inches.

10. WINE MEASURE. 4 Gills make

1 Pint, marked Gill. Pt. 2 Pints 1 Quart,

Qt. 4 Quarts 1 Gallon,

Gal. 42 Gallons

1 Tierce,

Tier. 63 Gallons

1 Hogshead,

Hhd. 84 Gallons

1 Puncheon,

Punch. 2 Hogsheads

1 Pipe or Butt, Pipe. 2 Pipes or 4 Hhds. 1 Tun,

Tun. Note.—The wine gallon contains 231 cubic inches.

The hogshead of 63 gallons, and the puncheon of 84 gallons, are not used with us. The hogshead of 108 or 110 gallons is called a hogshead or a puncheon. Brandies, spirits, perry, cider, vinegar, mead, oil and honey, are sold by this measure, though honey is sometimes sold by the pound avoirdupois. Milk is sometimes measured by this measure, though more commonly and justly by beer measure.

11. ALE MEASURE. 2 Pints make 1 Quart, marked

Pt. Qt. 4 Quarts 1 Gallon,

Gal. 8 Gallons

1 Firkin of Ale, A. Fir. 9 Gallons

1 Firkin of Beer B. Fir. 36 Gallons 1 Barrel of Beer,

Bar. 54 Gallons 1 Hogshead,

Hhd. 3 Barrels 1 Butt,

Butt. Note.-The Ale gallon contains 282 cubic inches.

Milk is sold by the Beer quart, which is about one sixth larger than the wine, cider, &c. quart. 32 gal.= lbar. ale.

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13 Lunar or 12 Solar months 1 Year,

a

12. Time. 60 Seconds make

1 Minute, marked S. M. 60 Minutes

1 Hour,

H. 24 Hours

1 Day,

D. 7 Days

1 Week,

W. 4 Weeks

1 Month,

Mo.

Y. or 365 Days Note.-365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes, 48 seconds, make a solar year according to the most exact observation.

April, June, September and November, have each 30 days; each of the other months has 31, except February, which has 28 in common years and 29 in leap years.*

30 years make an age, and 100 years a century, A lunar month is 29d. 12h. 44m. 3s. nearly.

13. CIRCULAR MOTION. 60 Seconds make 1 Prime minute, marked "! 60 Minutes

1 Degree, 30 Degrees 1 Sign,

S. 12 Signs, or )

The whole circle 360 Degrees

of the Zodic.

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* To find whether any given year will be leap year. RULE.-Divide the given year by 4; if nothing remain, it is leap year; but if there be a remainder, that is the number of years after leap year.

EXAMPLE.
Was 1823 leap year? 4)1823

455-3 rem. which shows it to have been the 3d after leap year.

The last year in every three centuries out of four, which would otherwise be leap year, is to be reduced to a common year.

To find whether the last year in any given century is leap year.

RULE.-Divide the given century only, or the hundreds in the year, by 4; if nothing remain, it is leap year; but a remainder shows it is to be counted a coinmon year.

EXAMPLE.
Will the year 1900 be leap year?

4)1904

16

3 remainder; therefore a common year.

REDUCTION.

REDUCTION teaches to change the denomination of numbers without altering their value.

RULE.—When the reduction is from a higher denomination, to a lower, as pounds into shillings, tons into ounces, &c. multiply the highest denomination by as many of the next lower as make one of the highest, adding to the product the parts of the same name; multiply this sum by the next lower, adding to the product the parts of its own name, if any; and so on to the denomination required.

When the reduction is from a lower to a higher denomination, pence into pounds, minutes into days, &c. divide the given number by as many of that denomination as make one of the next higher, and so on, to the denomination required; and the last quotient with the several remainders, (if any) will be the answer required.

The proof is had by reversing the question.

EXAMPLE.

MONEY.

1. In 476 pounds, how many shillings and pence!

476

20

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Proof, 476 2. In 3694 shillings, how many pence ?

Ans. 44328. 3. How many farthings in 69217 pence? Ans. 276868. 4. Reduce 6942 pounds to fartbings.

Ans. 6664320.

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