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open for some religious exercise, it did not ap-, declare the testimony of truth, to his own satispear to be attended with the same evidence of faction and that of his friends. Having a numdivine life which he had sometimes experienced. ber of relatives at that meeting to whom he was He therefore made his communication a short closely united, he had a religious opportunity, at one; and after parting with many of his friends the house where he lodged, with them and others, “in much love and tenderness of spirit,” he pro- from whom, at the close of the Yearly Meeting, ceeded towards a place where he expected another he parted, as he remarks,“ with a heart covered meeting to be held. “ But,” says he, “I had with reverent fear, and humble dread, under a not gone far before the accuser of the brethren sense of the many deep trials sacred Goodness met me in the way, and being but low and de- had brought him through." jected before, I cannot express the situation my He several times visited John Churchman, mind was now in. It seemed to me that the whom he pronounces “an ancient worthy minisbottomless pit from beneath had opened her ter of great experiences.” This valuable minister mouth, and with her bars encompassed me about; took a private opportunity to impart to his youththe very weeds of confusion were wrapped about ful visitor, some advice which was particularly my head.” The following night was spent “in affecting and highly iustructive. Thus manifesta variety of distressing thoughts, not knowing ing the care of a father in the Church, over a what would be the end of this
combat. I brought bright and promising son. things,” he remarked, “to the nearest inspection At a subsequent period of this journey, he I was capable of; but could not find that I stood again visited the same worthy minister, he being condemned for any thing; unless it was for then very ill, and in human probability not likespeaking too loud and too fast, to which I was ly to recover. During a solemn pause, William incident."
Hunt says it arose in his heart to tell him, he From this remark, we may infer, that he thought he must surmount this wave, and perfelt a secret apprehension that he sometimes suf- form some further service for the truth. To fered his mind to partake of a zeal and excite- which he meekly answered, “The will of the Lord iment which did not arise altogether from the be done.” true gospel fountain, and that his ardour may John Churchman did, soon afterwards, so far have partaken, in some degree, of a warmth aris- recover his health as to go to Philadelphia, for ing from sparks of his own kindling. In what- the purpose of seeking a passage to Barbadoes, ever light he viewed his own manner of speak- which he had a prospect of visiting on a religious ing, the fear here intimated, shows the tender- account; but finding that all the vessels which ness and watchfulness of his spirit.
were preparing to proceed to that island, were In the morning, as he proceeded in company furnished with guns for defence, the English and with several of his friends, towards the place French nations being then at war, he did not where a meeting was expected to be held, his feel at liberty even to look at them with a view mind was painfully exercised with the prospect, to taking a passage. Having informed Friends as he expresses it, “ of facing a meeting" under in one of their meetings, of his sentiments on this the disconsolate feelings which attended him. subject, he returned home, and waited to see “But,” says he, "at length through the great whether a clearer way would open. But the goodness of the Almighty, to whom all powers concern went off, and he seems to have regarded are subject, there arose a pleasant calm over my this religious concern as a measure, appointed mind, and there was a secret intelligible voice by a wisdom superior to his own, to enable him passed through my heart, “if thou wilt be con- to give a full and feeling testimony against partented, and bear all things just as they come, my ticipating in, or giving countenance to the depresence shall be with thee. O, gracious reviv- struction of human life. John Churchman lived ing of my life. In humble dread and awful fear. after the interview to which William Hunt alludes If thou wilt preserve me, from dishonouring thy between thirteen and fourteen years; and during name, I am willing to endure all things, that great part of that time, was much engaged in the may come upon me for thy Truth's sake.” service of the gospel. So that the prospect
When they arrived at the place where an ap- expressed by his visitor, was amply verified. pointed meeting was expected, they found that, When he was about leaving that part of the by some oversight, notice had not been circulat- country, William Hunt paid a parting visit to ed, and W. Hunt was not subjected to the necessi- this experienced minister who dropped some adty of facing a meeting there.
monitions which clearly indicate his solicitude The Yearly Meeting of Philadelphia occurred that this young and highly valued friend and while he was on this visit, which he attended, it brother in the gospel, might not grow more rabeing then held near the end of the ninth month. pidly in the branch than in the root. His expeOf that meeting he remarks, that the several rience of man had no doubt strongly impressed sittings thereof were owned with a weighty sense on his mind, a sense of the danger attendant of truth; and the business was transacted with upon young persons when endowed with extramuch calmness and condescension. In some of ordinary gifts, natural or spiritual. His expresthem he was enabled, through gracious help, tosions were, “I have had sweet unity and sympa
thy with thce, from thy first coming into this will still preserve both at home and abroad. province. I am glad thou hast grown in thy Wilt thou now distrust the sufficiency of my gift; yea and thou wilt still grow, if thou sink power?" deep and wait in thy gift; but if thou leave it, Then he says, "with an awful, humble, yet thou wilt grow in the top, and many words with mournful resignation, I said in the secret of my out life. Therefore wait in the gift, and when soul, 'Lord, thy peace is more to me than ten thou comes home, see if thou canst not say with thousand worlds. I am willing to follow whereJacob, I am become two bands ; say in the se- soever thou pleasest.' While I could keep here, cret of thy soul, Lord if thou wilt be pleased to my mind was in true quiet and stillness, but the blot out my transgressions, I am content.” desire I had let in to see my dear wife and lit
These appear to have been the parting ex- tle babes, had become so strong, that I could pressions of one who was justly regarded as a not easily put them by; and therefore I spent father and instructor, both to him and to others, this night in many a bitter sigh, and heavy and they made a deep impression on the subject groan, with frequent weeping.” of this notice.
Having attended the meeting in question, he At the time when this journey was performed, proceeded homeward without further delay, the Society of Friends were laboring to clear lodging one night in the woods on the road, and themselves from the practice of holding slaves; found his wife and family well, "who," says he, and this subject did not escape the attention of "with many dear friends and near relatives, a mind so thoroughly alive to the cause of uni- were glad to receive me once more, in the felversal righteousness as that of William Hunt. lowship that is with the Father and the Son, When about leaving Pennsylvania,* he remarks: Christ, to whom be rendered dread and humble “My heart was still pained on account of the fear forever.” poor negroes; and feeling the way open in their Near the close of the narrative, this declarameeting for business, [at West Nottingham] I tion appears : "Now I know it was the language spoke tenderly and closely to the subject; en- of the holy spirit which said, be faithful and I treating friends to live deeply inward ; and when will preserve at home and abroad. O saith truth should dictate the way for their enlarge- my soul that I, with all his anointed, may ever ment, not to let self-love hinder so great a keep a watchful eye to the secret monitions work.”
thereof; and give a ready obedience, which “The cry of these poor creatures was so loud alone crowns all our labor with true peace.” in my ears that I scarce ate or drank anything, lest I should partake of the gain of oppression.” From this expression, we may readily per- VIEW FROM
MONASTERY OP SOURIANI. ceive that his views in this respect were very " In the month of March, 1837, I left Cairo," similar to those of John Woolman, in relation
the Hon. Robert Curzon, in "A Visit to to the products of slave extracted labor.
the Monasteries in the Levant,' “for the pur: Having nearly accomplished the service to pose of visiting the Coptic Monasteries in the which he believed himself called, and taken leave, neighborhood of the Natron lakes, which are in great sweetness and tenderness of spirit, of situated in the desert to the Northwest of Cairo, many of the friends among whom he had labor on the western side of the Nile.” After visited, he was expecting to proceed immediately ing two or three, he particularly speaks of that home, when he found his mind drawn towards a of Souriani, from the depth of whose recesses meeting which lay fifty miles out of his way in the cellar, he found treasures of which he This, he says, was a pinching trial; he pleaded was in pursuit-viz: tomes of ancient times, hard to be excused. But the covenant which he Syriac manuscripts on vellum, which he had made in his journey, was brought into view ; some trouble in digging from “their literary when under deep-baptism, he had promised grave," and thus describes the scene in ascendthat if the Lord would preserve him to the ing from its gloom and the light of wax candles, honor of his name, he would offer up not only his to that of day. nearest enjoyments, but his life, if required. “On leaving the dark recess of the tower I Then he says a sweet voice passed through his paused at the narrow door by which we had enmind; “What hast thou lacked of my presence; tered, both to accustom my eyes to the glare of have not I been with thee and supported thee daylight, and to look at the scene below me. I through those dangerous spots of which thou stood on the top of a steep flight of stone steps, wast sore afraid? If thou wilt be faithful, I by which the door of the tower was approached
from the court of the Monastery : the steps ran •Pennsylvania was then a slaveholding province; the up the inside of the outer wall
, which was of first law which effectually sealed the doom of slavery in sufficient thickness to allow of a narrow terrace that State, was not enacted until nearly twenty years af- within the parapet; from this point I could ter that time.
look over the wall on the left hand upon the
For Friends' Review,
To the Editor of Friends' Review,
desert, whose dusky plains stretched out as far, when I turned my eyes upon my companions as I could see, in hot and dreary loneliness, to and myself, it struck me that we also were the horizon. To those who are not familiar somewhat remarkable in our way. First, there with the aspect of such a region, it may be well was the old blind grey-headed abbot, leaning to explain, that a desert, such as that which now on his staff, surrounded with three or four dark surrounded me, resembles more than anything robed Coptic monks, holding in their hands the else, a dusty turnpike in England on a hot sum- lighted candles with which we had explored the mer's day, extended interminably, both as to secret recesses of the oil-cellar; there was I, length and breadth. A country of low rounded dressed in the long robes of a merchant of the hills, the surface of which is composed entirely East, with a small book in the breast of my of gravel
, dust and stones, will give you a good gown and a big one under each arm; and there idea of the general aspect of a desert. Yet, al- were my servants armed to the teeth and laden though parched and dreary in the extreme, from with old books, and one and all we were so covertheir vastness and openness, there is something ed with dirt and wax, from top to toe, that we grand and sublime in the silence and loneliness looked more as if we had been up some chimney, of these burning plains; and the wandering than like quiet people engaged in literary retribes of Bedouins who inhabit them are seldom searches. One of the monks was leaning in a content to remain long in the narrow inclosed brown study upon the ponderous and gigantic confines of cultivated land. There is always a volume in its primeval binding, in the interior fresh breeze in the desert, except when the terri- of which the blind abbot had hoped to find a ble hot wind blows; and the air is more elastic treasure. Perhaps upon the battlements of this and pure than where vegetation produces ex- remote monastery we formed as picturesque a halations which in all hot climates are more or group as any might wish to see; though the beless deleterious. The air of the desert is always grimed state of our flowing robes, as well as of healthy, and no race of men enjoy a greater our hands and faces, would render a somewhat exemption from weakness, sickness and disease, remote point of view more agreeable to the artist than the children of the desert, who pass their than a closer inspection.” lives in wandering to and fro in search of the scanty herbage on which their flocks are fed, far from the cares and troubles of busy cities, and free from the oppression which grinds down the PROCEEDINGS IN THE SENATE ON PEACE. half-starved cultivators of the fertile soil of
Washington, Feb. 6, 1851. Egypt.
Your readers are all aware, that the friends While from my elevated position I looked out of peace have, at this session of Congress, sent on my left upon the desert, on my right how in a large number of petitions for International different was the scene? There, below my feet Arbitration as a permanent substitute for war. lay the convent garden in all the fresh luxuriance I was in the Senate Chamber yesterday when of tropical vegetation. 'Tufts upon tufts of way. Mr. Foote, Chairman of the Committee on ing palms overshadowed the immense succulent Foreign Relations, reported, with their unani. leaves of the banana, which in their turn rose mous consent, the following preamble and resoout of thickets of the pomegranate with its bright lution in reference to a petition from the Amerigreen leaves, and its blossoms of that beautiful can Peace Society as taking the lead, and several and vivid red which is excelled by few, even of hundred other petitions from various and widely the most brilliant flowers of the East. These distant Societies of the country. were contrasted with the deep dark green of “Whereas, appeals to the sword for the dethe caroub or locust tree; and the yellow ap- termination of national controversies are always ples of the lotus vied with the clusters of green productive of immense evils; and whereas, the simes, with their sweet white flowers, which luxu- spirit of enterprise of the age, but more esperiated in a climate too hot and sultry for the cially the genius of our government, the habits golden fruit of the orange, which is not to be of our people, and the highest permanent pros. met with in the valley of the Nile. Flowers perity of our republic, as well as the claims of and fair branches, exhaling rich perfumes and humanity, the dictates of enlightened reason, bearing freshness in their very aspect, become and the precepts of our holy religion, all require more beautiful from their contrast to the dreary the adoption of every feasible measure, consistarid plains outside the convent walls, and this ent with the national honor and the security of great difference was owing solely to there being a our rights, to prevent, as far as possible, the well of water in this spot, from which a horse or
occurrence of war hereafter : Therefore, mule was constautly employed to draw the fertil
“Resolved, That, in the judgment of this body, izing streains which nourished the teeming vege- it would be proper and desirable for the Governtation of this monastic garden.
ment of the United States wherever practicable, I stood gazing and moralizing at these con- to secure, in its treaties with other nations, a trasted scenes for some time; but at length, provision for referring to the decision of umpires, all future misunderstandings that cannot The reader is probably aware that the best be satisfactorily adjusted by amicable negotia- hammered or malleable iron is nearly pure iron, tions in the first instance, before a resort to hos- and that cast-iron and steel are compounds-al. tilities shall be had.”
loys they may almost be called—of iron with This measure is not all I could desire, but small proportions of carbon or charcoal. Castclearly a large and most hopeful advance towards iron contains more carbon than steel, although superseding error. I was glad to hear Mr. Foote, in both the quantity is small, varying perhaps in presenting the report, say he presumed the from or 1 to 4 or 5 per cent. Cast-iron is fuSenate would feel little or no hesitation in adopt- sible, hard, brittle, unelastic. Steel is also fusiing a measure so simple, and so cordially and ble and hard, but it is much tougher, and highly unanimously recommended by the Committee. elastic. Here we see the powerful effects of so There is now a fair prospect, I think, that our small a proportion of carbon; for iron is nearly Government will gradually—that is the only infusible, soft, and very tough, when free from way possible-come into the practice of provid- carbon. ing in its treaties for arbitration, instead of the
Now Mr. Stirling has found that cast-iron sword; a glorious consummation, worth a thou
may be rendered very tough, without losing its sand times over all that has been given, done fusibility, by simply alloying it with a certain and suffered for the cause of peace from the days proportion of wrought or malleable iron. He of George Fox till now.
takes, we shall say, a quantity of any species of GEORGE C. BECKWITH.
cast iron—no matter, for the general character of the result, of what kind and has it run from the
blast-furnace into moulds containing a certain NEW METALLIC MIXTURE.
proportion of scrap-iron. The pigs thus formed There are few things more remarkable than are then melted, as usual, in a cupola, and run the total change of properties produced when two into the desired moulds for castings. Thus is
proor more metals are made to combine together so duced what he calls his toughened cast-iron. as to form what are called alloys. This change His object in the first experiments, was to imis so marked, that it is often impossible to pre- prove the inferior, weaker, or more fluid-irons dict
, from the known properties of the compo- to an equality with the better kinds ; but he did nent metals, those of the alloy. We see this
not expect the remarkable result actually ob
very distinctly in the known cases of brass, an alloy tained-namely, that all irons are thus brought of copper and zinc, in all its varieties ; of bronze, to a kind of average strength and toughness far bell-metal, gun-metal and gong-metal, which are
above that of the best cast-iron. The strength of alloys of copper and tio; of type metal, a break a bar 1 square inch in section, and 4 fuet
cast iron is measured by the weight necessary to mixture of lead, antimony, and tin ; and many 6 inches long between the supports, when susothers.
But although many useful and valuable alloys pended to the middle of the bar. The highest are known, when we consider the great number of result obtained by Mr. Hodgkinson with the simple metals—of which nearly ifty have been best of (Blaenavon) cast iron was 578 lbs.; discovered, while at least twenty are sufficiently but the average, as by the same authority, is abundant to be applied to practical purposes,
454 lbs. and further, that any two metals may combine Now Mr. Stirling has obtained the very high in many different proportions; and lastly, that result of 868 lbs., while Mr. Rennie, using Mr. very often an exceedingly small proportion of one Stirling's method, obtained that of above 900 lbs. metal will give to another entirely new properties Later experiments have given a still higher de-when we consider these things, it is obvious gree of improvement; so that the maximum inthat the existing alloys can form only a very crease of strength over that of average cast-iron small proportion of the immense number that (454 lbs ) is 120 per cent. ; and that which may may be obtained, many of which may probably on all occasions be calculated on is from 60 turn out more valuable than any yet known. 70 per cent., yielding an average of about 750
Mr. Morris Stirling, a gentleman thoroughly lbs. as the breaking weight of an inch bar 4 feet qualified for the task by a scientific education | 6 inches between the supports. All sorts of and long practical familiarity with chemistry, castings, if the due proportion of wrought scrap has, within the last few years, paid much atten- for each be ascertained, may be brought to this tion to the alloys, chiefly of the most important very high average of strength. Of course the of all metals-iron. The results he has obtained improvement is, relatively to the original quality are of the highest practical importance, and af- of the iron, not so great in the best as in the ford a signal proof of the truth of what we have inferior sorts, but even in the best it is very stated—namely, that multitudes of valuable alloys great. This method is not a source of increased remain to be discovered, and will richly re-cost, for the cost is only greater in reference to ward the time and labour bestowed in such inves- the iron used. Thus Scotch pig-iron, at £2, tigations.
10s. per ton, when the expense of the scrap-iron
besides the royalty of the patentee, is ad-, Memoir of HANNAH NEALE, of Mountmellick, ded to it, costs as toughened cast iron about £3 Ireland, who died Third Month, 29, 1850, But it is now 60 per cent. stronger
aged 33 years. than iron sold at £3, 15s, and £4 per ton.
Hannah Neale had an extensive circle of acIt is not easy to estimate the importance of this discovery, which has been confirmed by quaintances, by whom she was much beloved and many of the leading iron masters, who are now
esteemed, as being one of a very innocent and using the patent under Mr. Stirling's license.
blameless life. Some of the circumstances reFor all castings where strength is required, such lating to her are of a very affecting and interestas beams, girders, pillars, the advantage is so ing character, and speak loudly the uncertainty great and obvious, that it is hardly necessary to of all earthly prospects. In the summer of last do more than to allude to it. We obtain, at a year, she entered into an engagement of marcheaper rate, with the same weight of castings, riage with a friend residing in England. Havnearly double the strength, which for railway ing considered the subject with earnest and bridges, &c. is an inyaluble result. But further, sincere desires to act in accordance with best where the actual strength is more than sufficient wisdom, she looked forward to the completion of to resist the strain to which it is exposed, we can
the prospect with a pleasing and hopeful confiattain to that strength by using a much less dence ; yet even at an early period of the enweight of metal, and consequently at a still fur- gagement, there was something that seemed to ther reduced price.
whisper to her, the uncertainty of its comMr. Stirling has produced an admirable alloy pletion. of iron, intended as a substitute for that of cop
At this time she appeared in her usual health per used for bells. It is even under the patent, and full of spirits; but while on a visit to her one third cheaper than ordinary bell-metal, ex- aunt, at Kingston, her health became affected, ceedingly hard, and not more brittle. It is and from this time, symptoms exhibited themwonderfully sonorous, and the tone of bells made selves, which baffled all medical skill. She was of it (of which the writer possesses two) is supe- still, however, hopeful respecting her own rerior to that of any bells of the same pitch we covery, and very often expressed
in her correshave ever heard. It is rich, full, musical, and pondence, how much she was pained by the pure, and singularly prolonged. Messrs. Mears, thought of being the cause of so much anxiety the great London bell-founders, have taken a li- to others,--that her own sufferings were trifling, cense for this alloy.
and the comforts around her were so numerous, The same metals in different proportion, yield she felt that she had everything to be thanks an alloy which takes a remarkably high polish ful for. It was, however, evident to those and silvery lustre, and will probably be found around her, that there was little ground for advantageous for speculum metal.
hope, and a dear friend intimated to her, that her There is another alloy of iron with one or medical advisers considered her end might possimore of the metals above mentioned in certain bly be very near. This intelligence greatly startled proportions, designed for gun-metal. It is made her, but she afterwards expressed, how thankful of different qualities, according to the purpose she felt that she had been honestly apprised of for which it is intended. The tensile strength of her danger. two of the kinds was compared with that of gun- The solemn impression then made on her mind, metal made at Woolwich. The metals were cast never left her, and her constant desire was, that and tried under similar circumstances. Of the she might, through divine mercy, be made meet Woolwich gun-metal, the average of many sorts for the kingdom of heaven, repeating emphatiwas 11 tons per square inch; while that of Mr. cally, “I have much to do.” Stirling's gun-metals was 16 tons per square inch. She often expressed her great sorrow, that
With zinc for a basis, Mr Stirling has made she had not yielded to the serious impressions many alloys of admirable properties. One with with which she had been favored, saying, "They an adjunct of copper makes excellent bell-metal. were soon scattered;" and regretted much that Another with manganese, besides copper, pro- she had not lived a more devoted life. She duces one having many of the qualities of gold. felt herself to be a great sinner, needing a A third, with nickel and copper, furnishes a Saviour's gracious pardon; and for a long time metal resembling silver. The second of these is feared she never should obtain that forgiveness found suitable for metal pens.
she so earnestly longed for. But though her It is gratifying to consider these discoveries faith was feeble, she endeavored to lay hold of as the result of diligent application to experi- encouragement from the mercy extended to the ment, and to learn that the merits of the dis- Prodigal Son, and to the Thief upon the cross, coverer are likely to be duly rewarded. We hoping that the same mercy might be extendfind that his improved irons have obtained the ed to herself; but for a long time, her poor approbation of the government commissioners for tossed and tried mind “could find nothing to investigating the properties of iron for railway lean upon.” She remarked, she could not feel purposes.-Edinburg Journal.
that she had sinned against her fellow-creatures,