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Since cold air is incessantly carrying off warmth , whole races of mankind placed under new circumfrom the skin, more exercise is requisite in win- stances, time being granted."- M. Somerville. ter than in summer, in cold climates than in warm; consequently, more carbon is necessary in the former than in the latter, in order to maintain the chemical action that generates heat, and to Mr. E. Sayres, Vice Consul of Brazil, with several
We some days since were kindly presented by ward off the destructive effects of the oxygen, which incessantly strives to consuine the body. specimens of green, black and gunpowder teas. Animal food, wine, and spirits, contain many We have since had an opportunity of testing the times more carbon than fruit and vegetables, quality and the flavor, and we take pleasure in therefore animal food is much more necessary in pronouncing both as excellent. And this, too, is a cold than in a hot climate. The Esquimaux, the testimony of several of our best grocers and who lives by the chace, and eats 10 or 12 pounds most capable judges. The result, therefore, may weight of meat and fat in 24 hours, finds it not be regarded as highly successful and satisfactory; more than enough to keep up his strength and and we trust that the cultivators in Brazil will animal heat, while the indolent inhabitant of Ben- continue and pursue their laudable enterprise.gal is sufficiently supplied with both by his rice Late Paper. diet. Clothing and warmth make the necessity for exercise and food much less, by diminishing FRIENDS REVIEW. the waste of animal heat. Hunger and cold united soon consume the body, because it loses its PHILADELPHIA, SECOND MONTH 8, 1851, power of resisting the action of the oxygon, which
A brief notice was taken in our 19th number of consumes part of our substance, when food is wanting. Hence, nations inhabiting warm cli- an effort which was about to be made, in the Legismates have no great merit in being abstemious, lature of Pennsylvania, to repeal several sections nor are those guilty of committing an excess who of a law, enacted in 1847, for the protection of our live more freely in colder countries. The ar- free coloured people, the preservation of the public rangement of Divine Wisdom is to be admired in peace, &c. The movement now made appears to this as in all other things, for, if man had only be entirely a political maneuvre, not founded on been capable of living on vegetable food, he never any general expression of public opinion, in oppocould have had a permanent residence beyond the sition to the law in question, or any application latitude where cora ripens. The Esquimaux, and from the people for its repeal. Pennsylvania has all the inhabitants of the very high latitudes of both continents, live entirely on fish and animal enjoyed the undisputed honour of being the first food. What effects the difference of food may
to declare, even before its own independence was have upon the intellect is not known.
acknowledged by the parent state, that no further A nation or tribe driven by war, or any other addition to its slave population should ever be made, cause, from a warm to a cold country, or the either by birth or immigration. Seventy years contrary, would be forced to change their food have glided away since that mandate was issued, both in quality and quantity, which in the lapse and the legislation of the Commonwealth, on the of ages might produce an alteration in the exter- subject of slavery, from that time to this, has been nal and internal structure. The probability is progressive. still greater, if the entire change that a few years produce in the matter of which the under the provisions of the federal compact, was
The drudgery of recovering fugitives from labour, human frame is composed be considered. At every instant during life, with every motion, vol fairly taken off the separate States, and thrown untary and involuntary, with every thought, and upon the general government, by the Supreme every exercise of the brain, a portion of our sub- Court of the United States, in the case of Prigg vs. stance becomes dead, separates from the living The State of Pennsylvania. The acts of Congress part, combines with some of the inhaled oxygen, of 1793 and of 1850 have made provision for the and is removed. By this process it is supposed reclamation of fugitive slnves, which we might supthat the whole body is renewed every 7 years; pose amply sufficient to gratify the most strenuous individuality, therefore, depends on the spirit, advocates of southern rights. Hence there seems which retains its identity during all the changes little for our State Legislatures to do, in relation to of its earthly house, and sometimes even acts in- negro slavery, but to afford all the protection to our dependently of it. When sleep is restoring ex. own coloured people which the law can furnish;
, active, crowding the events of years into a few and to provide that none but actual fugitives, whom seconds, and, by its unconsciousness of time, an- our Legislature have no power to emancipate, ticipates eternity. Every change of food, climate, shall be carried into servitude under the operations and mental excitement, must have their influence of the general government. on the reproduction of the mortal frame; and It is highly desirable, both for the credit of our thus a thousand causes may co-operate to alter noble Counmonwealth, and for the cause of justice
and humanity, that this retrograde movement, sent into bondage in other States, as fugitives, should, if possible, be averted.
when they were undoubtedly free.” The subjoined remonstrance, from the Meeting When we consider the inestimable value of for Sufferings of Philadelphia, was presented on liberty as enjoyed by the freemen of this Comthe 30th ult., by a committee from that body, to monwealth ; that the loss of it by those unhappy both branches of the Legislature. This remon- individuals who were thus nefariously sent into strance was read, and respectfully listened to, in bondage, involved the deprivation of their social the Senate. In the House of Representatives, a
and domestic comforts, the sacrifice of their propmotion to suspend the reading, after it had been erty, and the severance of the dearest ties of life;
that the slavery to which they were thus wrong. commenced, was voted down by a large majority. fully condemned, is declared by the aforesaid To the Senate and House of Representatives of Report
, to be a state founded in violence and the State of Pennsylvania :
supported alone by power," and that it inflicts
grievous oppression and cruelties upon its victims, The Memorial of the Representatives of the we may form some idea, though but religious society of Friends, in Pennsylvania, &c., perfect one, of the injustice aud violence which, respectfully represents :
by the admission of the Committee, attended the That your Memorialists have observed with execution of the law of Congress, by Aldermen feelings of regret, that Bills are now before both and Justices of the peace.” bodies of the Legislature, the object of which is
It is this state of things which the Bills under to repeal the 3rd, 4th, 5th, and 6th Sections of consideration propose again to introduce; and that, the Act of 1847, entitled an Act to prevent Kid- too, without those guards which the Act of 1826 napping, preserve the public peace, &c.
provided for the security of our citizens. While The law for the recovery of fugitive Slaves, these were in force, they exerted a salutary repassed last year by Congress, being supplemental straint upon subordinate officers, and rendered the to the Act of 1793, does not repeal it. It fol- kidnapping of men a more difficult task. To relows therefore, that if either of the Bills now store this power to Aldermen and Justices without before the Legislature should become a law, it any such restraints, will be to render the state of will confer on Magistrates, Justices of Peace, and things worse than it was prior to the enactment of other State officers, the authority to hear and de- the law of 1847, and to open a wide door for the termine without any appeal, and upon any evi- practice of kidnapping under cover of the laws of dence which they may deem sufficient, the liberty Congress for reclaiming fugitives from labour. or the slavery cf any coloured person who may If but a single free coloured person could be be brought before them as a fugitive from labour. shown to have been thus fraudulently “sent into
That the exercise of this power by Magistrates bondage,” under the corrupt system which the and Justices, prior to the enactment of the Rf e-bills propose to re-establish, the probability of the said law of 1847, gave rise to many sinus recurrence of such a wrong, would be a sufficient abuses, is well kuown; and the repeated com- argument against a return to it; but how much plaints of the citizens of this Commonwealth in additional force is given to it, when the Judiciary duced the Legislature, at different periods, to pass Committee declare that many [such] frauds laws to restrain and correct these abuses, and to were practised,” and “coloured persons (thus] protect our free coloured population from being sent into bondage in other States, as fugitives, seized and carried into slavery, under colour of when they were undoubtedly free." legal process. Numerous well attested cases are known to
The fugitive Slave law of 1850, provides for have occurred, in which free men were violently the appointment of Commissioners in every secseized, dragged before a Magistrate who was in tion of the country, with authority to hear and league with the men-stealers, and by a summary determine in a summary manner, all cases of alprocess suddenly consigned to hopeless servitude leged fugitives from labour, on whose certificate in distant States, beyond the reach of those means the person claimed may be immediately delivered by which their undoubted right to liberty could up to the claimant, or conveyed to him, if out of be legally asserted.
the State, at the expense of the Federal treasury, At the last session of the Legislature, the sub- and without appeal to any other tribunal whatject of the repeal of those sections of the law of ever. 1817, was referred in the House of Representa- The ample provision thus made for the recovery tives to the Judiciary Committee, and the report and return of fugitive Slaves, the unlimited powproduced by the Committee to that body, fully ers conferred on the Commissioners, and the confirmed these facts.
abundant facilities secured to the slave-holder, “ There is no doubt, say the Committee, that render the repeal of a law, designed for the secumany frauds were practised by Constables and rity of our free coloured people, a work of superother Kidnappers, in collusion with certain Jus- erogation on the part of the Legislature, an untices of the peace, who lent their aid to such necessary and unsolicited proffer of aid, which nefarious purposes, whereby coloured persons were while it will probably be of little advantage to the claimant, may be a serious injury to the liberty, destructive of the peace, and prejudicial to the of freemen.
character of the Commonwealth. The law of 1847 is pronounced in the aforesaid We conceive that it is not only the unReport to be “a legal and constitutional exercise questionable right, but it is also clearly the of State Legislative power, as recognized by the duty, of the free States, to protect their own Supreme Court of the United States, and of this coloured population from the rapacity of araState." It was the result of careful examination ricious men; and that the great object of the and deliberate thought, in compliance with the law of 1847, is to afford that protection and request of numerous citizens of this Common- to preserve the public peace; and that it in. wealth, and was enacted, we believe, without a fringes on no right guaranteed by the Consti. dissenting voice in either house. Its operation tution to other States. has been beneficial in protecting the free coloured We are persuaded that a repeal of any of population, and preventing those scenes of tumult the provisions of that law, would be less a and violence, with which the attempt to seize and compromise of policy, than a sacrifice of princarry away, alleged fugitives from labour, was ciple—not a compromise of the rights of the often attended.
whites, so much as a surrender of the peace, We would respectfully suggest that a law en- the safety, and the liberties of the free people of acted as this was, with the unanimous consent of colour of Pennsylvania, who are not permitted the members of the Legislature, after mature de- to plead their own cause in our Legislative liberation, and in accordance with the solicitation halls; and whose rights it would be unjust to of a large number of their constituents, and which surrender, under the illusory idea of its having many hoped would permanently set at rest this a tendency to promote harmony, or removing long debated subject, ought not to be changed a supposed cause of offence. without a general expression of dissatisfaction from It is declared in the Holy Scripture, “He your fellow-citizens, and the clearest evidence that that ruleth over men must be just, ruling in it is operating upon them injuriously.
the fear of God.” A compliance with this, is The fourth Section of the law, is one of the only basis on which we can safely rest great importance to the peace of the State, and our hopes, that the Almighty Governor of the the security of citizens. The power of the Universe, who controls the destinies of nations, States to enact laws for the preservation of the will bless and preserve the peace of our counpublic peace within their jurisdiction in fugitive try. If we attempt to soothe others, or to cases, is fully and clearly recognised by the promote harmony, by acts of injustice towards Supreme Court of the United States, in the case any of His rational creation, entitled, equally of Prigg; and this fourth Section' is so unob- with ourselves, to the protection of the laws, jectionable in its character, that it seems difficult and to the enjoyment of their civil rights; we to conceive any good reason for its repeal. With-may well fear, that He who is the Refuge of out questioning the alleged right of the master thednoor and the oppressed, and a God who to arrest and carry away his slave,—without judgeth nations as well as individuals, will opposing any restriction or obstacle to his peace- not only frustrate our plans, but cause ably doing so; it simply provides that he shall own iniquity to correct us, and our backsliding not attempt the performance of the act, “in a to reprove us. riotous, violent, tumultuous, or unreasonable We feel religiously bound earnestly to remanner."
monstrate against the passage of either of the The scenes of disorder and outrage, of which bills in question; and desire that it may our citizens were often compelled to be reluctant please the Most High, so to influence the witnesses, before the enactment of this clause, hearts of our Legislators, that their proceedand the favorable change which has since taken ings in this important matter, may be in conplace, furnish strong and unanswerable argu- formity with that excellent and comprehensive ments in support of the Section and against its rule, laid down by the great Christian Lawrepeal.
giver, our blessed Lord and Saviour" WhatShould it now be rescinded by the Legisla- soever ye would that men should do unto you, ture, it will be virtually granting a license to do ye also even so unto them.” the claimant to disturb the peace, and outrage Signed by direction and on behalf of a the feelings of the community, by adopting meeting of the Representatives of the with impunity any means, which his excited Religious Society of Friends, commonly and unbridled passions may dictate, for seizing called Quakers, in Pennsylvania, &c., and carrying away his victim.
held in Philadelphia, the 24th of the When we consider how repugnant to the First month, 1851. feelings and judgment of our citizens, slavery
WILLIAM Evans, Clerk. and its concomitant evils are, we have reason to apprehend that the encouragement thus Religion, instead of having one day in seven given to the unrestrained exertion of despotic allotted to its exercise, ought to be the great power, will result in scenes of tumult and riot,' business of life, the regulator of every action.
Died, - On the 28th of Twelfth month last, near voyage, and the survivors are too often used Waynesville, Ohio, Lydia B., wife of Brooks John- | as mere beasts of burden. The Minister says in son, and only daughter of 'Edward and Jemima the same despatch : Burson.
“ This traffic should, at all hazards, be put on Fourth day, the 8th ult., at his residence in Edgemont, Delaware county, Pa., John Newlin,
and when I inform you that hy far the aged 33 years. He suffered much, at times, from a greater portion of it is carried on in veseels built lingering and painful disease, which he bore with in the United States, and under the flag of our unmurmuring patience. He expired without a country, I trust you will agree with me, that it struggle; and the calmness and serenity which becomes us to act, and to act promptly. For clothed his spirit, left in the minds of his family myself, I will do so with hearty good will." and friends, a consoling evidence that his end was
In May, and July, 1847, Mr. Gorham Parks peace.
took a number of depositions relative to the case
of the American brig Senator, which had brought AUXILIARY BIBLE ASSOCIATION.
a cargo of slaves into Brazil in the month of The Stated Annual Meeting of the Auxiliary March preceding. This testimony proves that Bible Association of Friends of Philadelphia Quar. the vessel was American, that she sailed from terly Meeting, will be held at the Committee Room, Rio Janeiro with a general cargo direct for the Arch street Meeting House, on Second day evening coast of Africa ; that she landed her cargo at at 7) o'clock, 2d mo. 101h, 1851. Friends of both sexes are invited to attend. three points on the coast, and took on board at CHARLES Ellis, Secretary.
Loango, nine hundred and ninety-three slave 8, and after a voyage of twenty-three days arrived
at Macahi, Brazil, two hundred and eighty-three HAVERFORD SCHOOL.
slaves having died on the voyage. The crew A vacancy in the Mathematical Department of shipped at Rio, under assurances that they were this Institution will occur at the close of the Winter to be employed on a regular trading voyage. Term, in the Fourth month next, consequence There were eight or ten sailors ; from the names of the resignation of the present Teacher. Applications for the station may be addressed to either they are evidently Americans. Immediately beof the undernamed Managers, by whom the ne- fore taking on board the negroes, the American cessary information will be given.
captain went on shore, and a Portuguese took his Thomas KIMBER,
place. Josiah Tatum,
The men were told that the prize had been No. 50 N. 4ih St.
sold, and that they might go on shore if they ALFRED COPE, Walnut St. Wharf. chose, but they were not offered their and
wages, CHARLES YARNALL,
the place was very sickly. They navigated the 39 High St.
vessel back. The vessel was less than three Philadelphia, Ist mo., 1851.
hundred tons burthen. The negroes were stowed so thickly that some lay upon others. The
supply of water was insufficient, and seventy-four SLAVE TRADE IN AMERICAN VESSELS.
slaves died the first night out, from suffocation. There have been issued at Washington, printed The “Senator” belonged to Boston, and she copies of the correspondence between the State sailed throughout this fearful voyage under the Department and David Tod, United States Min- American flag. The mate, named Miller, seems ister at Rio Janeiro, relative to the African slave to have conducted the enterprise, and the mintrade. The correspondence of Mr. Tod covers a ister solicited his surrender, to be sent home to period of about four years, but he refers to, and the United States for punishment, but the Bragives the substance of communications from Mr. zilian government did not give him up. Proffit and Mr. Wise, his predecessors in the mis- In January, 1818, the American bark Lausion, upon
the slave trade, from March, 1843, to rens was seized, a few days out from Rio, and the time of his arrival in Brazil. This document sent home as a slaver. This is the vessel on discloses facts which will shock the country, and which the specie was seized, for which the late we trust lead to effectual measures for the sup- Marshal of New York was reported to be a depression of the most cruel and wicked traffic ever faulter. She was condemned. carried on.
In October, 1849, the Minister describes the It is stated in a despatch dated Oct. 16th, 1847, case of the American whaling ship Herald, of that the trade between Africa and Brazil con- Stonington, which he demanded as the proper: tinued to be prosecuted to an extent almost in- ty of the insurers in New York. She sailed credible. Not less than forty-five thousand Af- from Stonington in December, 1815, and after ricans had been imported into Brazil the preced- an unsuccessful cruise for whales, was brought ing year, and it is added that the poor creatures into the port of Rio, and thereby the barrawere not only separated from their homes and trous act of the master,” Captain Samuel Barfriends, but on their passage, and frequently ker—we give the name in full that the due meed after their arrival, were treated most brutally. of infamy may attach to it-was sold, nominally More or less of every cargo are murdered on the for $12,000, and fitted up for the slave trade,
Barker still commanding her. She made a voy- this trade is conducted. The vessel is sold and age to the coast of Africa, and brought back transferred the moment the slaves are ready for to Brazil between eleven and twelve hundred embarkation, and the American crew are turned slaves.
on shore, or compelled to remain and work the The burthen of the Herald was two hundred vessel. Often while this transaction is going on, and forty-one tons. The condition of twelve an English cruiser comes in sight, and then the hundred human beings in the hold of such a ves- slaves are hurried back, and the American flag sel may be imagined by a person of very strong again hoisted. There is proof on the records of imaginative faculties; it certainly could not be the consulate at Rio, that an American captain described. The wretch Berker contracted at took on board a cargo of slaves three times, and the time of making the pretended sale of the landed them as often, and was at length compelled ship, to make three voyages to Africa for slaves, to sail without them. and may therefore be presumed to have brought
Mr. Parks adopts the estimate of the British over more than three thousand victims of the Consul, Mr. Hesketh, that 183,500 slaves had traffic. His family reside, says oue of the docu- been imported into the province of Rio Janeiro ments, in Dartmouth, near New Bedford.
for the years 1846, '47, '48, and '49, but states In January, 1850, Mr. Tod wrote, "fifty thou, that he has no means of estimating the total sand Africans are annually imported into Brazil number for all Brazil. He says the only meaand sold for slaves. I believe one-half this sures for the suppression of the trade, from number are introduced through the facilities, which any good effect can be anticipated, are emdirectly and indirectly afforded by the American ployment of small and swift sailing or steam vesflag. This belief is founded upon my familiarity sels of war on that station, the refusal to grant with the subject, growing out of a close attention sea letters authorising the transfer of American to it since my arrival in Rio Janeiro."
vessels in Brazil or on the African coast, and the Mr. Proffit, in his No. 9 of 27th of February, total abolition of commerce between Brazil and 1844, wrote to Mr. Upshur :
the coast of Africa in our vessels. He says the “ I regret to say this, but it is a fact not to latter regulation would be productive of no evil be disguised or denied, that the slave trade is al effects, as there is no trade unconnected with that most entirely carried on under our flag, in Ameri- in slaves. can-built vessels, sold to slave traders here, char
Such is an abstract of the contents of this tered for the coast of Africa, and there sold, or document. It shows beyond a question, that the sold here, delivered on the coast. And, indeed, African slave-trade is carried on principally by the scandalous traffic could not be carried on to vessels furnished by the free states of this con any extent, were it not for the use made of our federacy, and in many cases by their expatriated flag, and by the facilities given by the chartering citizens. It shows also that the provisions of the of American vessels to carry to the coast of Afri- British treaty of 1843, have had no effect in ca the outfit for the trade, and the materials for suppressing this traffic, and that much more effipurchasing slaves."
cient, as well as more economical means may be In February, 1845, Mr. Wise stated to Mr. adopted for the attainment of the same objeet. Calhoun,
Journal of Commerce. “Our flag alone gives the requisite protection against the right of visit, search, and seizure; and our citizens, in all the characters of owners,
NEW YORK, January 31, 1851. consignees, of agents, and of masters and crews The African Slave Trade-The Manner of Conof our vessels, are concerned in the business, and partake of the profits of the African slave trade
ducting it. to and from the ports of Brazil, as fully as the A very important arrest was made here a day Brazilians themselves and others, in conjunction or two since, but it was kept secret because the with whom they carry it on. In fact, without officers were on the track of other parties who the aid of our own citizens and our flag it could had committed the same crime. It was that of not be carried on, with success, at all." Captain William Tyson, on the charge of having
In 1850, Ex-Consul Gorham Parks, in answer fitted out in this port about two years ago, a vesto circular questions of Mr. Tod, stated that from sel called the Raymon de Zaldo, for the slave July, 1844, to October, 1849, ninety-three trade. The information was given by one of the American vessels cleared from Rio for Africa ; seamen, and it was on his affidavit that Capt. of these, all but five had been sold and delivered Tyson was arrested. It is in proof that they on the coast of Africa, and had been engaged in landed six hundred and fifty slaves at Cuba. In bringing over slaves, and many of them had been relation to the subject of the slave trade carried captured with slaves on board. They were all on by Cuba, a correspondent from Havana writes of them loaded with goods with which to pur- as follows: chase slaves, and with provisions and water for Notwithstanding the treaty with England and their support on the passage over. Mr. Parks America, in regard to the slave trade, there has Dext proceeds to describe the means by which 'been imported to this Island alone, the last four