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Now supposing that M. de Blainville is correct in de- ; proportion. In this position it would execute the greatest scribing the siphon of Spirula to be solid, and upon that parts of its functions and its acts; but in order to wiihdraw fact his argument against Dr. Buckland's theory mainly rests, itself from danger, it would have the faculty of changing the we cannot allow the inference, which, from observation of relation or proportion of the volume to ihe mass, and of a structure for the attachment of the shell to the body in the diving more or less; but perhaps without ever reaching the dibranchiate Spirula, with an internal small shell, concludes bottom. that the same structure ought therefore to exist in the teira- Geographical Distribution.-Widely disseminated in the branchiate Nautilus, with its great external shell, to be very seas of warm climates. [SPONDYLIDÆ.] sound. Nor is this the kind of argument for which we SPI'SULA, Mr. J. E. Gray's name for a genus of Conshould have looked in the writings of so eminent a zoologist chifers, founded on Mactra fragilis, and similar species. and comparative anatomist as M. de Blainville.
Ligament subexternal, marginal, not separate from the The following is the theory of M. de Blainville as far as cartilage. Posterior lateral teeth double and single. regards Spirula :
SPITZBERGEN is a group of islands situated nearer to Admitting as beyond doubt that the chambers of the the arctic pole than any other country on the globe. It lies shell of Spirula are empty, or at most filled with an aëriform between 76° 30' and 80° 30' N. lat., and between go and 22° fluid, which appears to be proved à priori, because in fact E. long., and is surrounded by the Arctic Polar Sea, of one cannot conceive how the water could come there, the which that portion which lies west of Spitzbergen is distinchambers being closed on all sides, and à posteriori because guished by the name of the Greenland Sea, because it esthey are so, even when separated from ihe animal, which tends to the eastern coasts of Greenland. makes these shells constanily float on the surface of the sea, The group consists of three larger and numerous smaller and equally or as well when they form a part of the whole, islands which lie about the larger islands. The largest as M. de Blainville had satisfied himself by experiment on island is on the west, and extends from 76° 30' to 80° N. lat. ; all the individuals brought home by MM. Leclancher and it is properly called Spitzbergen, and its most eastern pari Robert; it seems to M. de Blainville that the re-entry and is called New Friesland. To ihe east of New Friesland lies the contraction of the whole brachiocephalic mass inio the North-east Land, which extends from 79° 10' to 80° 10' N. case formed by the mantle, as well as the application of the i lat., and is divided from the larger island by the Henloopen fins against its walls, will be sufficient, by notably diminish. or Waygatz Strait, which is about 70 miles long, and varies ing the volume of the animal without at all changing its in breadih from 4 to 11 miles. East of the main body of mass, to counterbalance or even overcome the specific light. Spitzbergen, and south of New Friesland, is Edges Island, ness of the air contained in the chambers of the shell, which which extends from 77° 15' to 78° 15' N. lat., is separated will again gain the ascendency, when the volume of the from New Friesland by a strait called Walter Tymens animal shall return to its first disposition by the protrusion fiord, or Alderman Freeman's inlet. This strait is somewhat and ,xpansion of its head and arms. It is certainly thus more than 50 miles long, and less than 10 wide. Along that the Limnææ and Planorbes (LIMNEANS), act in order the southern coast of Edges Island numerous small islands to descend to the bottom of the water, for to rise again to its cover the sea to a distance of 15 miles from the shores, and surface they must resort to creeping along solid immersed this group goes by the name of the Thousand Islands. A bodies. With regard to the Spirulæ, the kind of naiatory considerable number of smaller islands are also dispersed bladder formed by the aëriferous chambers of their shell over the sea which surrounds North-east Land on the noru can without doubt elevate them to the surface without effort and east, in Henloopen Strait, and round the north-western on their part, according to M. de Blainville, and he is even coast of Spitzbergen. In other places along the coast the inclined to think that the size of the chambers is, so to smaller islands are not numerous, but at the distance of 12 speak, measured by the animal instinctively, so that the or 15 miles from the western coast of Spitzbergen is Charles extent of the varant space should always be in proportion Island or Forland, which is about 40 miles long, but only a to the mass of the animal, and floating must be ihe result, few miles wide. that is to say, there must be a specific gravity less than that Nothing is known of these islands except those parts of the ambieni wodium.
which are contiguous to the sea, and even the coast is imCette manière de voir, cette explication du fait, pour le perfectly laid down in our maps, with the exception of the dire en passant, ne démontrerait-elle pas mieux la sagesse western coast, which for more than two centuries has been du grand geomètre,' asks M. de Blainville, “que tout ce que annually visited by many whaling vessels, and thus has gral'on a dit à ce sujet ?'
dually become well known, and has been partially surveyed To this question, we humbly answer, no. Supposing M. The west ceast of Spitzbergen is mountainous. The moun. ile Blainville's theory to be impregnable, the mechanisin by tains generally rise within ihree miles of the sea, but in which the Nautilus is proved—we write it advisedly-o sereral places they commence at the coast. Between the ascend and descend, is no worse demonstration of the adap-shore and the mountains is a low level tract, rarely more tation of means to an end, to say the least of it, than the than three miles wide. It is cominonly somewhat above the mode proposed by M. de Blainville.
level of high-water mark, but in some places it is below, In fact, continues M. de Blainville, to enable the animal and only prevented from being covered by the sea by a naduring its growth, ibat is to say, increasing in mass and tural bank of shingle of the height of 10 or 15 feet. The volume, to preserve the faculty of tloating at the surface in mountains, which till the interior of the island, rise, accord. a tluid the density of which varies but little, and that by a ing to an estimate, in general to between 3000 and 4000 hydrostatic disposition, without any effort on its own part, feet above the sea-level. Many branches of them run westthere would really be required a very singular combination, ward, and come close to the shore, where the abrupt termiconsisting in this- that ihe animal could create for itself a nation of the mountain-ridges projects beyond the regular new bubble of air, and that in a determined proportion. line of the coast, and overhang's the ocean. Where these This it seems in effect by advancing its muscle of attach- mountain-ridges occur at no great distances from one anment by a single effort (d'un seul coup) on a quantity of air other, the intervening valleys, being of moderate extent, are measured, so to speak, and afierwards limiting this space filled with glaciers, which in several places constitute the by an impermeable septum (cloison).
very shores of the sea, forming a high perpendicular wall On this supposition, says M. de Blainville, in conclusion, of ice from 100 to 400 feet high. The inland valleys, in the normal disposition of Spirula would be to Hoat con- all seasons, present a smooth and continuous bed of snow, stantly on the surface of the sea, like the Janthine (Jan- in some places divided by considerable rivulets, but in THINA) and Physsophore (PHYSOGRADA, vol. xviii., p. 137); others exhibiting an unbroken surface for many miles in and equally by the means of an aëriferous float of calculated extent.
The southern extremity of Spitzbergen is called Point In the early part of the memoir, M. de Blainville says of Dr. Buckland's throry : Pour accepter cette nontelle hypothèse, il faut av mettre les points Look-out, or South Cape: a low flat, about 40 square miles suivants, que M. Buckland considère, à ce qu'il paroît, comme prouvés: 1. La in surface, constitutes the termination of the coast. On the banens creux et à découvert, dans les loges ou dans les intervalles des ciui: | isthmus, which joins this flat tract to the main body rises a sons. 3. L'existence constante d’uo liquide dans le péricarde. 4 La pesan. ¡ mountain-chain, which runs north, and soon attains a consiteur spécitique de ce liquide, plus gravide que celle de l'eu de mer. 5. Liderable elevation, as a large glacier or iceberg lies here along Facuité complee, si ce n'est d'air, des loges or chambres de la coquilles the sea-shore. North of 77° N. lat. is a wide bay, called We do not think that we shall be deemed prezumptuous, it we add numbers Horn, or Hedge-hog Mount, which bas several summits, a great peace-maker-que la dernière qui soit complètement hors de doute. Horn Sound, near the southern shores of which lies Mount 1 and 2; and we could say somethiay of the others, but let them pass for the
chiefly in the form of spires, the highest of which is 4395
feet. Horn Sound has tolerable anchorage. A little to the | The winter sets in at the end of September, or beginning of 20rthward of Horn Sound is a glacier of immense extent, October, with winds from the north, north-north-west, or 0. cupying II miles of the sea-coast. The highest part of north-west, or with calms, hard frost, and snow. In ihe midthe precipitous front adjoining the sea is 400 feet, and it dle of October the frost is sometimes very intense, and it inextends backward towards the summit of the mountain to creases rapidly in November. But throughout the whole winabout four times that elevation. Bell Sound, another wide ter, when strong south winds occur, they are generally accombay, occurs between 77° 35' and 77° 40' N. lat., and within panied with mild weather, and sometimes with thaw. Storms it are several anchoring-places. North of 78° is Ice Sound, in this season are so frequent that two-thirds of the weather where good anchorage is found at Green Harbour. That may be said to be boisterous. The highest winds occur portion of Spitzbergen which is south of 78° 50' N. lat. about the time of the equinoxes, and blow most frequently consists of groups of isolated mountains, partly disposed in from the south. A great quantity of snow falls every winchains, having conical, pyramidical, or ridged summits, ter, but it accumulates principally in the shieltered glens, sometimes round-backed, frequently terminating in points, lying on the level ground seldom more than five feet deep. and occasionally in acute peaks not unlike spires.
Capiain Parry however found that the climate of the northern To the north of 78° 50' N. lat. ure English Bay, King's coast is remarkably temperate in summer for the latitude, Bay, and Cross Bay, in which there is good anchorage. and very agreeable, but only so near the land, that of the Near the head of King's Bay there are three piles of rocks adjacent sea being of a totally different character, owing to of a regular form, called the Three Crowns, which resemble the almost continual fogs. In May and June the sea was the teocallis of the antient Mexicans. They rest on the top almost entirely covered with large fields or tloes of ice, but of a mountain, and each commences with a square table or in August it was hardly possible to discovei single piece horizontal stratum of rock, on the top of which is another of ice, so great was the change which had been produced by of similar form and height, but of smaller area ; this is con- the continual presence of the sun. tinued by a ibird and fourth, and so on, each succeeding The number of species of plants which have been found in stratum being less than that immediately below it, until it Spitzbergen hardly exceeds forty, but vegetation is very rapid. forms a pyramid of steps, almost as regular as if it were Most of The plants spring up, flower, and produce seed in ihe worked by art. Norin of Cross Bay the mountains are more course of a month or six weeks. They are of a dwarf size, disposed in chains than farther souib. The principal ridge lies and the only plant which partakes of the nature of a tree is nearly north and south, and the main valley extends from a Salix herbacea, which grows to the height of three or four the head of Cross Bay to the northern coast, a distance of inches. The islands do not produce vegetables suitable or 40 or 50 miles. An inferior chain of hills, six or nine miles sufficient for the nourishment of a single human being. from the coast, runs parallel to the shore, and from this As only a small part of Spitzbergen has been visited, we chain several lateral ridges project into the sea, where they know very little of its mineral productions. In some parts terminate in mural precipices. Between those lateral ridges of King's Bay a very beautiful marble and coal of good are the Seven Icebergs, each of which is, on an average, quality are abundant. about a mile in lengih, and near 200 feet high near the sea. The quadrupeds are-polar foxes, polar bears, and reinThe higher mountains terminate near 79° 35' N. lat., and deer. The adjacent sea abounds in many species of whales the lower coast, which extends hence to the north, is in- and some other large fish, and for more ihan two centuries dented by many small inlets, surrounded by numerous a very advantageous fishery bas been carried on. There small islands of considerable height. In this part there are are also many morses or walrusses, and abundance of seals. several very good harbours and anchorages, both in the in. Sea-fowl are exceedingly numerous: some of the rocks lets and between the islands, as Magdalena Bay, the ex- along the western coast are literally covered with them. cellent harbours of Smeeresberg, Fair Haven, Vogel Sang, Spitzbergen was discovered in 1596, by Barentz, Hemsthe Norways, Love Bay, Heckla Core, in the bay of Treu- kerke, and Ryp, in their endeavour to effect a north-east renburg, on Waygatz Strait, and others.
passage to the Indies. It was named by them Spitzbergen The centre of Charles Island, which lies opposite the pointed mountains) from the numerous peaks observed on western coast of Spitzbergen, is occupied by a mountain the coast. In 1607 it was visited by Henry Hudson, and chain about 30 miles in length, rising on the west side from four years afterwards the English began to resort to it for the sca, and on the cast from a narrow strip of level ground the whale fishery. Some sailors were left on these shores only a few feet above the sea-level. The central part of this by accident on several occasions, and they passed the winter chain is perhaps the highest land near the sea. It rises there: in some instances they died of the scurvy, but in other from the water's edge by a continual ascent, at an angle at cases they survived and returned home. In 1743 four first of about 30°, and increasing to 45° and mure, until it Russians were left there for six years, and thus the fact terminates in five distinct summits, of which the highest is was ascertained that human beings could pass the win4500 and the lowest 4000 feet above the sea-level.
ter in Spitzbergen without injury to their health. Sine, Along the north shores of Spitzbergen and North-east that time the Russians have frequently visited these islands. Land the country is neither 'so elevated nor are the They proceed from Archangel, Mezen, Onega, and Kola, in hiils so sharp-pointed as on the west coast. Some of the vessels of 60 10 160 tons, some of which are intended for smaller islands which occur along these shores, and consi- the summer fishing and others for the winter. The former derable tracts of the mainland, are comparatively level. put to sea in the beginning of June, and return in SeptemThey also contain much more earth and clay, and the rege ber; the latter sail about a month later, winter in some of tation is rather more vigorous. Along the east coast of the harbours, and return home in August or September of North-east Land there is a continuous line of glaciers ex- the following year. They also kill a great number of tending to the shore. We liave very little information re- morses, polar bears, and foxes, and bring home many skins specting the eastern and southern coasts of Spitzbergen, as
of these animals. well as those of New Friesland and Edges Island.
(Scoreby's Account of the Arctic Regions; and Parry's Extending to within 10° of the pole, the climate of Spitz- Narrative of an Attempt to reach the North Pole in Boats.) bergen is intensely cold. The mean temperature of the
SPIZAËTUS, M. Vieillot's name for a genus of Falthree warmest months on the western coast does not exceed CONIDÆ, placed by Mr. Swainson under the subfamily 34:50°, and even at that season this part of the island is occa- Buteonince or Buzzards. sionally subject to a cold of three, four, and more degrees Generic Characler.- Form aquiline, with the bill of a below the freezing-point. In the northern parts the longest buzzard. Bill strong, high, curved from the base, with a day is four months; but from the 22nd of October to the prominent festoon. Orbits and lores covered with down and 22nd of February the sun does not rise above the horizon. hairs. Wings short. Tarsi moderate, feathered. Inner tur, This long night however is not quite dark, for the sun, even without the claw, shorter than the outer. Rasorial. (Sw. during its greatest south declination, approaches within Mr. G. R. Gray arranges the genus under the subfamily 134 of the horizon, and causes a faint twilight for about Aquilinæ or Eagles. one-fourth part of every twenty-four hours. If we add to SPIZELLA, the name given by the Prince of Canino this the aurora borealis, which sometimes exhibits a bril- to a genus of Pringilline or Finches. liancy approaching to a blaze of fire, the stars, which shine SPLACHNUM, the name of a genus of cryptogamic with unusual brighiness, and the moon, which in her north plants belonging to the natural family of Mosses. The word declination appears for 12 or 14 days together without set is adopted from Dioscorides, who used both orláxvov and ting, we may conceive that during the long night there Bpúov to designate the families of lichens and mosses. It is is generally sufficient light to enable a person to go abroad. known by its terminal fruit-stalk; single peristome with 8 double teeth; capsule with an evident apophysis, and mitri- | but also from the pancreas, duodenum, the greater part o! form, glabrous, furrowless calyptra. They are generally an- the stomach and omentum, the left colon, and part of the nual plants, and remarkable amongst their tribe for their size rectum. It commences by five or six branches, which issue and beauty as well as singularity. Seven of the species are separately from the fissure of the spleen, but soon join to British. The most common in England is the Splachnum form a single vessel. Its direction is then transverse from ampullaceum, purple gland-moss, which is found growing left to right, embedded in the substance of the pancreas, in chiefly on rotten cow-dung. The receptacles are obtuse, company with the splenic artery, beneath wbich it is inversely conical, of a greenish-purple colour, and three placed. On reaching the front of the spine it joins the times as thick as the capsule.
superior mesenteric vein nearly at a right angle, from S. sphæricum, green globular gland-moss, has a green the conflux of which proceeds the vena porte. (Quain.) globular receptacle, with ovato-lanceolate, pointed, entire | The nerves of the spleen accompany the splenic artery, leaves, and a capillary fruit-stalk. It is a native of alpine and are derived from ihe solar plexus, forming an interlacesituations in the north of Europe and Scotland, and is gene- ment called the splenic plexu3, previous to their entrapre raily found on cow-dung. It occurs in green tufts, and has into it. (Ibid.) They are small compared with the size of elegant slender wavy tawny fruit-stalks from one and a the organ; and accordingly the spleen has very little sensahalf to three or four inches high.
lion, a fact which was noticed as early as the time of AreS. rubrum, red umbrella gland-moss, has an orbicular tæus. (See De Caus. et Sign. Diuturn. Morb., lib. i., cap. convex red receptacle, with partially toothed leaves. The 14, p. 111, ed. Kühn; Ha!ler.) Its lymphatic vessels are fruit-stalks are six inches in length; the receptacle is very very numerous ; but as no appreciable preluct is elaborated conspicuous, being half an inch wide, and having the form by ihis apparatus, it has no excretory duct. (Quain.) The of an inverted cup, which is of a rich crimson colour and fibrous or proper coat of the spleen sends into its interior a finely reticulated, making this moss one of the most remark- multitude of cellular bands and fibres, which form by their able and beautiful in the family. It is a native of Norway, intersections cells of various forms and sizes, and support Finland, Russia, and Siberia.
the soft, pulpy, red tissue of the organ. In the red SPLEEN (Prýv, Lien, Splen). There are few parts of substance ihere are in many animals contained whitish thie human body on which more has been writien than on the round corpuscules, visible to the naked eye, which were first spleen, and none where the result has been more unsatisfac- discovered by Malpighi, and of which the existence in the tory. The purpose which it serves in the animal economy still human spleen has been at one time admitted and at another remains entirely unknown; and the physiological part of denied. The corpuscules of the human spleen are described this article must consist of a mere historical recapitulation by Dupuytren and Assolant as greyish bodies, deroid of inof the various theories respecting its functions, which have ternal cavity, and measuring one-fifth of a line 10 one successively been for a time adopted, and have then fallen French line in diameter, and so soft as to take a liquid form into oblivion.
when raised on the knife. Meckel describes them as roundThe spleen is an organ which is not found in any tribe ish whitish bodies, one-sixth of a line to one line in diabelow the class of fishes. Some animals have two, and this meter, most probably hollow, and at all events rery soft and number has not unfrequently been found in man; for, as very vascular. In the human spleen the Malpighian corHaller says (Elem. Physiol., t. vi., p. 388), everything con- puscules are distinguished with great difficuliy. Müller nected with this organ is uncertain and variable. Its form mentions (Elem. of Physiol., by Baly, vol. i., p. 618) haring is generally somewhat oval, being smooth and convex on seen them in a spleen wbich had been macerated. They the exterior, where it is in apposition with the diaphragm, were very firm, and much smaller than the greyish solt and irregularly concave on the opposite side, which is unie points sometimes seen in eut surfaces of the spleen, which qually divided into two parts by a transverse slit for the have been described under the name of Malpighian corpustransmission of its vessels. (Quain, Elem. of Anat.) It cules, but which are in reality very different from them. is for the most part placed in the left hypochondriac Physiology.- Of the functions of the spleen, as region, between the diaphragm and the stomach, and be- | before remarked, we still remain in perfect ignorance. The neath the cartilages of the ribs. (Quain.) It varies so much most antient opinion concerning its use in the animal ecoin size, that it is almost impossible to say what are its nor- nomy is that which is found in the writings attribuied 10 mal proportions. (Bichat, Anal. Descr.) It is much enlarged Hippocrates, and is connected with the famous doctrine of oy disease, as will be hereafter noticed; but in health, tak- the four humours. The heart,' says the author of the áig a general average, its greatest diameter may be said 10 fourth book De Morb. (tom. ii., p. 325, ed. Kübn), “is the measure about four inches, its breadth three, and its thick- source of the blood (alua), the head of the phlegm or ness from two to two and a half; its usual average weight pituita (préyua), the spleen of the water (ödwp), and the is from eight to ten ounces. It is of a slight spongy consist- liver of the bile (xodý)'. This water was attracted by the ence (ápaws kai otoyyorld's, Hippocr. De Morb. Mulier, spleen from the fluids received into the stomach (ibid., lib. i., tom. ii., p. 683, ed. Kühn), and is at all times easily p. 333; De Morb. Mul., lib. i., tom. ii., p. 683), and thus torn; and in inany cases it is found, soon after death, so the whole of this theory bore a striking resemblance to one soft as to be readily broken by a slight pressure, when it of those that have been proposed in quite modern times. In appears a grumous, dark, confused mass. Its colour is another part of the Hippocratic collection (De Loc. in Hom, deeply red, with a tinge of blue, particularly round its mar- tom. ii., p. 1.30), it is said that those persons whose spleen gin. It has a peritonæal investment prolonged to it from is large have their body meagre (Conf. Gal., De Natur. Fathe stomach, by which, as well as by vessels, it is connected cult., lib. ii., cap. 9, tom. ii., pp. 132, 133), an idea which is with that organ; but it has also a smooth and fibrous tunic found also in Plato (Timæus, cap. 47, ed. Stallb.), and proper to itself, which is so firmly adherent to the serous which gave rise to the well-known comparison of Trajan, investment above mentioned, that they cannot be separated who said that the imperial treasury was like the spleer, except at its concave surface. (Quain.) No organ receives a because when ibat was rich the people were impoverished. greater number of blood vessels in proportion to its size than (Aurel. Vict, Epit., cap. 42, sec. 2i.) Aristotle (De Part. the spleen ; a fact noticed by all anatomists, and the more so Anim., lib. iii., cap. 7, p. 86), calls the spleen a spurious because it secretes no fluid of any sort, at least none that (vófov) liver, to which it is a sort of equipoise (åvtičuyor, has hitherto been discovered. (Bichat.) Almost all the blood ibid., cap. 4, p. 76), says that it is not an organ necessary that it receives is derived from the splenic artery (Halier, for all animals (ibid.), and that it assists the liver in perp. 400, 401): this is the largest branch of the cceliac axis, i forming the functions of digestion (ibid., p. 87, ed. Tauchn.) and near the spleen divides into several branches, some of In another obscure passage (ibid., p. 88), he says that the which enter the fissure in that organ, and are distributed to spleen attracts from the stomach (xculia) the superfluous its substance. These are called the rami splenici ; they and excrementitious humours (icuáðas rás nepuocaç), and are five or six in number, and vary in length and size. concocts them,' by which he is supposed by Casp. Hofmann (Quain.) They are the proper terminal branches of the (De Liene, cap. 5) to mean the chyle. It is surprising that artery, and by infinite ramifications form within the sub- so eminent an anatumist as Erasistratus, while confessing stance of the spleen a capillary system, which probably that nature does nothing without a reason (Gal., De Usu anastomoses in a direct manner with the capilaries of the Part., lib. iv., cap. 15, tom. iii., p. 315; id., Comment, in veins (Bichat), as is proved by the facility with which in- Hippocr. 'De Alim.,' sec. 14, tom. xv., p. 308), should jections pass from one to the other. The splenic vein is a nevertheless consider the spleen to be a useless organ (Gal., vessel of very considerable size compared with the bulk of ibid. ; id., De Atra Bile, cap. 7, tom. V., p. 131; id , De the organ; and it returns the blood not only from the spleen, Natur. Facult., lib. ii., cap. 4, 9, tom. ii., pp. 91, 131, sq.)
an opinion adopted also by Rufus Ephesius (De Appellat. ginary: Müller, one of the latest and ablest writers on Part. Corp. Hum., p. 59, ed. Clinch), and apparently by physiology, confesses (Elem. of Physiol., by Baly, 1840) that Pliny, who says (Hist. Nat., lib. xi., cap. 80), that runners we are quite ignorant of the office of the spleen. We used to have their spleen removed in order to increase their merely know,' says he, "that its importance in the economy speed. The followers of Erasistratus dissented from this is not great, as the experiments of numerous observers opinion of their master, and said that the spleen first pre- have shown that it may be extirpated without any remarkpared the chyle (xruov) for the liver afterwards to turn into able ill consequence.' Dupuytren observed increased vorablood. (Gal., De Arru Bile, loco cit.) The opinion of city in dogs after the operation. Mayer (Med. Chirurg. Galen, which had more supporters than any of the others, Zeit., 1815, 3 bd., 189) states that the lymphatic glands was, that the humour called black bile (xoli pélaiva) is become enlarged, but this is certainly not a constant effect. secreted by the spleen, in the same way as the yellow bile | It has been said by others that the secretion of urine be(xoay Eavoń) is secreted by the liver ( De Loc. Affect., lib. comes more abundant, but Tiedemann and Gmelin (Vervi., cap. 1, tom. viiii., p. 377, 378; Comment. in Hippocr. suche über die Wege, &c., p. 105; Recherches sur l'Ab
De. Humor.,'lib. iii., sec. 4, tom. xvi., p. 367; De Atra Bile sorption, transl. by Heller) deny that such is always the passim, tom. V., p. 104, sq.; et alibi); and it was from Mead and Mayer had noticed signs of imperfect dithe supposed accumulation of this humour that persons gestion after the removal of the spleen; and some writers atllicted with melancholy were believed to suffer. Aretaeus have staled that the bile becomes very bitter and dark
De Caus. et Sign. Diuturn. Morb., lib. i., cap. 15, p. 114, coloured, both of which the Heidelberg professors likewise ed. Kühn) says that the spleen is nourished by black deny to be constant phenomena. •The refutation of the blood, of which it is the receptacle lékuayčiov), and that hypotheses proposed to explain the use of the spleen' (conwhen it is diseased this fluid is not elaborated by it, but is tinues Müller) will not occupy us long; for they either taken into the general circulation. Serenus Samonicus rest on wholly incorrect premises, or they are such as can (De Medic., v., 430, sq.) seems to consider the spleen as the neither be proved nor disproved. All the theories which organ of mirth, and that after ils removal a person never regard the spleen as essentially connected in its function laughed. (Conf. Pers., Sat. 1, v. 12; Lactant., Div. Instit., with the liver can be shown to be fallacious. Döllinger lib. vi., cap. 15; id. De Opif. Dei, c. 14):
supposes the spleen to be formed merely for the sake of
symmetry, to be the fellow of the liver the rudimentary • Splen tumidus nocet, et risum tamen addit ineptum, Ut mini Sarduis videatur proximus herbis,
liver, as it were, of the left side' (an opinion formerly held Irrita quæ miseris permiscent gaudia fatis.
by Aristotle, as has been noticed); • but,' says Müller, 'the Dicitur exsectus faciles auferre cachinnos, Perpetuoque aeve frontem praestalo severam."
liver is originally symmetrical, and the spleen is also de
veloped in the middle line. No greater value can be acThe same idea is found also in Pliny (Hist. Nat., lib. ii., corded to the circumstance that the splenic veins join the cap. 80), who however does not state it on his own authority, vena portac, and to the hypothesis, thence deduced, that and seems hardly to beliere it. It seems at first sight the spleen prepares the blood for the secretion of the bile; strange that as the organ was considered to be the seat of for in this respect it does not differ from all the chylopoetic mirth and laughter, the words spleen, spleenful, splenetic, viscera, nor even from the inferior extremities in the lower &c. should be commonly used in the present day to signify vertebrata, and the generative organs and air-bladder of exactly the contrary state of mind. It has probably arisen, fishes.' (Froriep's Not., 615.) 1st, from the spleen having been supposed to secrete the Some physiologists imagine, without any reason, that the black bile, pédaiva xols, whence the word melancholy is spleen may exert a deoxidising influence on the blood; others derived; and, 2nd, from its having been considered as one again believe that it favours the secretion of the gastric of the causes of melancholy when he doth not his duty in juice, because, they say, it receives less blood at the time purging the liver as he ought, being too great or too little, that the stomach is full, which is at least doubtful; while in drawing too much blood sometimes to it, and not expell- others, as Lieutand and Moreschi, regard it as a reservoir ing it.' (See Burlon's Anat. of Melanch., part I, sec. 2, of blood for the stomach, supposing that the stomach, when inem. 5, sec. 4, and elsewhere.) Oribasius follows Galen's distended with food, may attract more blood to itself, or doctrine (Collect. Medic., lib. xxiv., cap. 26, p. 540, ed. H. may press on the splenic artery so as to diminish the Steph.), as does also Alexander Trallianus (De Arte Med., quantity of blood sent at that time to the spleen. Dobson's lib. viii., cap. 12, p. 268, ed. H. Steph.), Paulus Ægineta hypothesis (London Med. Phys. Journal, Oct., 1820) is very (De Re Med., lib. iii., cap. 49), Joannes Actuarius (De similar: he states that he has found the spleen to have iis Urin. Differ., cap. 4, p. 34, ed. H. Steph.), and Haly Abbas maximum volume at ihe time when the process of chymifi(Lib. Reg. Theor., lib. iii., cap. 29). Theophilus Protospa- cation is at an end, viz., five hours after food is taken; and tharius (De Corp. Hum. Fabr., lib. ii., cap. 12) and Mele- to be small and contain little blood seven hours later, no food tius (De Nat. Hom., cap. 20) also agree with Galen con- having been taken in the interval: hence he inferred that cerning the functions of the spleen, and add, that it gives the spleen is the receptacle for the increased quantity of tone to the stomach, excites its appetite for food, and assists blood which the system acquires from the food, and which the digestion. Theophilus also mentions the warmth which cannot, without danger, be admitted into the blood-vessels it imparts to the stomach (ibid., c. 4). According to Avi- generally, and that it regains its previous dimensions after cenna, the spleen assists the stomach in the process of di- ihe volume of the circulating fluid has been reduced by segestich, by the warmth which it imparts, and which it derives cretion. The premises of this theory, says Müller, do not from its own substance, but from the numerous veins not appear to me to be sufficiently proved. Dobson repeated and arteries that it contains. (Canon., lib. i., fen. i., tom. i., Magendie's experiment of injecting tluids into the veins of p. 28, ed. Venet., 1564.) Hofman mentions that some of an animal, and, he says, with the same result with regard ihe other Arabic writers considered the office of the spleen to the spleen, viz. the increase of its size. The assertion of to ibe to cool and refresh the heart. In other antient Defermon (Nouv. Biblioth. Méd., Mars, 1824; Froriep's writers (as, for example, St. Ambrose, Hexaem., lib. vi., Not., 148) that the spleen undergoes changes of volumo sec. 71), we ind a slight modification of Galen's opinion, when certain substances are taken into the system (e.g. that viz., that the spleen is placed near the liver in order to draw it becomes smaller under the influence of strychnine, cam. a way the useless part of the aliment, and so, after retaining plor, and muriate of morphia), appears to me likewise lo that which is necessary for its own support, transfer the require confirmation.' Sir Everard Home (Philos. Trans., purified and subtle remainder through ihe liver to the 1808, p. 45, &c. anıl p. 133, &c.) revived the old theory of blood. (Compare Theodoret, De Provid., lib. iii., tom. iv., Hippocrates, and made the spleen to receive a great portion d. 517, ed. Schultze.)
of our drink from the cardiac extremity of the stomach, so Various other more modern hypotheses on this subject that the tiuids passed through some short passage, hitherto are enumerated by Haller (Elem. Physiol., loco cit.), as, for unknown, from the stomach to the spleen, and thence into example, that it secretes a fluid which enters the stomach, the mass of the blood. (Blumenb., Physiol.) He supposed or which is absorbed by the nerves, or which lubricates the that the spleen served as a reservoir or receptacle for any joints, or which is an inferior sort of chyle. Of all these tuid that is received into the stomach, more than what is Theories however, and of many others that might be sufficient for the purposes of digestion; that this excess of nientioned, part are entirely destitute of anything like fluid is not carried ox by the intestines, but is transmitted proof, and others are contradicted by experiments, which, directly to the spleen by ihe communicating vessels, and is if they have not assisted in determining what is the office of lodged there until it is gradually removed, partly by the this organ, have at least decisively proved that most of the reins and partly by the absorbents. He illustrated his uses hitherto assigned to it are wholly fauciful and ima- opinion by numerous experiments upou living animals, in
which coloured infusions were injected into the stomach, and 2nd, The liability of the circulating system to bæinorand were afterwards discovered in the spleen, while it ap- rhage during the presence of splenic disease. These eirpeared that they had not passed through the absorbents of cumstances have been long known, and the explanation or ihe stomach. (Bostock, Physiol.) This idea however he them which physiology suggests appears both simple and subsequently abandoned. Tiedemann and Gmelin represent satisfactory. (Gregory, Theory and Pruclice of Medicine.) the structure of the spleen as essentially resembling that of Puthology, fc. The opinions of the antients respecting the lymphatic glands, and regard it as an organ which is the diseases of the spleen, and the curative means to be emmerely an appendage to the absorbent system. They be- ployed, are thus summed up by Mr. Adams, in the notes to lieve ihat its specific function is to secrete from the blood a his .Translation of Paulus Agineta' (book iii., chap. 49). reddish fluid that has the property of coagulating, is carried Hippocrales describes several diseases of the spleen in bis to the thoracic duct, and, being there united with the work De Internis Affectionibus (tom. ü., p. 483, sq.). He chyle, changes it into blood. The facts elucidated by the states that in scirrhus the spleen is sometimes larger and experiments of these physlologists,' says Mr. Cooper (Good's sometimes smaller than natural. It is an affection which conStudy of Med., vol. i.), "are of great value; bul' it must be tinues long, but is not fatal. Sometimes, he says, it terminates confessed that their hypothesis relative to the spleen being in dropsy, and sometimes in suppuration, when he approres an essential organ of sanguification, is seriously shaken by of burning the side. He also recommends diuretics and purg. the facts that a vast difference really exists between the ing with hellebore. Aretaeus remarks (De Caus. et Sign. structure of the spieen and that of an absorbent gland; that Diuturn. Morb., lib. i., cap. 14, p. 110, sq. ; id., De Curat. the chyle does not invariably exhibit a reddish hue; and Morb. Diuturn., lib. i., cap. 14, p. 328) correcily that the that the absence or removal of the spleen may happen, not spleen is very subject to scirrhus, but little so to suppuraonly without fatal effects, but even without much subsequent tion. Scirrhus, he says, is removed with difficulty: (Comdisturbance of the animal economy.' Mr. Hewson (Expe- pare Leo, Conspect, Medic,, lib. v., cap. 22, ap. Ermerins, rimental Inquiries, chap. ii., p. 45, &c., 95, &c.) supposed Anecd. Med. Gr., Lugd. Bat., 1840.) For scirrlious enthat it was the office of the spleen, as well as of the lym- largement of the spleen Celsus recommends (De Medie, phatic glands and thymus body, to secrete from arterial lib. iv., cap. 9, p. 198, ed. Argent.) unction, friction, and blood a fluid, wlich, mixed with lymphi, should give rise to sudorifics. He directs to avoid all sweet things, milk, and the formation of red blood particles. This however,' says cheese. He approves of pickled and salted things, acids, the Müller, 'cannot be true; for the red particles are formed vinegar of squills, a decoction of wormwood, and water in equally well after the extirpation of the spleen. The red- which a red-hot iron has been extinguished. Emollient dish colour of the lymph of this organ, observed by Hewson, oiniments are to be applied externally. Cælius Aurelianus Tiedemann, and Folimann, is not constant. Mayer has says (De Morb. Chron., lib. iii , cap. 4, p. 453, ed. Amman.) asserted that the spleen is reproduced after extirpation. He that some had directed to cut out the spleen when it is says that after the lapse of some years he has found in ru- much diseased ; but he held the proposal as mere words of minating animals, in the place of the spleen, which had been course, and believes that the operation had never been perremoved, a body of the size of a lymphatic gland. This would formed. Octavius Horatianus recommends (Rer. Medien
, be an inieresting fact if it could be satisfactorily proved, which lib. ii., cap. 28, ed. Basil.) as general remedies for complaints however is scarcely possible, as animals often have small ac of the spleen, bleeding, purging, and fomentations with wool cessory spleens (spleniculi), and besides in the operation of soaked in equal parts of oil and vinegar. When it becomes extirpation a small portion of the organ might be left be- | indurated, he approves of vinegar of squills, friction, gesiahind in the body. The presence or absence of the bunches tion, dropaces, salt-baths, &c. Most of the remedies recomof white corpuscules, above described, might aid in deter- mended by Paulus Ægineta are taken from Galen, who mining whether any substance were really spleen or not. treats fully and scientifically of diseases of the spleen. He The blood of the splenic vein, according to Tiedemann and states, as a general principle of treatment, that the proper Gmelin, does not differ from other venous blood; they saw medicines in cases of indurated spleen are such as are of an it coagulate like the blood of other organs. The older phy- incisive and attenuant nature. He therefore approves oi siologists however, and more recently Authienreth (Phy- the mixture of bitter with austere things (De Meth. Med., siologie, ii. 77), maintain that the blood has peculiar cha- lib. xiii., cap. 16 sq., tom. x., p. 916, sq.). Alexander Tralliracters. Schultz (Rust's Magazine, 1835, 327) also found anus forbids (De Re Med., lib. viii., cap. 10, sq., p. 472, -4, the blood of the vena portae of a darker tint than any other ed. Basil.) strong purging at the beginning of an intiammavenous blood, and the dark coloạr was most evident in ani- tion either of the liver or spleen. The Arabians treat of mals which were fasting. Neither neutral salts nor the these affections similarly to the Greeks. Haly Abbas reaction of the air had the effect of rendering it of a brighter marks (Lib. Reg. Theor., lib. ix., cap. 32 ; Pract., lib. vii., red colour; its coagulum was less firm than that of other cap. 40.) that the spleen can bear much stronger medicines blood, and it contained less fibrin and albumen, but more than the liver, and recommends in the indolent diseases of fatty matter. Müller's own idea of the function of the it various bitter and very acid medicines. In intiammation spleen is as follows:--' It probably consists,' says he, 'in the he very properly bleeds. These are lis general prineiples production of some change of unknown nature in the blood of treatment, the details of which he explains at great which circulates through its tissues, and in thus contributing length. Avicenna (Canon, lib. iii., fen. 15, tract l, sq.) and jo the process of sanguification; or in the secretion of a Alsaharavius (Pruct., tract 19, ed. Aug. Vindel.) treat of lymph of peculiar nature, which, being mixed with the con these diseases more minutely than any other of the ancient tents of the lymphatic and lacteal system coming from other authorities. Rhazes recommends (Almuns, lib, ix., cap.70) parts, tends to perfect the formation of the chyle. There carael's milk in cases of indurated spleen. He joins Arare no other ways than the lymphatics and veins by which chigenes (apud Galen, De Compos. Medicam Secundum any animal matier, modified by the action of the spleen, can Loco, lib. ix., cap. 2, tom xiii., p. 256) in directing the apbe conveyed away from it. Tiedemann believes that the plication of sinapisms and leeches to the side. lymphatics perform this office, but whether he is correct or The diseases of the spleen do not appear to have not is quite uncertain, and the nature of the change which been much studied in this country, because they do not the aniinal matter is supposed to undergo in the spleen is still very frequently occur; they are however by no means of less krown. Perhaps the most plausible opinion on this unusual occurrence in moist climates, whether warm or subject is that the spleen is a sort of safety-valve to the temperate, as Italy, Holland, South America, and some vascular system, calculated to receive a large quantity of parts of India; in fact wherever malaria exits. The spleen blood at a moment when over-distention would cause disease is liable to many sorts of disease: Dr. Bigsby (Cyclop. or death, the rupture of a blood-vessel, or even of the heart of Pract. Med.) enumerates as many as ten, but of these itself. This might happen, either when the cutaneous circu- only the most important can be here noticed. Splevitis*, lation is repressed by extreme cold applied to the surface, or or inflammation of the spleen, may be either acute or chroduring the cold stage of intermittent or remittent fevers; nic; though Dr. Baillie remarks that this organ is much also in the case of running, hard riding, violent laughing less subject to inflammation than many other of the abdoor any tumultuous agitation of the mind. The cellular minal viscera. (Posthumous Lectures and Observations on structure of the spleen, and the large size of the artery Medicine, 1825, unpublished.) Acute infiammation of the which supplies it with blood, correspond perfectly with this * It should be mentioned that this term is used in its common acceptation. hypothetical view of its function. From ihese ohservations
In the ancient Greek anthuss lluis word, like hepsti. may be deduced a ready explanation of the iwo principalis only occurs as far as the writer is aware) as in adjective jouets with
old to signify the splenic vein; the term applied to persons affected with facts in the pathology of splenie diseases : Ist, Their connection with intermittent fevers, and dependence upon malaria ;' Corp. Hum., p.41, ed. Clivch.)
disease of the spleen was omnvikós. (See Rufus Ephes., De Appellal Part.
not in its classical serse,