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69. A cask whose mean diameter is 22 inches and length 30 inches will contain how many gallons ?

70. What is the capacity of a cask in gallons whose mean diameter is 30 inches and length 38 inches ?

71. What is the capacity in liters of a cask, staves much curved, whose head diameter is 24, bung diameter 30, and length 36 inches ?

72. How many gallons in capacity is a rectangular cistern whose inside dimensions are 4 feet 3 inches, 3 feet 6 inches, and 4 feet?

TONNAGE OF VESSELS.

519. The Tonnage of a vessel is the number of tons' burden

it will carry

520. Shipwrights generally make their estimates of tonnage by the following

Rule.

For a single-deck vessel, take the length in feet above the deck from the forepart of the mainstem to the after-part of the stern

post, the breadth at the widest part above the main wales on the outside, and the depth from the under side of the deck plank to the ceiling of the hold. From the length subtract three fifths of the breadth, multiply the remainder, breadth and depth, together, and the product divided by 95 will give the tonnage.

For a double-deck vessel, take the length above the upper deck, for the depth half the breadth, and proceed as before.

73. What is the tonnage of a single-decked vessel whose length is 75 feet, breadth 20 feet, and depth 9 feet ?

74. What is the tonnage of a double-decked vessel whose length is 160 feet and breadth 30 feet?

FARMERS' ESTIMATES.

521. Grain in a bin or granary occupies nearly 14 as many cubic feet as there are bushels.

522. Corn on the ear will yield about half its bulk in shelled corn,

523. Wheat, according to quality, less a sixth for toll, will yield from 26 to 33 pounds of flour per bushel.

524. Mixed Hay, in large mow, is estimated at 500 cubic feet, and Clover, at 550 cubic feet to a ton of 2000 pounds.

525. Horses, young cattle, and sheep are estimated to consume daily, for each 100 pounds of weight, about 3 pounds of hay; and oxen and cows, about 2} pounds.

As food for stock, 100 pounds of average meadow hay is equal to about 56 pounds of corn, 56 pounds of wheat middlings, 60 pounds of oats, or 32 pounds of cotton seed meal.

526. Net Weight of fat beeves is about 3 of the live weight; of fat swine, $; of fat sheep, }; and of fat fowl, in.

Average beeves, net weight, will cut up : rump and sirloin, }; thigh and round, }; forequarter and rattlerand, %; hide, b; and tallow, .

An average swine, net weight, will cut up: hams and shoulders, 1; and sides and clear pork, 3.

75. I have a bin 8 feet long, 4 feet wide, and 3 feet deep. How many bushels will it contain ?

76. A wagon 8 feet long, 3} feet wide, and 2 feet deep, is filled with corn in the ear. How many bushels of shelled corn will it yield ?

77. How much average meadow hay will suffice to keep 3 horses 120 days, whose weight is 1200 pounds each, provided

78. How many bushels of best wheat' must be carried to mill to get back, after allowing a sixth for toll, a barrel of flour ?

79. When corn is 75 cents a bushel, what is the corresponding value of average meadow hay as food for stock ?

80. The live weight of a fat ox is 1550 pounds. If slaughtered, how many pounds of his net weight will cut up into rump and sirloin, and how many into round?

81. The live weight of 5 fat swine is 2250 pounds. How many pounds of the net weight will cut up into hams and shoulders, and how many into sides, or clear pork ?

STONE AND BRICK WORK.

527. A Perch of stone or masonry is 16} feet long, 1} feet thick, and 1 foot high, or 24 cubic feet.

528. In Rubble masonry, a cubic yard laid in the wall requires 1} cubic yards of undressed stone, and } of a cubic yard of mortar.

In Ashlar work, about } of the volume of the stone is allowed for mortar.

A mason, with a helper, can in a day lay in courses 4 cubic yards of rubble stone dry, or 3 cubic yards in mortar.

529. Bricks when laid will average for each

square

foot of surface on the face of the wall about twice as many bricks in number as the wall is inches thick.

530. A Cask of Lime is about 2} bushels, or 240 pounds, and absorbs about 2} times its bulk, or 24 times its weight, of water in slacking.

A cask of lime, with about 10 bushels of sharp sand, will make mortar for laying about 1000 bricks, or, with the addition of 5 pounds of hair, mortar for 35 square yards of plastering, one coat work, or 30 square yards, two coat work slipped.

531. A Cask of Cement of 300 pounds, with twice its bulk of sharp sand, will make mortar for laying 650 bricks; or, with four times its bulk, or about 12 bushels, of clean gravel, concrete for 9 square yards of flooring surface.

532. In Paving, about 40 bricks laid flatwise, or 75 bricks laid edgewise, are allowed for one square yard.

A mason, with a helper, in a day can lay in mortar, 8-inch work, 1400 bricks, or 12-inch work, 2000 bricks; and bricks flat in sand 20 square yards, or in cement, 12 square yards.

82. What will be the cost of the material for mortar for plastering 900 square feet, the price of lime being $0.90 per cask, sand 8 cents per bushel, and hair 6 cents per pound ?

83. I have a walk 4 feet wide and 224 feet long. What will it cost to pave it with brick, laid flat in sand, brick $ 7.50 a thousand, wages of the mason $ 2.75 per day, and of a helper $ 1.50 per day ?

84. What will it cost to concrete the bottom of a cellar 40 feet long and 24 feet wide, cement being $ 2 a barrel and gravel 8 cents a bushel ?

85. What will it cost to build a 12-inch brick wall, 6 feet high and 100 feet long, laid in mortar, brick being $8 per thousand, lime $ 1.10 per cask, sand 10 cents per bushel, wages of the mason $3 per day, and of the helper $ 1.75 per day?

86. A cellar is 34 feet long, 27 feet wide, and 9 feet deep. Its walls are 11 feet thick, made of rubble stones laid in mortar. The stone undressed cost $ 2.50 per perch, the lime cost $ 1 per cask, the sand used with it for mortar 10 cents a bushel, and a cask of lime and 10 bushels of sand made 15 cubic feet of mortar. The mason who built the walls was paid $3 a day, and his helper $2. What did the material and mason work of the cellar cost ?

BUILDERS' ESTIMATES.

533. Shingles are usually 16 inches long, and on an average 4 inches wide, and are put up 4 bundles to the 1000.

feet;

1000 shingles, laid 4 inches to the weather, will cover 107 square

laid 44 inches to the weather, 120 square feet; and laid 5 inches to the weather, 133 square

feet.

534. Clapboards are usually 4 feet long, and put up 10 bundles to the 1000.

100 of 4-foot clapboards, laid 4 inches to the weather, will cover 130

square feet; laid 4} inches to the weather, 150 square feet ; and laid 5 inches to the weather, 165 feet.

535. Laths are usually 4 feet in length, and are put up 10 bundles to a 1000.

100 laths, set of an inch apart, will cover 5} square yards.

A workman in a day will set of laths about 100 square yards, lay. of shingles on a roof about 2000, or put on of outside boards about 1000 feet.

536. Nails are put up 100 pounds to a keg.

6 pounds of 4-penny, or 5 pounds of 3-penny, nails are allowed for laying 1000 shingles ; 31 to 44 pounds of 5-penny nails for laying 1000 clapboards ; 7 pounds of 3-penny nails for setting 1000 laths.

537. Paint for outside work may have for first coat 16) pounds of white lead, ground in oil, to a gallon of linseed oil ; and for second or third coat, 20 pounds of white lead to a gallon of linseed oil.

For inside work, the spirits of turpentine may replace from one third to two thirds of the oil.

538. A Gallon of linseed oil weighs about 73 pounds, and a gallon of spirits of turpentine about 7 pounds.

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