« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
spleen, together with heat, fulness, and tenderness in the extending from the diaphragm to the pelvis. When the splenic region, with pain upon pressure, is accompanied enlargement is so considerable that the lower end of the with the usual pyrectic signs, and often with a pain extend- spleen can be felt under the margin of the ribs upon the ing over the whole of the abdomen, but particularly in the left side, there can be no doubt with respect to the disease. left side,and shooting from the diaphragm to the left shoulder. When the hypertrophy does not reach this extent, iis most There is also not unfrequently a dry short cough, and sense of characteristic symptoms are a sense of weight in the left constriction in the præcordia, sickness, or nausea, and a disside, with or without evident swelling; inability to lie with charge from the rectum of black or livid blood, from a rupture ease on the right side; debility, without corresponding of some of the splenic vessels. Of this disease a remarkable emaciation; disordered stomach, irritable bowels, dry cough, instance, which terminated in nine days, has been recorded and absence of fever. The spleen, when enlarged, is always by Dr. Ley, in the Transactions of the College of Physi- felt to be harder than in a natural state, but pressure upon cians of London' (vol. v., p. 304). The texture of the spleen it with the hand seldom produces pain. An hypertrophy of after death was in this case so altered as to resemble an ex- the spleen is sometimes followed by ascites; but there will tremely soft piece of sponge, of which the cells had been frequently be no dropsy of the abdomen, even where this filled with an intimate mixture of pus and grumous blood. organ has been for a long time much enlarged. When this On placing it in water, innumerable vessels, as fine as the form of disease has been connected with ague, it more frefibres of swans' down, floated separately, rising from every quently subsides than in any other case; and the quina, point of the superficies of the organ. The contents of this which has been prescribed to cure the latter affection, will spongy mass having been removed oy repeated washings, probably be serviceable also to the former. When the ensomething like an attempt at the formation of cavities to largement has taken place independently of this cause,' contain the matter manifested itself. No regular cyst how says Dr. Baillie, 'it hardly ever subsides of itself, or is maever had been formed. All the other viscera, abdominal and terially diminished by medicine. According to my expethoracic, were healthy, except the uterus, whose inner sur- rience, mercury, administered both externally and interface was gangrenous. The common causes of inflammation nally, produces very seldom any good effect; I have seen, of the spleen are much the same as those of intlammation I think, more advantage from a seton inserted under the of the liver, viz. suddenly suppressed perspiration, espe- skin which covers the spleen. In some cases it has apcially from currents of cold and damp air, and excess of peared to be diminished in size by this remedy, and to be spirituous potation; sometimes however the cause is too ob- rendered softer ; but I do not recollect a single instance, scure for detertion. With respect to the treatment, the usual except after ague, in which it has been reduced to nearly its antiphlogistic remedies may be employed, but promptly and natural size. Temperate living, abstaining from violent exenergetically. Dr. Baillie says, he is not aware that intiam- ercise, and keeping the bowels open, must be to a certain mation of ihe spleen would require a different treatment degree useful in retarding the progress of the disease.' The from that of other viscera.
remedy largely employed in India for the cure of chronic If after a certain period the inflammation do not yield, it lumour of the spleen is a compound of garlic, aloes, and assumes the chronic form, in which the variation in the sulphate of iron. When emaciation and diarrhæa are preseverity and duration of the complaint is very great. If sent, the garlic and aloes are macerated in brandy; under it has accompanied ague, the symptoms may possibly not other circumstances, in vinegar. The proportion of aloes is have been urgent in ihe outset, but it is almost always a so regulated as to produce three evacuations daily; and the painful as well as formidable disease. It commonly lasts medicine also produces copious secretions from the kidneys. for some months, and may continue for years with remis- The Decoctum Aloes Compositum with the Tinctura or sions. With respect to che terminations of chronic Splenitis, Acetum Scillæ would probably prove equally effectual. resolution does not take place often ; suppuration is also The moxa, and even the actual cautery, have been recomrare upon the whole, and Dr. Baillie says he had never mended for this disease; and emetic cataplasms of tobaccomet wiih an abscess in the spleen in all the dead bodies leaves, renewed constantly so as to keep up frequent vomitwhich he had examined.' When pus is formed, it is of the ing, have in some instances produced the happiest effects. ordinary creamy kind, but is someiimes concrete; it varies Atrophy of the spleen is by no means so common as hyin amount from a few ounces to many pounds. The matter pertrophy; and though some instances are related by momay find its way into the stomach, colon, or peritoneal dern writers, yet their statements are so meagre and unsatiscavity; it may burst into the left side of the chest, or into factory, that no use can be made of them. It is sometimes the lungs, inducing symptoms of phthisis; or it may empty found exceedingly small and even shrivelled when some itself outwards through the abdominal walls. Ossification other organ is much enlarged, where there have been great of the spleen after inflammation is rare, as is also gangrene; discharges of blood, in ascites, and in extensive chronic softening, induration, and hypertrophy, especially the last, disease. This form of disease of the spleen obviously adare much more common. With respect to the treatment of mits of no remedy. chronic splenitis, perhaps the best plan that can be adopted Hydatids in the spleen are found now and then, but is the combination of aperients with iron and sedatives; the not very often; Dr. Baillie had never met with a single case good effects of mercury in this disease being now generally of them. It is hardly possible to discover their existence considered precarious, trivial, and at best temporary. Local during the life of the patient, nor, even if it were more easy, applications, such as cupping, issues, setons, &c., are some could the complaint receive any cure, or even amendment, times productive of great benefit.
from medicine. The disease arises quite unconsciously to Besides the inflammatory softening of the spleen, there the patient; the first intimation of its existence being deis another of a character quite peculiar, and unaitended by bility, dyspepsia, and the uneasiness created by a slowly inany of the characteristics of inflammation, wherein the struc- creasing lumour, which in its progress causes further deture of the spleen is more or less destroyed, and it is often rangement by compression and displacement of other reduced to a simple bag, containing a substance wlich varies organs, and becomes itself perceptible externally. It is from the state of cloited or grumous blood to that of tar. only when the containing menibrane, or some organ, This was very frequent in the Walcheren fever, in which becomes inflamed, that fever, pain, and their fatal consecases the spleen was usually found after death of great size, quences ensue. Hydatids may prove fatal by passing into and generally a mere bag filled with a liquid like tar, and the peritoneal cavity from ulceration of the containing sac, weighing from three to five pounds.
or by disturbing the circulation, or by irritating other One of the most common diseases of the spleen is hy: viscera; or the patient may live very long with this compertrophy, the most usual causes of which are ague and plaint, and die eventually of another disease during the inremitient fever. It is therefore chiefly to be found where dolent continuance of this. these are endemial, but it is not very uncommon in any Melanosis and calculi of the spleen are noticed shortly part of Great Britain. The size which this organ some- by Dr. Bigsby, but the instances are too rare to require any times attains is enormous, and it is surprising to find how particular remarks here. long persons can carry about with them very enlarged Rupture of the spleen from some external violence occurs spleens, and at last die of some other disease. Dr. Bigsby not unfrequently; but in the majority of cases the injury quotes from Lieutaud the case of a woman who had for is so overwhelming that little is left for the medical practiseventeen years a spleen weighing thirty-two pounds; similar tioner to do. Free venesection and perfect rest have occafacts are to be found in Haller. Dr. Baillie mentions sionally saved life; but in many instances the patient dies (Posthumous Lectures) having met with cases where it was in a few hours. In these latter cases the symptoms are so large as to occupy nearly all the left side of the abdomen, great shiverings, coldness of body, vomiting, and other
signs of extreme collapse : when there is time and strength SPOFFORTH, REGINALD, a composer in whotn for reaction, there is considerable fever, with a remarkable were united much originality, a very elegant taste, and a heat of skin, and great pain in the left side or all over the thorough knowledge of his art, was born in 1768, at South abdomen; the stools and urine are not materially affected. well in Nottinghamshire, and there received bis early inusi.
(Good's Study of Med.; Gregory's Theory and Pract. of cal instructions from Iris uncle, organist of the Collegiate Med.; Bigsby, in Cyclop. of Pruct. Med., from which works, Church of that place. Repairing to London, he took lessons with Dr. Baillie's (posthumous) Lectures and Observ. on on the piano-forie from the celebrated Steibeli, and comMed., great part of the pathological part of this article is pleted his studies in harmony under Dr. Benjamin Cooke. taken.
It was his fate, as unhappily it is the fate of the English SPLINT is a piece of wood or other rigid substance musician generally, to depend during the greater part of his which is used in surgery to maintain any part of the body life almost wholly on his practice as a teacher, and he was in a fixed position, and especially for the purpose of holding in considerable repute as a piano-forte masier. As a comsteadily together the portions of a fractured bone. Splinis poser, he is now, and will be hereafter, known only as a vary almost infinitely in form and size, according to the glee-writer. Two of his earliest glees gained, in the year 1793, pari to which they have to be adapted, and the position in the prize gold medals given by the Caich-Club. This merited which it is to be held; the number and the arrangement of success established his repuiation, and encouraged him 10 them in each case are equally subject to variation ; nor can produce other works of the same kind, the best of which a surgeon have a better rule ihan ihat of following no gene- were published by himself, and most of these have taken ral plan, but of determining in each case the apparatus their station among the classical musical productions of best fitted for its peculiar exigencies. As much as can be this country. On the death of his uncle, Mr. Spofforth said in general on the forms and modes of adaptation of came into ihe possession of considerable property, but did splints is contained in the article FRACTURE. The material not long enjoy his independence, for his devotion to his proof which they are commonly made is light wood; each fession and his unrelaxing industry brought on a nervous di:splint consisting either of one piece cut nearly to the form ease, which terminated in paralysis, and in 1826 deprised and size of the limb, or of several pasted together with a music of one of its most ingenious votaries, and society of strap of linen so as to be flexible in one direction. In some one of its most amiable members. cases tin is a preferable material ; in some stiff pasteboard. SPOHN, FRIEDRICH AUGUST WILHELM, a In many cases also it is very advantageous to adapt the Gerinan philologist, was born Muy 16, 1792, at Dortmund. splints exactly to all the irregularities of the limb; and as He was educated at the university of Wittemberg, and afterthis cannot be done with wood or any unyielding material, wards went to Leipzig, where he was, in 1817, made professor it is usual to employ one which, being applied moist and extraordinary of philosophy, and in 1819 professor in ordisoft, gradually hardens. Stiff pasteboard will sometimes be nary of antient literature. He was a scholar of the greatest sufficient, especially for children; but a better material for industry, and died at an early age, January 17, 1824, worn general use is sole-leather, applied while quite pliant after out by the severity of his studies. He illustrated antiquity having been well soaked in bot water, and then bandaged by a variety of works in the se cral departments of criticism, closely to the limb and allowed to dry. Another plan of philology, and geography. He published an edition of the this kind now much employed is to form a splint of linen Odyssey,' with valuable dissertations prefixed, entitled . De and some glutinous material, such as starch, or a mixture of Agro Trojano in Carminibus Homeri descripto,' Leipzig, Svo., white of egg and tlour, or of mucilage of gum-arabic and 1814; 'Commentarius de extreinâ Odysseæ parte inde à whiting, made as thick as bird-lime. In using these, the rhapsod. V 297, ævo recentiore orta quam Homerico,' Leiplimb or other part should be thinly padded with soft lint; zig, 1816. He revised the text of Hesiod with great care; then strips of coarse linen soaked in the tenacious material the edition was commenced in 1819, but never completed. should be laid on one over the other, till on each side of the In 1817 he edited ihe · Panegyricus' of Isocrates; and in limb they form a layer about as thick as a common wooden the last year of his life published . Lectiones Theocriteæ. splint. The whole should then be surrounded with a neatly. He projected also Annals of the reign of Augustus, deduced applied bandage soaked in starch. When dry, splints of from a chronological arrangement of the various passages ... this kind will so exactly fit the part to which they are ap- | Latin authors illustrative of this period. plied, and be so rigid, that a patient may with safety exe- As a geographer, he made great additions to the male cute the slighter natural movements of a limb within a rials collected by Bredow. His researches into the mythology fortnight after it has been fractured. All the further care of the antients' led him to study Egyptian hieroglyphies; of a simple case of fracture will generally consist in the some remarks of his on this subject appeared in a German occasional replacement of the starched bandage, and the publication called · Amalthæa.' 'In 1822 he was employed adaptation of the splints, by cutting their edges, to the in examining and arranging the Egyptian antiquities change of form which the limb may undergo as the swelling brought to Berlin by Minutoli. His untimely death ardiminishes. Splints of this kind however must not be ap- rested the publication of his work on bieroglyphics, which plied ill all the inflammation immediately consequent on has since been edited by Seyffarth, of Berlin, under the the fracture has ceased.
title`De Linguâ et Literis veterum Ægyptiorum, cum perSPLUGEN, MOUNT. [ALPS.]
multis tabulis lithographicis literas Ægyptiorum tum vulgari SPODU'MENE, Triphane. Occurs in embedded crys- tum sacerdotali ratione scriptas explicantibus atque iniertalline masses. Primary forin a rhombic prism. Cleavage pretationem Rosettanæ aliarumque inscriptionum et aliquot parallel to the primary faces, and to the diagonal planes; voluminum papyraceorum in sepulcris repertorum exhiihat parallel to the smaller diagonal is most brilliant, and bentibus. Accedit Glossarium Ægyptiacum,' Leipzig, 1823, that parallel to the greater most difficult. Fracture uneven, with a life and portrait of Spohn. This work has not granular. Hardness, scratches glass and gives fire with steel. contributed very much to solve the difficulties still attendColour wbitish and greenisha grey. Streak white. Lustre ing the interpretation of hieroglyphics. There is a life of pearly on the cleavage planes. Specific gravity 3.17 to 3.188. Spohn in the Zeit-genossen, Neue Reihe,' beft xv. Before the blow. pipe it swells nd fuses into a glass almost SPOLE'TO E RIE'TI, DELEGAZIO'NE DI, an adcolourless and transparent; with borax it swells, but does ministrative division of the Papal state, formed by the union not easily dissolve.
of the two former provinces of Rieti and Spoleto. The highIt is found at U10 in Sweden, in the Tyrol, Ireland, and lands of Rieti, which comprise a great part of the country North America. Analyses of this mineral by Arfwedson of the ancient Sabini, have been described under Rieti. The from Sweden, by Stromeyer, and Le Hunt from Ireland, western part, or province of Spoleto Proper, consists of the zive the annexed results :
valley of the Nera, one of the principal affluents of the Stromeyer.
Tiber, and of the valley of the Maroggia, another affluent Silica
66.40 63.288 63.812 of the Tiber, and of several ridges of highlands between Alumina
25:30 28.776 28.308 these various rivers. This country was known in the dark Lithia
5604 ages after the fall of the Western Empire by the name Lime
0.728 of Umbria, being part of the region so called in antient Proloxide of iron
1:45 0·794 0 828 times. (Paulus Diaconus, ii. 16.) The Longobards, about Protoxide of manganese
A.D. 570, established the duchy of Spoleto, which became Moisture 0.45 0.775 0.360 one of the most powerful of their dukedoms, extending over
the country of ihe Sabini, Picenum, and the country of the 102:45 99.463 99.840 Vestini and Marrucini, or part of modern Abruzzo. The
series of the Longobard dukes of Spoleto ends with the year far from the left bank of the Tiber, and aboro the confluence 788, after which a Frank duke was appointed by Charle- of the Nera, is noted for its raisins and its prunes, which are magne.
exported. Ameria is said to have been built by the I mbri The dukedoms in Italy were not hereditary, but the ap several centuries before the foundation of Rome, and was pointment of a successor after the death of a duke depended afterwards in possession of the Etruscans. (Pliny, Hist. Nut., upon the will of the kings of Italy; and accordingly we find iii. 19.) 4. Bevagna, the antient Mevania, likewise a town of that the duchy of Spoleto passed through several families. the Umbri, near the contluence of the Maroggia with the It was for a time united with the duchy of Tuscany, and Topino, has about 2000 inhabitants. 5, Norcia, the antient Godfrey the Humpbacked, husband of the famous countess Nursia, at the northern extremity of the province, near the Mathilda, appears to have governed both Spoleto and Tus- borders of Naples, and at the foot of the lofty Apennine cany. The series of the dukes of Spoleto ends with the group called Monte della Sibilla, the antient Mons Tetricus, twelfth century, when Pope Innocent III. took possession of is 1200 feet above the sea ; it is a bishop's see, and has 3000 the duchy. Since that time it has been annexed to the inhabitants. A great number of swine are reared in the Papal State.
neighbourhood. The Corno, an affluent of the Nera, flows The united province of Spoleto and Rieti is bounded on through a deep glen near Norcia. 6, Cascia, on the Corno, the east by the kingdom of Naples, on the north by the south of Norcia, among the highlands of the Apennines, is Papal provinces of Ascoli and Camerino, on the west by situated near the site of the antient towns of Carseoli and those of Perugia and Viterbo, and on the south by the Co- Marruvium. Medals, idols, and other remains of autient marca of Rome. The area is about 2000 square miles, and times have been found in the neighbourhood. The whole the population, by the census of 1833, was 166,142 inha- of this bigbland region, though very interesting, is liuile bitants, distributed in nine walled towns, and 87 Terre, or known, being removed from the high roads, and scarcely open market-towns or villages. (Calindri; Neigebaur; Serris- ever visited by travellers. The mountains are covered with tori.) With regard to the productions of the soil, the valleys chesnut and oak trees. Cascia and its territory contain of the Nera and of Spoleto are generally fertile, but the in- about 3000 inhabitants. (Calindri.) tervening highlands are rather poor. The fertility of the SPON, JACOB, the son of Charles Spon, an eminent plain of Rieti has been already noticed. [Rieti.]
French physician, was born at Lyon, 16 47, and educated at The province of Spoleto Proper is divided into the three Strassburg. He took the degree of doctor of medicme at districts of Spoleto, Norcia, and Terni. Spoleto, the head Montpellier, and returning to his native place in 1669, stue town of the province, is situated on an elevation, below which died medicine and archæology. In 1673 he published runs the Maroggia: the Maroggia flowing north wards, Recherches des Antiquités et Curiosités de la Ville de joins the Topino below Foligno, after which both streams Lyon,' 8vo., and the following year endeavoured to draw run into the Tiber. The Nera flows southwards, and the attention towards the remains of antiquity in Greece, by two rivers are separated by the mountain of Somma, an off the publication of Relation de l'Etat Présent de la Ville set of the Apennines, which lies between Spoleto and d’Athenes, avec un Abrégé de son Histoire et de ses AntiTerni. The high road from Rome to Ancona and Perugia quités,' Lyon, 1674, written by the Père Babin, a Jesuit, passes through Spoleto.
who had been resident there. In 1675 he went to lialy, An aqueduct, which served also as a bridge, crosses the and spent some time at Rome studying antient ari. At Maroggia; it is a work of the Longobard times, but is now Venice he met with an English traveller, Sir George in a ruinous state.
Wheler, and set out with him on a tour to the East. Their Spoletum, then a Latin colony of Rome, was attacked by route lay through Dalmatia, the Archipelago, ConstantiHannibal after the battle of Trasimenus, but the inhabitants nople, and Asia Minor: they then visited Athens and the repulsed his attack, and thus checked his advance towards Peloponnesus. From Negropunt they set sail for Venicu Rome. (Livy, xxii. 9.) An inscription above the gate whence Spon returned to Lyon in the middle of the year called the gate of Hannibal, though built in much later 1676. In 1678 he published his Travels, printed at Lyon, times, records the event. Spoletum is honourably men- 3 vols. 8vo. ; reprinted Amsterd., 1679, 2 vols. 12mo. tioned among the faithful colonies which furnished men third volume contains inscriptions, great numbers of which and money to carry on the war against Hannibal, when relate to the demi of Attica. In the same year he published other colonies refused (xxvii. 10).
* Miscellanea eruditæ Antiquitatis, in quibus Marmora, &c., Spoleto has a handsume catheriral, adorned with frescoes Grutero et Ursino ignota referuntur ei illustrantur,' Lyon, by Filippo Lippi, who was buried in it in 1469, after a life fol., published in tom. 4 of the · Thesaurus’ of Polenus, and full of skange adventures. A monument was raised over containing much interesting matter. About this time, having his tomb by Lorenzo de' Medici, with an epitapb by Poli- noticed the falsehood of Guillet's account of Athens, pubtianus. Several other churches, the town-house, and the lished under the name of La Guillerière, he became en palace of the family Ancajani, are also worthy of notice. The gaged in a controversy with him, and succeeded in exposing castle of Spoleto contains some remains of Cyclopean walls. him as a literary impostor. (Leake's Athens, 2nd ed., i. 98, There are also remains of a Roman theatre, of several tem contains a full account of this matter.) In 1683 appeared ples, and other antiquities. Spoleto is a bishop's see, and a work of bis, entitled “ Recherches Curieuses d’Antiquité, has a college: it has also manufactories of hats and woollens, Lyon. He continued to practise as a physician, and puband aboui 7000 inhabitants. It carries on a considerable lished several medical treatises. Being a Protestani, he trade in eorn, oil, wine, and truflles, which are found in the quitted Lyon before the revocation of the Edirt of Nantes, neighbourhood. The convent and hermitage of Monte Luco, and went to Geneva, and thence 10 Vevay, where he died in ibe neighbourhood of Spoleto, is a delightful spot, sur- in great distress, 25th December, 1685. His archæological rounded by a forest of old oaks; its attractions have been works are very valuable : his Travels show great learning, described in Latin verse, by Giustolo, a native poet, of the as well as accuracy of observation; and the fidelity of his latter part of the fifteenth century. Near the post-house descriptions has been confirmed by the testimony of later traof Le Vene, half-way between Spoleto and Foligno, are the vellers, and by the recent discoveries at Athens. (Dr. Ross, sources of the Clitumnus, a small but limpid stream, which Die Acropolis von Athen.) Spon and his companion were seems to have been once much more considerable. (Pliny, among the first European travellers who visited the PartheHist. Nat., viii. 8.) It is an affluent of the Maroggia, which non before its destruction during the siege of Athens hy it joins after a course of six miles. The fine large-horned the Venetians, A.D. 1687. caitle which fed on the banks of the Clitumnus were pre- The Biographie Universelle gives a list of Spon's works, ferred by the antient Romans for sacrifice, and also for the but omits several which are in the Catalogue of the British ceremony of their triumplis. (Virgil, Georg, ii. 146.) There Museum. (Jöcher’s Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon.) is a small temple of antient construction, but partly repaired SPONDEE (spondeus, orovòeios) is a foot which consists and transformed into a Christian chapel, near its bauks. of two long syllables ( --). The name is derived from
The other towns of the province are-1, Terni, the an- otovor), a libation, as the metrical prayers on such an occatient Interamna, built near the contluence of the Velino sion were generally of a slow and solemn movement. To with the Nera, a bishop's see, with an old cathedral, the produce this solemnity the spondee is often used instead of remains of an amphitheatre and of an antient temple, and a dactyl in the hexameter or pentameter and in iambic about 6000 inbabitants. The territory of Terni produces trochaic, or ana paestic metres, instead of an jambus, trochee inuch oil and some wine. The country is full of picturesque or anapaest. There is no metre which consists of spondees localiues. 2. Narni. [Narni.] 3. Ameria, a small town of alone, and indeed such a metre would be very disagreeable, 2000 inhabilanis, and a bishop's see, situated on a hill, not even if it were possible; but spondees produce a good effect P. C., No. 1405.
VOL. XXII.--3 B
when mixed with other feet. A foot consisting of two spon- establishing a new genus for them; and he cites Plagiosiodees (---. ) is called a dispondee. An hexameter verse ma spinosa, Sow., to illustrate Defrance's genus, observing which has a spondee in the fifth place, is called a spondaic that Plagiostoma sulcatu, Lam., is an internal siliceous cast verse.
of Sowerby's species, and in reality a Spondylus. SPONDIA'CEÆ, the name of a natural order of plants M. Deshayes goes on to institute a comparison between belonging to the syncarpous group of polypetalous Exogens. the Plagiostomata, left after separation from those shells It has unisexual flowers; a 5-cleft regular calyx; 5 petals, and the Limæ; and the result of his observations is, that he inserted under the disk ; 10 perigynous stamens, arising from is satisfied that the Plagiostomata are composer of Podog. the same part as the petals; superior sessile ovary, from 2- sides and Limæ : consequently, that the genus Plagiostoma to 5-celled, with 5 very short styles and obtuse stigmas; is useless. 1 ovule in each cell; fruit drupaceous; seeds without albu- The same author, when treating of the genus Spondylus men. The plants of this order are trees without spines, in the same work, calls attention to the structure of its having alternate unequally pinnate leaves without pellucid shell, as meriting a particular examination, especially as a dots. The flowers are arranged in panicles or racemes. test for appreciating the value of certain very little knows This order was formerly included in Terebintaceæ, but has genera recorded by Lamarck. When, says M. Deshayes, been separated by Kunth and Lindley, on account of their we have before us a Spondylus, Sp. gaderopus or Sp. cocsyncarpous fruit and the absence of a resinous juice. The cineus, for example, we see that they are composed of two real affinity of Spondiaceæ appears to be with Aurantiaceæ, layers of different colours, the one external, variously from which they differ in litile beyond their perigynous coloured according to the species, the other internal and stamens and the absence of dots on their leaves. They are white. It will easily be perceived that the external lager ratives of the West Indies, the Society Islands, and the Isle envelopes the whole shell, except that part which is called of Bourbon. The fruit of some of the species of Spondias the talon—that great plane surface of the lower valve is de. is eatable, and is known in the West Indies by the name of prived of it, and one sees that it is entirely formed by the Hog Plums.
white or internal layer. This internal layer is very thick towards the hinge, it receives the muscular impression in the two valves, thins out towards their edges, and leaves, in a small zone, which forms the border of the valves, the ex ternal layer exposed on the inner side of the shell. If a longitudinal section be made, it will be observed that the external layer is very thin on the umbones of the valves, and that it goes on increasing in thickness towards the borders. The internal layer has an inverse disposition; that is to say, its greatest thickness is at the umbones, whilst it thins out towards the borders. The same longitudinal section will prove that the spines and the laminæ, with which it is externally covered, are formed of the substance of the external layer. Finally, if a transverse section of a deeply furrowed species be made, the external layer will be seet of an equal thickness at the point of the furrows or the ribs. forming undulations filled by the internal matter. This is particularly well seen in the orange spondylus (Spondylus aurantius).
M. Deshayes then remarks that the observations made by him on the genera Podopsis and Rudistes will show the importance of what he has here said on the shell of Spondylus, observing that this is not the only genus in which the structure exists, but that it is to be remarked in most bivalve shells; only it is most striking in Spondylus.
Of Podopsis, M. Deshayes says, after referring to his ob
servations on Spondylus, that he had for a long time sought Spordias Mombin.
in vain for specimens of the former sufficiently preserved a, Branch with leaves and fruit. b. Flower, showing the hypogynous disk, towards the umbones to assure him of the value of one of with the stamens and petals under it. c, Portion of branch, showing inflores the characters given by Lamarck. The umbo of the great d. Section of fruit, showing its 5 cells.
valve, according to the last-named zoologist, should be enSPONDY'LIDÆ, a natural family of marine Conchifera, lire, and not have the triangular facet of the Spondyli; a under which may be arranged the genera Plagiostoma, Po- figure in the Encyclopédie represents, in fact, all the upper dopsis, Dianchora, Pachytes, Spondylus, and Plicatula. or part of the umbo covered with the shell, so that the specimen these we shall presently see that few if any have a just resembles in some respects a Gryphæa without an elevated claim to generic appellation except Spondylus and Plica- umbo. M. Brongniart himself, in the figures which accomtula; ihe latter can with difficuliy be distinguished from pany the geological description of the environs of Paris, has Spondylus, and if its distinction be admitted, can only re- given many figures of Podopsides, in which may be retain the rank of a subgenus.
marked at the upper part of the umbo longitudinal and M. Deshayes, in his edition of Lamarck, states that he transverse striæ, which lead to the supposition that M. had for a long time rejected the genus Plagiostoma as use- Brongniart, like Lamarck, believed that this part possessed less. He observes that it was esiablished by Mr. Sowerby a shell. M. Deshayes convinced himself by the examina in his Mineral Conchology, and that Lamarck adopted it, tion of many well preserved individuals that this was not ameliorating its characters; but, notwithstanding this, in- so: he found in these Podopsides a short auricle on each troducing, after the example of the English author, two side, the very entire border of which auricles circumscribed sorts of shells which offered considerable differences. M. a triangular aperture which, being filled, might be perfectly Defrance was the first to separate them. Having observed compared to the surface of the Spondyli, and it was this among the Plagiostomata some species which were equi- that led M. Defrance to establish for these species, with a valve and others inequivalve, be also remarked that among posterior triangular opening, the genus Puchytes, which M. the last were to be found in the same species individuals de Blainville adopted, and thinking that this posterior apermore or less regular and symmetrical; finally, he had no- ture was destined to give passage to a tendon of the animal, ticed at the upper part of the cardinal border of the great in order to its attachment to submarine bodies, placed the valve a very remarkable triangular aperture, similar to genus in the neighbourhood of the Terebratula, in his what is found in Podopsis. Defrance, struck with this dif- group of Palliobranchiata. M. Deshayes observes that ference of character, proposed the genus Pachytes for the nevertheless M. de Blainville was not unaware of the fact reception of those shells which offered it. Now, remarks that Pachytes has at the umbo of the great valve an irregular M. Deshayes, in continuation, the new genus, as we shall impression resulting from the immediate adhesion of the soon see, has no notable differences to distinguish it from shell to foreign bodies, and the former states that he has Podopsis, and it would therefore have been sufficient to seen some old individuals still attached to the substances on transfer in that genus the species in question, instead of which they had lived at the bottom of the sea. This genus
thou, says M. Deshayes, according to M. Defrance and M. de which, being filled by the internal layer, would have formed Blainville, offered the unique and curious example of ani- that singular talon which is only seen in the Spondyli. mals having two modes of attaching themselves to sub- These indisputable facts conduct M. Deshayes to this marine bodies. It is certain, says M. Deshayes, that in the conclusion :- the Podopsides, and consequently the Dianmolluscous animals actually known, one of these means of choræ and Pachytes, are Spondyli whose internal layer bas attachment excludes the other: those animals which fix been dissolved, and has left the internal or cortical layer themselves by the shell have neither byssus nor tendon, denuded. This partial dissolution or disintegration, he oband those which fix themselves by a tendon or a byssus serves, is presented not only in the shells now under dishave the shell free and without immediate adhesion. cussion, but also in all those composed of two layers. This
M. Deshayes then continues bis discussion, remarking disintegration, he adds, particularly shows itself in the fusthat the genus Pachytes, as we have seen, has been formed sils of the chalk strata, but the explanation of this inconat the expense of the Plagiostomata. In comparing with testible fact is not yet manifest. How indeed, he asks, are the Podopsides the species there introduced, the most per- we to explain the action of an agent capable of entirely disfect identity, he remarks, had been recognised. The same solving a calcareous layer, and leaving at the same time ancomparative examination exercised upon the Dianchora of other layer equally calcareous, and apparently of the same Sowerby, had convinced him that the last-named genus had narure as the first, in the finest state of preservation ? Our all its characters identical with those of Pachytes and Po-chemical laboratories are, he remarks, impotent when redopsis. These observations conducted him to the conclu quired to produce similar phenomena. M. Deshayes thus sion that it was necessary to unite these three genera. But concludes this able argument :- The preceding observathen the question arose, what was the nature of this genus ? tions prove not only that it is necessary to unite the three M. Deshayes avows that he knew not how to answer this genera in question, but also to refer them 10 Spondylus, and question before he had made the following observation. M. this opinion, which we have adopted for many years, will Dujardin, he tells us, well known by his highly interesting doubliess be also entertained by other zoologists.' observations on the corals of the chalk, as well as upon the Plagiostoma, Podopsis, Dianchoru, and Puchytes are thus so-called microscopic molluscous cephalopods (FORAMINI- disposed of and merged in Spondylus. Now let us see what FERA), sent to M. Deshayes a very well preserved Podopsis the same learned observer says of Plicutula. froin the chalk of Touraine. The latter zoologist, having This smail genus, instituted by Lamarck at the expense of remarked that in this individual the edges of the posterior the Spondyli of Linnæus, might, according to M. Deshayes, triangular space were entire, and that ibis space itself was appear useful and sufficiently characteristic when only a filled with a tender substance, was anxious to seek for some small number of species are before the observer; but if he traces of the binge; and he cleared away with precaution examines more, recent and fossil, he recognises the resemthe interior of the umbo. The instrument with which he blance which it bears to Spondylus, and inquires whether it worked was soon arrested by a harder body, which when would be of any use to preserve it. Lamarck had himself disengaged exhibited a singular shape, and determined him perceived a passage from the Plicatulæ to the Spondyli by to break the part of the shell which stood in his way; and means of certain species.
These intermediate species, parit was not without surprise that he disco, ered in this po- ticipating in the character of both genera, are usually the dopsis an internal cast which had too many relations with most numerous; and M. Deshayes thinks that in a natural its external covering to leave the supposition ope that method the two genera ought to be united. He observes chance had thus placed it there. Well convinced that the that the Spondyli and Plicatulæ have in common adhering cast belonged to the shell, M. Deshayes hesitated not to inequivalve shells, which are spiny or rough, and with unbreak away those parts of the external covering which ob equal umbones ; a hinge with two strong teeth in each valve ; structed the sight of the whole of the cast, the examina- and an intermediate fosset for the ligament, which is always tion of which was necessary. The fracture exposed between internal. The characters proper to the Spondyli, according the cast and the shell a layer of pulverulent matter very to Lamarck, consis: in the existence of auricles on each sicio like pure chalk. This layer, which was thick towards of the hinge, and of the prolongation of the umbo of ihe ilie uinbones, thinned out towards the borders, where it en-great valve into a talon, that prolongation having a tlattened tirely disappeared, and left room for the examination of the surface always divided by a furrow, in which the old traces solid part of the shell within. This external covering or of the ligament may be perceived. It is true, remarks M. test, extremely delicate and fragile towards the unibones of Deshayes, that in the greater number of Spondyli ihe aurithe valves, went on thickening towards the borders; it was cles are well marked, and that in nearly all the species of furrowed within as well as without; no trace of binge or Plicatule they do not exist; but to appreciate the value of muscular impression was seen ; the pulverulent matier being that character, it is sufficient to state that certain Spondyli removed, and the test placed conformably with the internal have very small and hardly developed auricles, wbich may cast, it was plain that a vacant space existed between them, also be seen in the greater part of the Plicatulæ. It is true, large towards the umbones, and progressively diminishing he continues, that in the Spondyli the umbo of the adhertowards the borders of the valves; finally upon examining ing valve is always very much prolonged; but it is equally the internal cast itself, M. Deshayes states that there is true that in the greater part of the Plicatulæ there is a refound a great subcentral and posterior muscuiar impres-markable prolongation of the adhering valve. Here we sion, and that there may be observed on the side corre- may remark that we have had in our possession Spondylz sponding with the cardinal edge three great plaits or folds, where the prolongation of the lower umbo was not great, which can only be the result of the impression made upon But to return to the argument of M. Deshayes (which our a strongly articulated hinge. The actually solid part of ihe remark appears to us to strengthen), though the prolongatest having no muscular impression and no hinge, it is cer- tion in Plicatula is narrower and shorter, it has the same tain that the internal cast could not have borrowed the im- characters as in Spondylus. Finally, he argues, if it be true pression of these parts from that portion, it must have taken that in the greater part of the Spondyli the talon offers a it in the solid interior of a shell, and there is no doubt that furrow wherein one sees the old remains of the ligament, this solid interior is represented by the new friable and pul- it is also true that many species of that genus have not this verulent layer which in other individuals has entirely dis- furrow, and have the ligament entirely concealed, and altoappeared and left a void in its place.
gether resembling that of the Plicatula. These observaThe different new characters which M. Deshayes found tions, says M. Deshayes in conclusion, prove that the more in his Podupsis induced him to think that the shell be- essential characters are entirely similar in both genera, and longed to the genus Spondylus. To leave no doubt on the that those which have served to separate them are in realsubject, he took in soft wax the impression of the internality of inferior importance, inasmuch as they vary in the surface of the cardinal border of a recent Spondylus, with species of the same group. These observations lead M. its valves closed. This impression was found entirely to Deshayes to the following consequences:--that the Plicatulæ resemble that of the cardinal border of M. Deshayes's cast may be united to the Spondyli, and form a small group in of Podopsis. Thus did this acute and persevering investi- the latter genus. gator sind in a Pudopsis a cast completely resembling what
Spondylus. would have been made in a Spondylus. He finds between Generic Character.-Animal oval, oblong; the borders the external and preserved part of the solid test or shell, and of the mantle disunited, thick, and furnished with many the internal pulverulent or dissolved part, the same affinity as rows of tentacular cirrhi, many of which are truncated and between the two layers coustituting ihe shell of Spondylus ; terminated by a smooth and convex surface. Mouth oval, lie sees at the umbo of the great valve a triangular space furnished with great cut (decoupées) lips, and on-each-sido