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the medical school, a long low building with a ventilation shaft, at the Lambeth end. These pavilions have each four wards above the ground floor, with their ends towards the river, and are 125 feet long, 28 feet wide, and 15 feet high. A lower range of buildings between the pavilions and Palace Road contains meeting hall, chapel, out-patients' department, residences, etc. The building, of red brick, was constructed by Mr. H. Currey, at a cost of £500,ooo, of which £90,000 was paid to the Metropolitan Board for the site. The number of beds is 572, and the gross income, derived from rents aided by voluntary contributions, is about £42,200. The number of patients in 1887 was, in, 5058; out, 24,826; casualties, 62,775.

Mr. W. Rendle communicated some interesting articles in the Records of St. Thomas's Hospital to the Antiquary in 1889. (See vol. xx.)

Thomas (St.) à Waterings, a place of execution for the county of Surrey, situated close to the second milestone on the Old Kent Road, and so called from a brook, or spring, dedicated to St. Thomas à Becket. Chaucer's pilgrims passed it on their way to the shrine of St. Thomas à Becket at Canterbury :

And forth we riden a litel more than paas,
Unto the waterynge of Seint Thomas,
And there our host began his hors arreste.

Prologue to Canterbury Tales, l. 820, etc. Gerard found white saxifrage, burr-reedes, etc., “in the ditch, right against the place of execution, at the end of Southwarke, nere London called St. Thomas Waterings."

And yf they do in dede, I pray God they may spede,
Even as honestly
As he that from steyling, goth to Sent Thomas Watryng
In his yong age
So they from pytter pattour, may come to tytter totur,

Even the same pilgrimage.
A New Enterlude, drawen out of the Holy Scripture of Godly Queene Hester, 1561.

For at Saynt Thomas of Watrynge, an' they strike a sayle
Then must they ryde in the haven of hempe without fayle.

Morality of Hycke Scorner.
Host. These are the arts
Or seven liberal deadly sciences
of pagery, or rather paganism,
As the tides run! to which if he apply him,
He may perhaps take a degree at Tyburn,
A year the earlier ; come to read a lecture
Upon Aquinas at St. Thomas à Waterings,
And so go forth a laureat in hemp circle ! 1

Ben Jonson, The New Inn, Act i. Sc. 1. Whitehall, June 20, 1663.-The fellow that stole the heiress, was hanged on Tuesday at St. Thomas Waterings, and could get no pardon or reprieve, though the

1 It is perhaps necessary to point out the punning connection which Ben Jonson strikes out between Thomas Aquinas and Thomas à Waterings'.

King by chance went by, and was told 'twas the custom then to reprieve at least, but the City petition weighed down that consideration.—Sir J. Williamson, Corr. vol. i. p. 55; Cam. Soc., 1874.

John Henry, alias ap Henry, a Welchman, and author of many of the Martin Mar-Prelate tracts, was hanged at St. Thomas. à Waterings, May 29, 1593 ; and Franklin, one of the inferior agents implicated in the murder of Sir Thomas Overbury, was executed at the same place on December 9, 1615. In 1834 occurred a remarkable recurrence to the old form. Two men had been condemned to death for a murder at Chester, but a dispute arose as to whether the execution should be carried into effect by the sheriff of the county or the sheriff of the city of Chester. Neither functionary would give way, and as, in the then state of the law, “years might elapse before this dispute could be legally determined,” the Attorney-General, Sir John (afterwards Lord) Campbell, resorted to an expedient which he may relate in his own words :

There was a great outcry by reason of the law being thus defeated. I boldly brought the convicts to the bar of the King's Bench, and prayed that execution should be awarded against them by the judges of that court. After a demurrer and long argument they were ordered to be executed by the Marshal of the King's Bench, at St. Thomas à Waterings in the borough of Southwark, aided by the Sheriff of Surrey, a form of proceeding which had not been resorted to for many ages. The execution took place accordingly amidst an immense assemblage, not only from the metropolis, but from remote parts of the kingdom.-Life of Lord Campbell, 1881,

vol. ii. p. 58. V Threadneedle Street, from Princes Street, between the Bank of

England and the Royal Exchange, to Bishopsgate Street. Stow calls it Threeneedle Street, 1 “I suppose," says Hatton, “from such a sign.” 2

The origin of the name presents considerable difficulty. Some see it in the connection with Merchant Taylors' Hall, while others suppose it refers to the arms of the needlemakers' Company—“three needles in fesse argent.”

Threadneedle Street was originally Thridneedle Street, as Samuel Clarke dates it from his study there. —D'Israeli, Cur. of Lit., 1 vol. ed., p. 259.

Dr. Plot writes it Thredneedle Street in 1693.3 Threadneedle Street runs from Bishopsgate Street, between the Royal Exchange and the Bank, to Princes Street; formerly it ran to the Stocks Market, the site of the present Mansion House ; but the enlargement of the Bank of England and the rebuilding of the Royal Exchange curtailed it considerably. “The Old Lady in Threadneedle Street" has long been a familiar name for the Bank of England. Obsei ve.—Consolidated Bank (No. 52), formerly the Hall of Commerce, on the north side, as marking where the French Church stood, and the Hospital of St. Anthony before that; Sun Fire Office, corner of Bartholomew Lane, on the site of St. Bartholomew's Church, taken down in 1840 ; Merchant Taylors' Hall, on the south side, entirely hid from view by a

i Stow, p. 69. ? Hatton, p. 82. 3 Letter to Evelyn, October 2, 1693.

ing housetholomew's cled away in

the century,

narrow frontage of modern buildings; the Baltic; the South Sea House. [See all these names.] Messrs. Prescott's Bank, No. 62.

The records of the Brewers' Company, under date 1421, relate the misconduct of one William Payne, at “the sign of the Swan by St. Anthony's Hospital, Threadneedle Street,” who refused to contribute a barrel of ale to be sent to King Henry V. in France. He was fined 3s. 4d. for a swan for the Master's breakfast. Threadneedle Street was of old noted for its taverns Sir John Hawkins, writing near the middle of the last century, says that “in that space near the Royal Exchange and Threadneedle Street, the number of taverns was not so few as twenty; on the side of the Bank there stood four; and at one of them, the Crown, it was not unusual to draw a butt of mountain, containing one hundred and twenty gallons, in gills, in a morning." The Crown was the house where Pepys was wont to “sup at the [Royal Society] Club, with my Lord Brouncker, Sir George Ent and others." It stood “behind the 'Change," on part of what is now the Threadneedle Street entrance to the Bank of England.1 The Cock Tavern, another wine and dining house, “behind the Exchange,” was built against the south wall of St. Bartholomew's Church, immediately west of Prescott and Grote's bank. It was cleared away in 1840. The Antwerp Tavern, a famous house in the early part of the 17th century, did not survive the Great Fire. Of the King's Arms and one or two more there are tokens or other memorials still extant.

The grandfather and father of Sir Philip Sidney lived in this street, in "a tenement called Lady Tate's house," on the site of a part of the House and Hospital of St. Anthony, annexed by Edward IV. to the collegiate church of St. George, in Windsor. The Dean and Canons of Windsor demised this house to Sir Henry Sidney, by an indenture, dated May 26, 1563, for the further term of sixty years, at the yearly rent of £6:13: 4.2 Sir Dudley North, before he went to the Levant, lived with “one Mr. Andrews, a packer in Threadneedle Street.”

This I you tell is our jolly Wassel,

And for Twelfth-night more meet too :
She works by the ell, and her name is Nell,
And she dwells in Threadneedle Street too.

Ben Jonson, Masque of Christmas. Three Cranes in the Vintry, “the most topping tavern in London,” as Sir Walter Scott makes mine host of the Black Bear at Cumnor describe it, was situated in Upper Thames Street at the top of what is still known as Three Cranes Lane, immediately below Southwark Bridge. It derived its name from “three strong cranes of timber placed on the Vintry wharf by the Thames side to crane up wines there.” 3 These three cranes, very clumsy machines too, are represented in Visscher's View of London (1616). It is probable that two out of the three were not erected till the beginning of the reign of Elizabeth, 1 Burn's Tokens, p. 240.

2 This indenture is now Ashmole MS., No. 1529. 3 Stow, p. go.

THREE CRANES IN THE VINTRY

377

as in the times of Henry VIII., Edward VI., and Mary, one only is spoken of, and the tavern appears to have been called the Crane. Then an entry in the books of the Drapers' Company, August 14, 1518, records the burial this day of “Mrs. Elizabeth Peke, widow, from the Crayne in the Vintre,” in St. Michael's Church ; the Company's “best beryall clothe” being lent for the occasion, and “every of the vj berers had a sylver spoone for his labor." 2

1552.--Thus the good Duke (Somerset), passing through a great part of the City, landing at the Crane in the Vintry, was conveyed to the tower.- Foxe's Martyrs, vol. vi. p. 293.

1554.—Then the first day of February the queene's grace came in hare owne persone unto the Gilde halle of Londone, and showyd hare mynde unto the Mayor, aldermen and the hole craftes of London in hare owne persone, with hare captes in hare honde in tokyn of love and pes, and went home agayne by water at the Crane in the Ventre.-Chronicle of the Grey Friars, p. 86.

The colophon to a black letter edition of Sir Bevis of Hampton, in David Garrick's collection, bears witness that it was “Imprynted at London in the Vinetre upon the thre Crane Wharfe by William Coplande ;” but it is unluckily without date. The locality became a favourite one with the booksellers, as combining the attractions of a busy landing-place and a “topping tavern.” The Workes of a young wyt trust up with a Fardell of pretty fancies was printed in 1577 " nigh unto the Three Cranes in the Vintree ;” in 1599 E. Venge was a bookseller at the Black Bull in the same locality, and others might be enumerated.

In whom are as much virtue, truth and honestie
As there are true fathers in the Three Cranes of the Vintree.-

Damon and Pithias, 1571.
A pox o' these pretenders to wit! Your Three Cranes, Mitre, and Mermaid
men ! Not a corn of true salt, not a grain of right mustard amongst them all. - Ben
Jonson, Bartholomew Fair (1614), Act. i. Sc. 1.

Iniquity. Nay, boy, I will bring thee to the bawds and the roysters
At Billingsgate, feasting with claret-wine and oysters ;
From thence shoot the Bridge, child, to the Cranes in the Vintry,
And see there the gimblets how they make their entry.

Ben Jonson, The Devil is an Ass, 1616. May 14, 1660.-Information was given to the Council of State that several of His Majesty's goods were kept at a fruiterer's warehouse near the Three Cranes, in Thames Street, for the use of Mistress Elizabeth Cromwell, wife to Oliver Cromwell, some time called Protector; and the Council ordered that persons be appointed to view them, and seventeen carts load of rich house stuff was taken from thence, and brought to Whitehall, from whence they were stolen.—Mercurius Politicus Redivivus, Addit. MS. in British Museum, 10, 116.

Here, after the battle of Worcester, Charles II. and Lord Wilmot had agreed to meet if they found their way to London. They were to inquire for Will Ashburnham.3

January 23, 1662.-After choosing our gloves we all went over to the Three Cranes Taverne, and, though the best room in the house, in such a narrow dogg-hole

i Cavendish's Wolsey, p. 108.

? Quoted by Burn, p. 241. 3 Dalrymple, Charles II., p. 103.

we were crammed, and I believe we were near forty, that it made me loath my company and victuals, and a sorry poor dinner it was too. — Pepys.

New Queen Street, commonly called the Three Cranes in the Vintry, a good open street, especially that part next Cheapside, which is best built and inhabited. At the lowest end of the street, next the Thames, is a pair of stairs, the usual place for the Lord Mayor and Aldermen to take water at, to go to Westminster Hall, for the new Lord Mayor to be sworn before the Barons of the Exchequer. This place with the Three Cranes is now of some account for the Costermongers, where they have their warehouses for their fruit. —Strype, B. iii. p. 13.

There were several other Three Crane Taverns in London. In Strype's Map of Chepe Ward (1720) a large Three Crane Tavern is represented as occupying a courtyard on the south side of the Poultry, opposite St. Mildred's Church; others were in the Old Bailey, The Savoy, St. Olave's Street, Southwark, etc. Their signs were all birds. Decker in his Belman of London, 1608, informs us that “the beggars of London called one of their places of rendesvous by this name."

Three Cups (The), a favourite London sign. Hatton enumerates three : on the east side of St. John Street, near Hicks's Hall; on the west side of Bread Street, near the middle ; on the east side of Goswell Street, near Aldersgate Street. A fourth is mentioned by Beaumont and Fletcher :

You know our meetings,

At the Three Cups in St. Giles'.

- Beaumont and Fletcher's Works, by Dyce, vol. iv. p. 42. And a fifth (in Holborn), by Winstanley, in his Lives of the Poets (12mo, 1687, p. 208). The six houses, Nos. 16 to 21 Featherstone Buildings, occupy the site of the Three Cups Inn in High Holborn. Three shillings weekly for ever are payable out of the rents of these houses to the poor of Holborn, under the will of Lewis Owen, who died in 1624.

Three Leg Alley, FETTER LANE—Great New Street to Gough Square. In Three Leg Alley (now Pemberton Row), in the parish of St. Bride's, lived and died Thomas Flatman, the miniature painter and

poet, 1

Flatman who Cowley imitates with pains,

And rides a jaded Muse whipt with loose reins. —Lord Rochester. In the time of Charles II., when Flatman lived in the parish of St. Bride's, Three Leg Alley was one of the best inhabited parts of the parish.

Three Nuns Inn, Nos. 10 to 13 ALDGATE HIGH STREET, is mentioned by Defoe in his Plague Year, it was a great coaching inn, and long famous for its punch. The Aldgate Station of the Metropolitan Railway occupies a part of the site of the old inn. It was rebuilt in 1880.

I doubt not but there may be some ancient persons alive in the parish who can justify the fact of this, and are able to show even in what part of the churchyard the pit lay better than I can ; the mark of it also was many years to be seen in the

1 Ratc-books of St. Bride's, Fleet Street.

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