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weeks fourteen hundred slaves from the coast of dred and fifty slaves was transferred from the Africa, and this is done with the knowledge and twenty boats which brought them off to the brig. connivance of the Captain General. Torn from The vessel was immediately got under way and their homes, their families, the scenes endeared left the harbor with the six hundred and fifty to them from early childhood, from all that slaves, and a crew of thirty-three or thirty four, makes life sweet-for the black skin covers a including Capt. Carlo (a Portuguese,) and Mello heart that has its loves, and its sympathies, as and Carvillo, first and second mates. The cargo well as a white one-carried to a strange land, of slaves was conveyed to, and landed at Havana. and nearly naked, kept at work in the broiling It was I think, on the 5th of August, 1849, sun from early morn until late at night; paying, the brig left Rio for Paranagua, and she arrived with the lash of the task master, most dearly for at Cabenda on the 14th of October. I and two any symptom of fatigue, and for the least appa- other persons were sent ashore at Cabenda where rent obstinacy, thrown into chains and compelled we remained nineteen days, and then departed to work chained together in couples, or dragging for Brazil in a vessel belonging to the estaba heavy ball to their legs. I have read of such lishment from which the slaves were shipped on things before, and supposed that much was said board the Ramon de Zaldo. The brig was afterfor effect, but now I am satisfied that the reality wards sold at Rio. far exceeds what I before looked upon as an over- William F. Price deposed that the Ramon de drawn picture.
Zaldo left New York in ballast; she took a car. Very few are aware of the modus operandi of go of flour from Virginia to Rahia; she contin. the slave trade as it is at present couducted. I ued on to Rio in ballast; where she discharged think, therefore, that the testimony of the wit- it, took in a fresh cargo, and proceeded on to Paranesses in this case, will be read with interest, as nagua. - Inquirer. it shows the mode of proceeding: John Gilbert, representing himself as a native
THE DEAD LETTER OFFICE. of Calcutta, swore this forenoon that he shipped as a seaman, on board the Ramon de Zaldo, at The Washington Republic, in the course of an Rio, from whence the vessel proceeded to Para- interesting article upon this subject, says : nagua, and he then became cook and steward, “ The whole number of dead letters returned in which capacity he remained on board until to the Department we can only vaguely estimate. they arrived at Cabenda, in Africa. On their Thus, in one quarter, the bulk of opened letters way to Cabenda, they stopped at Ambriz equalled about 6000 bushels, crammed; each and the river Congo. There were on board the bushel is supposed to contain 1000 letters. The brig a Portuguese crew of twenty-eight men, in- number returned in a quarter is therefore about cluding Captain and wate. The vessel lay at six millions, or twenty-four millions a year! Ambriz twenty-four hours. The cargo
Unclaimed moneys, less the discount, are of farina, beans, jerked beef, water and rice, and handed over to the general treasury, subject to would subsist seven hundred persons for five the demands of the rightful owners; but we bemonths.
lieve for the half-year ending June 30th, 1850, The captain and some of the American seamen the amount of these was not more than about left at Cabenda, but the mate, who is sinee dead, $1,700. renained on board. About one third of the Drafts
, deeds, and other papers of value, and provisions was put ashore at the River Congo, also jewelry, mementoes, &c., are preserved in and also several crates of crockery ware. There the dead letter office. These are often recovered still, however, remained on board about twice as by their owners with much delight. In one inmuch farina, &c., as would supply a full cargo stance, not a great while since, a gentleman, for of slaves during an ordinary voyage. We re- want of certain documents, believed to have been mained, said Gilbert, at the River Congo one lost from the mail, found himself in the power week; it was expected that a cargo of slaves of an unscrupulous person, in a matter in which would have been shipped there, but their plans property to the amount of ten thousand dollars were frustrated by finding in the harbour two (all the gentleman was worth) was involved. As French war steamers and an English brig of war. à possible means of obtaining the papers he apThey could find no slaves at Ambriz, or they plied to the dead-letter office, and in about three would have shipped them there. On arriving minutes they were produced! The package had at Cabenda, not a vessel lay there : and a signal been improperly addressed. was hoisted from our mast head, as we were sail- Dead letters are usually unpaid letters. The ing in, which was instantly replied to by an custom of prepayment has become vastly more answering signal from a flag staff on shore. general since the reduction of postage to five and
In a few moments a number of boats, filled ten cents. In the fourth quarter of 1850 the with slaves, were seen coming from the shore to- number of dead letters received from Cincinnati, wards us, and just before they reached our gang. not prepaid, was 8,700; the number prepaid, way the anchor was dropped, and within twenty. 1,300. In the third quarter of 1850 the prethree minutes from that time a cargo of six hun-'paid letters from the Boston post office number
ed 1,612 ; of letters not prepaid, 9,401. These
REVIEW OF THE WEATHER. instances are taken at random.”
For First Month January,) 1851. We publish the above as we find it in the pa
The new year found the earth covered in this per from which we copy, but must indulge a vicinity with about two inches of snow, which suspicion that there is some error in the account. had nearly disappeared from the streets before Twenty four millions of letters, left unclaimed the evening of the first day; but roofs having each year, or about one for each man woman
a northern aspect continued white for more than and child in the Union, seems to tax our credu- fallen to render the earth gray.
a week: since that time scarcely enough has lity nearly to its limit.
The temperature has been exceedingly mild, the mercury but once, between the 1st and 29th,
falling so low as 19 degrees, and the wind preCOTTON CULTIVATION ON TIE WESTERN COAST vailing from the south and west, 18 out of the
first 26 days. This continued mild weather was
remarkable also for the absence of gales, and The soil itself is admirably adapted to the fruc- even high winds: the nights were nearly calm, tification of the plant, and this is proved by the and a gentle, or very gentle breeze, prevailed for numerous specimens which are to be scen in al. 24, out of the first 28 days of the month. The most every piece of ground, spontaneously grow- weather was also almost uniformly fair, 6-10ths ing amongst the other shrubs and trees, and sup- of an inch of rain only having fallen during this plying large and well filled pods of the soft downy period. The mild weather prevailed to a great substance. The rearing and cultivation of the extent to the north, north-east, and north-west cotton plant would, in my opinion, be an accept- of us; the snow had nearly disappeared, Lake able kind of employment to the African laborer: Erie was navigable, and on the 22d, vessels and, as the price of wages is not high, and the cleared from the usually ice-bound barbour of time occupied in bringing it to perfection by no Buffalo for the upper ports of the Lake. means slow, the return would plentifully reward Our hardy and early vegetables did not fail to the planter as well as the purchaser. The qual. waken from their wintry sleep, and respond to ity of the article produced from the cotton plant these genial airs : the buds of the willow and of Sierra Leone has already been pronounced to the buck-eye, the lilac and the linden were much be very good, and capable of a durable and yet swelled; the topmost branches of the maple, fine texture. The extensive portions of land in (acer dasycarpum,) the little chickweed, (stelthe neighborhood of Freetown, and indeed laria media,) and the humble groundsel, (senethroughout the colony, which lie uncultivated, cio vulgaris.) were in full blossom—the two might be employed with advantage in the growth latter changing their northern habits
annual of this article, for which they are in every respect to perennial plants. In the open ground, too, fitted. The continent of Africa, in fact, through- and quite un protected, it was interesting to find out, is for the reasons already offered, well suit- that the crocus and the hyacinth, warmed into ed to the cultivation of the cotton plant. Some life, had burst their envelopes, risen to the years ago, considerable attention was paid to it, surface of the earth, and were putting forth and the undertaking promised every succe 3s.
A their slender scapes. large quantity of it was produced of a superior The mean temperature of the 29th-accord. quality, and the attempt only failed through ing to our usual observations, sunrise and 2, want of perseverance, good seed and a thorough P. M.—was 41 ; and had the month so ended, understanding of the proper manner of conduct the mean would have been nearly 39 degrees; ing and carrying it out into practice. The seed or the warmest 1st month, save two, in 60 years; of the native was not supposed to be so good as but on the 28th and the ensuing night a consid. that which was imported, and for this reason the erable rain fell, with an E. wind, which veered undertaking was prematurely, but foolishly relin- to the W. N. W. at 4 o'clock, A. M. of the 29th, quished. The natives themselves particularly blew strong, attended with frequent showers, till as you advance more into the interior and up the sunrise, when the mercury stood at 44. Gambia, grow a good deal of it, and make very The wind continued high from the same capital cloths for their own use from the mate- quarter, during the day, and the morning was rial, which they work after their own fashion. cloudy, but the weather was warm till after 10, The opportunities afforded for the cultivation of A. M., when it gradually changed, and the mer cotton in the vast tracts of land bounding that cury fell to 38, at 2, P. M., with a fair prospect river, and the readiness, I imagine, with which of a frosty night. But all speculation on the it would be undertaken and carried on by their coming weather was just here superseded by a possessors, if a fair inducement was held out to token on O'Reilly's wires from the far west, them, ought not to be passed over by our manu- indicating that at St. Louis, 12, M., the wind facturers at the present crisis.— Poole's Sierra was N. W., thermometer 10 degrees above zero Leone and the Gambia.
-at Louisville, 12, M., thermometer 21, with
“heavy N. W. winds." At Cincinnati, (the degrees, which is 6 degrees above the common same hour,) weather cold, snowing all the fore- mean of many years. noon, high N.W. winds. At Pittsburg, 12, M., The range of the thermometer for the month “wind N. N. W. Freezing up fast." Here, was between 11 on the morning of the 31st, then, we had positive intelligence (through an and 59 on the afternoon of the 26th, or 48 agent, compared with the speed of which the degrees. “high wind” and the “heavy wind” is but a Rain fell on a part of three days, and the lagger,) that a chilling blast, a killing frost, had whole quantity for the month was, as recorded already left its winter quarters in the dominions at the Pennsylvania Hospital, 14 inches. P.S. of Victoria, or the Czar, in the distant N. W.,
N. Am. and U. S. Gaz. and that it must soon be upon us, leaving doubtful the precise time only, and the degree its edge might be tempered and blunted by contact
A REASONABLE CONVICT. with more genial elements on its journey. The A notorious burglar was lately sentenced at premonition thus given is ample for preparation ; Toronto (Canada) to twenty years' hard labor in for guarding the hydrant pipes, stopping the the Provincial Penitentiary. He was found guilcrannies, and brightening the fires; with a few ty on two indictments, and condemned to ten years' minutes, it may be, to spare, which I am sure imprisonment on each. When brought up to bear cannot be better used than by looking in upon the judgment of the court, he was asked if he had that aged couple, infirm and poor, in the neigh- anything to say why the penalty of the law should bouring alley. Look to the coal' bin; see that not be pronounced against him. He replied as it is not reduced to the last bucket, and that so follows: mingled with dust as to be nearly incombusti- “No, my lord—I have violated the laws of my ble; that stove-pipe, too, eaten through with country. I have been tried by an impartial jury rust, and wrapped with paper;-supply a new and convicted, and I humbly bow to their decision joint. There, now, all parties feel better, and throwing myself entirely upon the leviency and are better prepared for what may come after. mercy of the court. There are, however, two fa.
Well, on the afternoon of the 29th, the mer- vors which I would ask, if a felon in the dock cury continued to fall from 38 at 2, P. M., to 24, dare ask a favor; first, that as I have no means at 10, P. M.; and, after a windy night, stood at of my own, though a portion of the money taken 14 on the morning of the 30th, being a fall of from me belonged to myself, the court would see 30 degrees in 24 hours. The 30th continued my counsel properly feed, as he has ably, though cold, the thermometer rising to 18 only, at mid- unsuccessfully, defended me. The second is, that day, with high wind and murky, wild looking when I am sent to the penitentiary, they would clouds, some of the contents of which would find intercede and have me taught some trade or protheir way to the earth, in the form of light, fession, in order that, should I ever be released busky snow flakes, which, mingling with the from it, I may be able to earn an honest liveliclouds of dust, rendered out-door exercise disa- hood. I attribute my present course of life solely greeable. The wind somewhat abated in the to the circumstance that I was never brought up evening, but the cold increased, the mercury to any trade. Should I not be taught any occustanding at 12 degrees only, above zero, at 101, pation while in the penitentiary, when I come out P. M.
I shall be friendless, homeless, penniless, and rågOn the morning of the 31st, the mercury ged; and I must necessarily resume my old babstood at 11 degrees above zero, which is 1 degree its, and become what I was before-a robber.”colder than any morning of last winter; the Penn. Jour. of Prison Discipline. wind had somewhat abated, and the sky was without a cloud. Thermometer had risen to 23, at 2, P. M., and a fine clear day.
A HAPPY REFORMATION. By the telegraph, we learn that the cold blast A convict who was discharged from the Easthas pervaded the whole northern and middle, as tern State Penitentiary about three years since, well as the western States; that the mercury recently called on a member of our Acting Comwas, on the evening of the 30th, at zero in Bos- mittee, from whom he had been accustomed to ton; 10 at Baltimore and Washington, and 7 receive friendly visits while in confinement. at St. Louis ; that the wind was everywhere He was well dressed, and evidently a thrivstrong, and from the N.W. With such rapidity ing man. He stated that he had derived much has the gale passed over the comparatively warm benefit from a treatise on book-keeping, which he earth, that it has hardly been tempered in its had used in his cell—that it had been the means course, and is now penetrating the South with of his introduction to commercial business, its icy arrows scarcely blunted.
which he was now prosecuting in a neighboring The mean morning temperature of the month city, with good success—that he had married was 32.77 degrees; 2 o'clock mean, 41.22; and eligibly—that he had never been recognised as a the mean average for the month was about 37.' convict, and felt confident. he should not be. He observed to his friend, that the term he resolution, calling for the correspondence between spent in prison was “the making of him.”. the United States Government and that of Spain, in Penn. Journ. Prison Discipline.
relation to the Amistad negroes, was taken up and adopted. The death of David S. Kaufman, Representative from Texas, was announced, and the usual
resolutions were passed. FLOWERS.
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.On the 29th ult. I deem it not an idle task,
the bill to supply deficiencies in the appropriations These lovely things to rear,
for the service of the fiscal year, ending 6th month That spread their arms, as they would ask 301h, 1851, was taken up and passed. On the 30th If sun and dew are here,
J. R. Giddings made an ineffectual effort to introFor simple wants alone are theirs,
duce a resolution calling on the President for copies The pure and common too
of any correspondence which may have taken place The beauty of refreshing airs,
between England and this Government, respecting The gift of liquid dew.
the imprisonment of British seamen in any Ameri
can port. On the 31st, the proposition to est iblish And they return for every ray,
branch mints in San Francisco and New York, was A gayer smile and look;
discussed during most of the session. Without disAnd greenly as the clear drops play
posing of the question, the House adjourned. They murmur of the brook ;
On the 1st instant the death of D. S. Kaufman, of And thus our thoughts away they lure, Texas, was announced. The usual resolutions were Where woods and waters gleam,
passed, and the House adjourned without transacting And mountain airs are strong and pure,
any business. And sing the bird and stream.
The funeral of D. S. Kaufman took place on the
3d inst., and no business was transacted by either Frail, grateful things! how fondly they House.
The nurtured leaf outspread,
PENNSYLVANIA LEGISLATURE.- A number of peti-
tions and memorials have been presented during įhe Some pink or crimson blossoms press,
pilst week, but little business of general interest has To thrill me with delight;
been transacted. To fill my very eyes with tears—
On the 27th ult a bill to incorporate the PennsylIts beauty is so bright.
vania Steam-ship Company, was passed by the
In the House, the bill repealing certain sections
of the law relating to the recovery of fugitive slaves To list from out the lowly dust,
passed a second reading on the 31st ult. One blossom of the earth
The New Orleans " True Delta" states that Gov.
Quitman has resigned his office.
Up to the time of our paper going to prers, no
tidings of the Atlantic have been received and the To blossom as the rose.
most serious apprehensions are entertained respecting her.
The Senate of Illinois, on the 14th instant pas. SUMMARY OF NEWS..
sed a homestead exemption bill, exempting $1,000
worth of real estate from seizure and sale under exCongress. Senate.-The bill to ascertain and
ecution. settle the private land claims in the State of Califor
The latest advices from Honolulu, state that nia, has been the principal subject before the Senate considerable excitement existed there in couse. during the past week. The question yet remains quence of information having come to hand, from unsettled.
sources of undoubted credit, to'ıhe effect that the On the 29th ult. the bill from the House, to re- the invasion of an armed force of ruffians from
Sandwich Islands were about to be threatened with duce and modify the rates of postage, was reported the shores of California." Meetings had been held to the Senate by the Post Office Committee, with at Honolulu to adopt measures for detence, and a amendments. On the 31st, Senator Mason called committee of safety was appointed to take such up his resolution of inquiry relative to allowing Spanish claims arising out of the Amistad case.
measures as the exigency might demand. After some discussion, in which Senator Hale op- By accounts from Nicaragua we learn that the posed the resolution, and Clay, Winthrop and Mason independence of that State has been recognized by advocated it, on the ground that it was merely an
the Spanish government. inquiry; the resolution was adopted. A petition,
The steamship Canada from Liverpool, arrived at asking for the admission of New Mexico into the Halifax on the 31 inst., but her mails had not been Union on certain conditions, was referred. A reso received when our paper was put to press. lution calling on the Secretary of State for a gradu. ated scale of diplomatic salaries was adopted. A joint resolution, providing that the dead letters re- Situations are wanted with Friends in the Coun. inaining in post-offices in California and Oregon shall try for two colored lads, well recommended, the be opened in California, by the Postmaster of San sons of a respectable man in this city, 15 years of Francisco, and a special agent, to be appointed, was age. Would be bound out if desired. Apply at taken up and passed. On the lst inst. Senator Hale's | this office.
1st mo. 23.
EDITED BY ENOCH LEWIS.
For Friends' Review.
Continued from page 291
all bountiful Giver of every good and perfect
gift. After a journey of something less than Published Weekly by Josiah Tatum, three hundred miles, he was favored to reach his No. 50 North Fourth Street,
own habitation, in the enjoyment of pure and
solid satisfaction. PHILADELPHIA.
An interval of a little more than six years ocPrice two dollars per annum, payable in advance, or
curs between the journey last mentioned, and six copies for ten dollars. This paper is subject to newspaper postage only.
the next which appears on the record.
In the early part of the Fifth month, 1761, being then about his twenty-eighth year, he left
home with a prospect of paying a religious visit to WILLIAM HUNT.
Friends in Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania,and
New Jersey. His companion was Bowater Beales. Only about seven months were alloted to the After attending their own Quarterly Meeting cares and enjoyments of domestic life, after his at Cane Ceek, which lasted three days, they return from his former journey, before this de- took a solemn leave of their wives, who had voted servant of the Most High, again set out on accompanied them to that meeting, and proa gospel mission. His dedication and religious ceeded on their journey. Some portions of the engagements must appearquite remarkable, when country through which they passed, were then we recollect that he was then only in his twenty- so thinly settled, that more nights than one, second year. The prospect was a visit to Friends were passed in the woods. In the narrative on the Pee Dee river. This journey, like the which is preserved respecting the journey, we previous one, was in considerable part through find these gospel messengers visiting the meeta wilderness; for on the second and third nights, ings of Friends in Virginia and Maryland, in he and his companions, being four in all, took situations where, at this day, very few if any of up their lodging in the woods, having in each the Society remain. Among these William case ridden about forty miles the preceding day. Hunt evidently appears to have laboured diliOf this journey, but few incidents are related. gently and faithfully, frequently having religious The small number of Friends who were visited, opportunities with the families where they lodgappear to have been thinly scattered over the ed. In these engagements, as well as the more country, holding their meetings in private houses; public assemblies, they were favoured with many and so located that in passing from one settle- refreshing and strengthening seasons. The frement to another, a night was occasionally spent quent acknowledgement of Divine support, and in the woods.
the general evidence running through the narraIn one place he mentions having a meeting tive, that love to the brethren was the clothing among the Baptists, “wherein Truth was exalted, of his spirit, serve to impress a conviction on the and the name of our great Lord and Master glo- minds of his readers, that the eminent gifts with rified. We taught them,” he says, “ by exam- which he was endowed, were received and exerple, more than precept, showing them the true cised with a single eye to the glory of the Giver, worship which stands in spirit and in truth.” and to the promotion of the cause of truth and In these brief memoirs, we have evidence that he righteousness in the earth. He was particularly was careful to regard the shutting, as well as careful not to deck himself with his Lord's the opening of the gospel spring; for of one jewels; or to assume as his own, what he knew meeting, which seems to have been among belonged to the Dispenser of every gift. Friends, he remarks, “This was the third time This visit appears to have extended to nearly at this place, wherein my Master made me an if not quite all those parts of Pennsylvania and example of silence; thereby directing the peo- New Jersey, where any settlements of Friends ple to the great Searcher in themselves.” But had then been formed. at others he was enabled to preach the gospel While passing through the interior of Pennin the demonstration of the spirit ; still humbly sylvania, he attended a meeting which provep ascribing the honour and praisc altogether to the an exercising one; and though he found his way