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disgraced, and kept us down, and which now I loved to lead his hearers from created beauty, to asks for its support the overthrow of our wise reflect on that perfection which is without beginform of government, is no more to be tolerated. ning, and will have no end.” Our interests, our peace, our safety, demand its « The evening before his death he spent very extirpation.'. I do not believe it is good policy cheerfully with his family, and retired to rest as for the slaveholders to let their neighbours hear well as usual. About two in the morning, he them talk of disunion. Unless I read very stu- was seized with violent pain in the chest, which pidly the signs of the times, it will not be the continued with but little intermission for about Union they will thus endanger, but the interest an hour. During this time he was perfectly to which they would sacrifice it. If they insist sensible, and at times supplicated for ease. This that both cannot live together, they may be taken was mercifully granted about three, and after a at their word, but it is THE UNION THAT MUST few minutes of peaceful tranquillity, he gently STAND.”

ceased to breathe on the first of the fourth month, 1835, in the seventy-sixth year of his


Extracts from his letters were published in

London--the copy before the writer, in 1844– This Friend was born at Gedney in Lincoln- and edited by our friend Josiah Forster, of Totshire, in 1760, of parents who educated him in tenham. There is much instructive matter conthe principles of our excellent profession, and tained in them, and it is intended to offer occawith whom he grew up, enjoying the privileges sionally to the editor, some of the letters for of rural retirement and the simplicity of pastoral insertion in the Review. The following, under life. The period between his leaving school and date of 2d mo. 21, 1823, is addressed to Sarah manhood, was, he says, "strongly characterized Squire.

T. U. by the sins and follies to which youth and inexperience are so peculiarly liable.” He appears “I can feel for thee under the buffeting of "to have been left to explore in much solitude Satan, whereof, in the shape of a wandering the depth and the misery of fallen nature, in its imagination, thou so pathetically complained. greatest bitterness." Yet through the adorable This mode of his attack, including both the roargoodness and mercy of our Heavenly Father, he ing of the lion, the subtlety of the serpent, and was not left to himself, but was brought into such many nameless presentations, is in itself no new distress of mind, that, though hope had almost or strange thing, though in appearance both new, "taken its departure," he was induced to call strange, and terrific to the individual who has upon his God, and cry earnestly for deliver- not been much, if at all, accustomed to such conance from the thraldom of sin, and the cruel Alicts. I was early acquainted with them myself, grasp of his soul's enemy. He did not ask in so that before reaching twenty years of age, I vain. He who came to seek and to save that was almost driven to distraciion. The short which was lost, had mercy on him; severe petition, • Lord! help me, which thou hast afflictions were blessed to him, and through the mentioned as one that has sometimes escaped baptizing influences of the Holy Spirit, his will thee when under deep trial, has forcibly reminded was brought into subjection to the Divine will, me of perhaps the first fervent prayer I ever put and to use his own language respecting himself, up, not in a temple made with hands,--not in his “poor soul was placed in a capacity to en- any congregation assembled for worship,—but in deavour to know and to do the will of God.” solitude, under the magnificent canopy of the

In the year 1809, not long after the decease of overarching heavens, and with a retired corner his wife, while accompanying Deborah Darby of a haystack for my altar: here I cast myself on a religious visit in the neighbourhood of in great agitation on my knees, and exclaimed, Gedney, he first spoke as a minister of the Gos- If there be a God in heaven, I pray thee help pel. His “ministry was not in many words, me.' but under a feeling of Divine requiring, and it “Nor was this the only period of my life in found great acceptance with his friends.” His which I have been thus pursued by him who is public petitions at the throne of grace, it is said, described as “going about;' &c.—who was per“ were solemn and reverent, in few words : and mitted to prove Job, to withstand Joshua, and being offered in the Spirit, often tended to spread even to tempt the dear Son of God himself; for a spirit of supplication over the meeting." " His since I have been more decidedly endeavouring conversation was instructive; "he was particu- to serve and to please my Creator, and to be larly careful not to reflect upon the failings of what he would have me to be, I have sometimes others,” and thus his gentle, retiring manners, been thus hunted, from day to day, and from greatly endeared him to his friends. He loved place to place. Once in particular I recollect, to address himself to the youth, and in the hours when on a little turn-out with two women of social enjoyment, “ a shell, a stone, or a seem- Friends, who were travelling in the work of the ingly insignificant plant, would furnish him with ministry, I was grievously tried with wandering a subject on which instructively to dilate; for he thoughts from meeting to meeting; my very soul

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abhorred them, and at length a language to this | Mahanoy Coal Regions, and embraces the former effect sprang up in the secret of my heart, If I to a small, the latter to a great extent. The have sinned, I pray Thee, forgive me; but if Estate comprises coal, iron, timber, and farming these things are for the trial of my faith and lands. That part of it in which the coal lies, is patience, I submit.' Upon this the enemy on the head waters of the Shanodnah, a branch vanished, and I was enabled to pursue the re. of Mahanoy, and on the head waters of the Mamainder of my journey in satisfaction and peace; hanoy Creek. These streams with their several and it is somewhat remarkable how useful I find branches run west, and intersect each other in the remembrance of this circumstance, even to the southwestern part of the City Coal Lands, the present time, so much so, that when followed, their confluence being on the east side of Girardsand might we not almost say insulted, by this ville. The head waters of Little Catta wissa malignant spirit, I can generally by prayer and Creek, the head waters of Mine Run, and the patience foil, or at least silence him.

head waters of Roaring Creek, are in the north“Although no consideration ought to reconcile western part of this Estate. . In the southeastern us to sin, there are, I think, several which may part of the City Coal Lands rise the head waters prevent our being too much surprised at temp- of the Little Schuylkill. The timber and farmtation, or from viewing it as a thing inconsistent ing lands, being the northeastern portion of the with our probationary state, of which, perhaps, Estate, are intersected by the waters of Cattaspeaking after the manner of men, it might be wissa Creek, and its tributary branches. almost said to form an integral part, wherefore, The “Girard” or “City” Coal Lands are • Blessed is the man that endureih it; To him divided into seventy contiguous tracts, which are that overcometh will I give,' &c. But if there severally distinguished by the names of the rewere no such thing as lemptation, there would spective warrantees. The total area of the be none to endure, and were there no opposition, estate is upwards of twenty-eight thousand acres, there would be nothing to overcome. Were twenty-five thousand acres of which contain coal there none of these, there could be neither war- and iron ore, the remaining portion is composed fare nor victory, nor is it probable we should of farming and timber lands. There are thirteen have been favoured with a promise and declara- tracts in the southeastern part of the “Girard,” tion, which I consider as one of the most precious or “City” Coal Lands, in which Messrs. Alter left us on sacred record : •Because thou hast and Stevenson, of Philadelphia, own an undikept the word of my patience, I also will keep vided fourth part, in common with the city of thee from the hour of temptation, which shall Philadelphia. come upon all the world, to try them that dwell That part of the Girard Lands which contains upon the earth.'

the coal, embraces a run of fifteen miles upon “Do not think, however, that I would assume the course of the coal strata. The eastern and the office of a preacher to thee. I am only western portions of the estate command the entire giving thee a leaf of my experience, to help thee width of the coal field-the central part contains against our common enemy, in a case wherein I the northern portion of the coal basin. have had, and may yet have, many a combat The second, or middle Anthracite Region, is, with him. For thou hast not been mistaken in as before observed, divided into the Mahanoy and supposing, that notwithstanding my being further Shamokin coal fields. These contain several advanced in age than thyself, yet I find amidst elongated axes of the coal strata from east to the vicissitudes which surround me, stormy night west. The most northern axis in the central seasons, which not unfrequently, either to my part of the middle Anthracite Region, as regards weakness or my impatience, perhaps to both, its length, is synclinal, the coal strata forming a seem long, dark and dreary. Yet, like thyself, basin between Big Mountain on the north, and I have nothing of which I would complain; Coal Run Ridge on the south. To this basin rather let me respond to thy sweet and moving belong the coal veins now in operation at Shamoejaculation, .0 that the good Pilot may guard kin Gap. The coal strata of this synclinal axis, and protect us !' and let us endeavour to be of or basin, extend into the northwestern part of the good cheer. I hope and trust He will.Girard Lands, and in this estate, a short distance

east from its west boundary line, the coal strata, of this axis basin out-the bottom part of the

basin becomes more and more elevated, until the GIRARD MINERAL ESTATE.

bottom vein of coal crops out, encircling the The several tracts which are comprised in table land between the head waters of Shamokin this Estate, were bought by, and under the and those of Roaring Creek; further east the direction of the late Stephen Girard of the city mountain chain forming the northern boundary of Philadelphia, and by him they were bequeathed of this coal basin, westward, becomes deto that city, and are now known as the “City” | pressed, and the coal strata are therefore disconor “Girard” Coal Lands.

tinued. The Estate is situated in Schuylkill and Co- The second axis of coal veins is formed belumbia Counties. It lies in the Shamokin and 'tween Coal Run Ridge and Mine Ridge. This

From the North American and U. 8. Gazette.




axis is continued with great regularity through property of the citizens of Philadelphia, in which the City Coal Lands.

each and every citizen is interested, and will be The third axis of coal veins lies between Mine benefitted by the great revenue it will yield when Ridge and Locust Mountain. This axis like the coal and iron ore veins are opened, leased wise continues with great regularity through the and in work—and not only the citizens of PhilaGirard Estate.

delphia, but the whole country around the estate The fourth, or southern axis of coal veins, of will reap advantages from it when brought into this great coal formation, is between Locust operation should be immediately and Mountain and Mahanoy Mountain. It basins ceasingly persevered in, until this very necessary out in a similar manner to the first described or and very desirable work is accomplished. northern axis, terminating a rounded end on the To enable the citizens of Philadelphia-the summit land, in the southeastern part of the owners of the extensive mineral estate,-the Girard estate, between the head waters of Maha- “Girard" or City” Coal Lands,—to form noy and Little Schuylkill.

some idea of the value thereof, its extent and The lowermost coal veins in the basins of this capabilities are compared with other anthracite extensive coal region, Mahanoy and Shamokin, estates, in the Schuylkill and Lehigh coal fields, are of great thickness, and yield coal of an ex- now in their infancy as regards their future value, ceedingly pure quality. The mineral strata crop by the following facts, which are respectfully out higă up the sides of the mountains, and in submitted for their consideration. some places they lap over, making a continuous In a pamphlet published by C. G. Childs, vein from one basin to the other. Where this is Esq., the able editor of the Philadelphia Comthe case the anticlinal axis of the coal vein is mercial List, a table is inserted with the names only observable in the ravines, where the cross and cost of the canals and railroads leading to streams have cut the hills at right angles to the the mines, from which are extracted the following range of the strata.

items: Anticlinal axes or saddles of coal may be ex. Mauch Chunk Railroad—from Summit pected to exist in the Girard or City Coal Lands; and Rhume Run Mines to Mauch therefore an incredible, and I may with safety Chunk, and back track, 36 miles of add, an inexhaustible amount of coal, lies above railroad, cost

$600,000 water level in this estate, which, from the un- Beaver Meadow Railroad-From the broken nature of the strata, and freeness from Beaver Meadows to the landing on fault, as indicated by the uniform regularity of the Lehigh Canal, 26 miles of railthe surface, may be mined at very low rates, and road, cost

$360,000 will yield, when in operation, a' revenue to the Hazleton Railroad to Lehigh Canal, 10 city of Philadelphia far beyond the yield of any miles railroad, cost

$120,000 other property in the possession of that corpo- Buck Mountain Railroad to Lehigh ration.

Canal, 4 miles railroad, cost $40,000 In consideration of the foregoing facts-facts Lykens' Valley Railroad to which cannot be questioned-facts which any Susquehanna Canal, 16 intelligent miner, any person at all conversant miles, cost

$200,000 with Geology must coincide with-in con- Wiconisco Canal to Millerssideration of these facts, can this, will this in- burg on Susquehanna, 12 valuable mineral estate be suffered to remain miles of canal, cost $70,000 $270,000 idle, in consequence of its being shut out from The Lehigh Company's railway between the market, for the want of some five or six miles of mines and Mauch Chunk, where the coal is railroad to make it the most profitable estate, shipped on the canal, is a series of inclined with judicious management, ever held by any planes. The Beaver Meadow Railroad has two corporation under the sun ?

inclined planes, and the Buck Mountain ComBy the construction of some five or six miles pany's Road has inclined planes. The “Girard” of railroad, a continuation from the terminus of or “City” coal lands may be connected at New the road, which will be completed this year up Boston, the head of the Mill Creek Railroad, by to New Boston, on Broad Mountain, the City constructing a railroad of some five to six miles, anthracite coal lands, containing coal in inex- without an inclined plane. haustible quantities, of the very best quality, and The surface area or the City coal lands is four iron ore in abundance, would be connected, with times as large as the estate of the Lehigh Comout an inclined plane, with the Reading Rail-pany within the coal field; it is twenty times as Road, the Schuylkill Navigation, and the At- large as that portion of the Beaver Meadow lantic Ocean. The construcion of so short a estate 'within the coal field ; lwenty times as large line of railroad by which such incalculable ad- as that of the Hazleton Company, and so with vantages will be gained, by one and all, the the other estates named in the list and the citizens of Philadelphia, ought not to be longer whole of these estates combined, which cost updelayed. The opening to market of this in- wards of one million of dollars to open them to valuable and unequalled coal and iron estate, the market, are not more than one half the extent of

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the “Girard" coal lands, owned by the citizens of the school on Sabbath evenings distributing of Philadelphia ;—and in addition to this the jackets, pantaloons, frocks, bonnets, shoes, &c., thickness and number of the coal veins in the among ragged children. Some who had never same area of surface, in the City coal lands, far possessed a pair of shoes, were here supplied outstrip several of the properties before named. with them; and many who came covered with

The coal in the estate, the property of the city rags, were sent home clad in a decent suit. But of Philadelphia, is in character and quality simi- this plan of distributing was found to create lar to the best on the Lehigh, and taking into jealousies and hard feelings on the part of some consideration the advantages for draining the of the scholars; so that now when clothing is mines, the regularity of the strata, the abundance needed it is taken to their homes. We found of timber, and many other natural facilities, it is some of the boys almost in a wild state, and for presumed that the coal may be mined at very low a long time it was very difficult to manage them. rates, and as every indication exists in favour of Others we have never been able to bring into the an abundant supply of iron ore within the limits school at all

. of the coal field, the value of the city coal lands One Sabbath, several months since, as we must be enhanced far beyond what we can pos- were wending our way to the little school-house, sibly conceive—for where the material is, and we saw, as usual, a group of boys at play. The that in abundance, as is the case here,—and the place they had chosen for their amusement was only legitimate place for iron making being in a steam saw-mill. They had often been rethe coal field, blast furnaces will be built, and proved for similar conduct, and urged to attend with these, towns and villages will spring up, the Sabbath-school, and it did not surprise us with manufactories, workshops and stores. that on perceiving our approach they scattered. These things duly considered, we cannot esti- Some hid under the mill, others behind timber mate the great and ever-increasing value that and plank, so that when we reached the spot it must follow the opening to market of the coal was apparently deserted. Knowing from past and iron ore lands, in the Mahanoy and Shamo- experience that all efforts to persuade them to kin coal regions, the property of the citizens of accompany us would be useless, we addressed Philadelphia.

to one or two of them a few admonitory words, Wm. F. Roberts, Engineer of Mines. and passed on. The school was thinly attended, Danville, Feb. 1, 1848.

and at its close one inquired, what shall be done

for those wicked boys? The following plan From the Sunday School Journal.

was agreed upon. The male teachers, three in

number, were to visit the saw-mill; two were to A SUNDAY-SCHOOL IN A DARK CELLAR.

pass around to the farther end of the building to Before relating the incident to which I am prevent the egress of the boys in that direction, about to call the reader's attention, I must give while the third was to enter in front.

Thus we you a short account of the Bethlehem Sunday- were giving them a Sunday-school on their own School, with which that incident is connected. ground. But when we reached the place not a This school is situated on the bank of the Ohio boy was to be found. We knew their habits too river in the upper part of this city, in a neigh- well to suppose they had retired quietly to their bourhood chiefly composed of poor people, homes. The probability was that

, foreseeing, many of whose children have no other instruc- our return, they had changed their place of tion than that which they receive on the Sabbath. amusement. The school was commenced three years ago, and With heavy hearts we passed on, and soon has been sustained by members of several dif- came to a large unoccupied building. At an ferent evangelical denominations, who, at the open cellar door stood a boy, evidently watching expense of much self-denial at all seasons and in our movements, and communicating the result of all kinds of weather, have been found at their his observations to some one below; we entered posts endeavouring to point these ignorant but and found ourselves in a large room some forty immortal pupils to the • Lamb of God who or fifty feet long, and perhaps one-third as wide, taketh away the sin of the world." There was entirely under ground, with no light excepting at one time in the school a class of adult females, that which came in at the entrance! Not an who manifested much anxiety to learn to read. object was visible; but we perceived by a slight It was truly interesting to see these poor mothers tittering at the farther end of the room, that the (some of them with their infants in their arms) objects of our search were there. One of our sitting down with the children to learn their number addressed them respecting their wicked alphabet. Six who commenced with their let- course, and reminded them that though they ters learned to read, and two of the number, we were hid here from our view, the eye

of God trust, were led to see their lost condition, and to was upon them, and that he could not only see flee to Jesus for refuge. But the spiritual wel- | their bodies, but could tell all their thoughts. fare of the scholars, though the first, was not the The speaker then related the history of one only object of solicitude. During the first year, whose early course strikirgly resembled that it was not uncommon to see teachers at the close I which these boys were now pursuing, and who




ended his career on the gallows! At the com- sets in sods of cranberries ten or twelve inches mencement of this narrative, one or two of the square. Mr. Gardner, of Nantucket, has cultivated boys came out and stood near the speaker. One them on Nantucket Island, with great success in by one they left their hiding place, till all stood the followingo manner: He selects a spot of in a line before us, eager listeners. We then ground that will keep rather moist throughout offered up a short prayer, during which we the season—takes off the top soil two inches thought some of the boys wept; and before we deep-an easier method would be to plough the left, all promised to attend Sabbath-school regu- land four or five inches deep, completely turnlarly, and they kept their promise. The schooling over the furrow ;) he then ploughs and harnow numbers sixty scholars and twelve teachers, rows the ground-strikes out drills twenty inches and if no other good had been accomplished apart—enriches with swamp muck, and sets out than that which we have received in our own the plants four inches apart in the drills. Others hearts, we should be amply repaid for our are set out in hills, by putting a small sod of trouble; but we trust that much other good has vines four feet apart each way. By any of the been done. God has evidently blessed our la- | above methods no cultivation is needed after the bours, and to his name be all the praise. P. first year, and in two or three years the vines

completely cover the ground. CROPS IN 1847.

Rakes are now made in Massachusetts for A Washington correspondent of the Courier the express purpose of gathering cranberries, and Enquirer gives the following particulars with which one man gathers fifty bushels in a from the forthcoming annual report of the Com- day. missioner of Patents. No year is mentioned in If by raking, a few vines are pulled up, it is the letter, but 1847 is doubtless intended :- an advantage, as it loosens the ground and acts Grains, &c.

Bushels. as a partial cultivation. After being gathered, Indian Corn crop throughout the

the fruit is passed through a fanning mill, to free Union,

540,000,000 them from any leaves or pieces of vines that Rye crop throughout the Union,

31,850,000 may have come off in raking. Buckwheat crop throughout the

After this, if there are any bruised ones in a Union,

11,674,000 lot, they may be run over a platform slightly inBarley crop throughout the Union, 5,735,000 clined, on which should be nailed crossways a Oat crop throughout the Union, 288,530,000 few pieces of common plastering lath—the Potato crop throughout the Union, 97,018,000 bruised fruit will not run off, but is gathered up

This last.crop, (Potatoes,) it seems, has very and thrown away or sold at a reduced price. much diminished in consequence of the rot, When the fruit is to be shipped to Europe or which deserves the attention of the Government. Asia, put them in new tight casks, and fill up The report of the Commissioner may contain with water; they will arrive at their destination some valuable suggestions on the subject. in perfect order.

The tobacco crop was 219,964,000 pounds, a During a winter as mild as the present, the slight diminution compared to former years. land might be put in order, and the plant put Cotton crop, pounds,

1,026,500,000 into the ground at any time from the opening of Rice crop, pounds,

103,400,500 spring until the tenth of May. Silk crop, pounds of cocoons,


B. G. Boswell.

Philadelphia, Feb 2, 1848.
From the Pennsylvania Inquirer.

Lieut. Burke, of the Bombay Engineers, has It is rather singular that the first cranberries published a pamphlet, in which he states, that were cultivated in England, by the late Sir one of the salt beds of Scinde contains an area Joseph Banks, who, in 1813, produced 31 of 300 miles of salt, of an average thickness of bushels from a bed eighteen feet square. S. 3 feet, or a supply equal to the consumption of Bates of Billingham, Massachusetts, has culti- 100,000,000 of people for 1600 years.-Journ. vated this fruit for several years on dry soil with of Commerce. the utmost success—the fruit being double the usual size. Mr. B.'s method is to plough his

HYMN TO THE FLOWERS. land-strike out drills twenty inches apart, into which he puts a quantity of swamp muck- then sets out the plants in these drills four or five Day-stars ! that ope your eyes with man, to twinkle inches apart-hoeing them the first season. And dew-drops on her lonely altars sprinkle

From rainbow galaxies of earth's creation, Capt. Henry Hall, of Barnstable, has cultivated

As a libation : this fruit for more than twenty years. His method is to spread on his swampy grounds a Ye matin worshippers! who bending lowly

Before the uprisen sun, God's lidless eye, quantity of sand or gravel to kill the grass-then Throw from your chalices a sweet and holy dig shallow holes four feet apart each way, and

'Incense on high :


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