« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
miraculously elastic, refuses at last to receive any , understand their own rights, and the danger to more. · A short time ago, whole troops of these which they are exposed. ejected sufferers might be seen sitting night by
If we could rely upon a strict application of the night on the cold and damp staircases, arranged true principles of law, we might perhaps close with like flower-pots on the stands of a greenhouse !
the advocates of slavery, upon their own declaraWe submit these things to the consideration tion. We should not ask Congress to enact a law, of all ranks and professions—to every holder of property, whether urban or provincial. London
or adopt a resolution, prohibiting slaveholders, or is the fountain and head-spring of seven-tenths any other class of citizens, from moving into the of the crime of England ; the hotbed in which ceded territory, and carrying their property with are conceived and ripened those deeds of fraud them. The people of Pennsylvania or Massachusetts and violence which are afterwards perpetrated by do not enact laws themselves, or request Congress to metropolitan emissaries. This fact is established make them, prohibiting the citizens of any state beyond a doubt by the inquiries of the Con- whatever, from migrating into their territories and stabulary Commissioners ; and it surely demands carrying their property with them. But in this the serious reflection of all speculators, and case, the immigrants and their property too, must seekers of political security, in the improved be subject to the laws of the state into which they education of the people. Thus much for and social interests. Of others of a graver
If a slave is the property of his master in
and more solid wisdom, we demand, whether a state
South Carolina, and as such is carried to Massaof things so awfully degrading, and yet so easily chusetts, where he becomes instantly free, the removed, should any longer be permitted to exist slaveholder is not prohibited from carrying his under the dominion of a Christian Sovereign. property into Massachusetts, but he is merely pre
vented from holding a human being as property, FRIENDS' REVIEW.
under a jurisdiction which' recognizes every man as the proprietor of his own bones and sinews.
So in case of the removal of a slaveholder with PHILADELPHIA, THIRD MONTH 11, 1848.
his slaves from South Carolina, into New Mexico
or Upper California, the right of removal, with such According to recent intelligence from Washington articles, living or dead, as the laws of South Carothere appears reason 10 apprehend that measures lina make absolute property, is not called in quesfor the cession of a large portion of Mexican terri
tion. But the inquiry immediately arises, what tory will be consummated by the Senate. If the
authority can the laws or usages of South Carolina treaty should be ratified by the two governments, confer on the emigrant who has passed beyond New Mexico and Upper California must become her jurisdiction? The claimants in question seem parts of the territory of the United States. The to forget that the relation of master and slave is former is estimated to contain 95,700 square miles, not a natural one ; that the right of ownership to a with a population of 60,000; and the latter 420,000
man is not like the right to a horse, of universal square miles, and 30,000 inhabitants. Supposing recognition : but that slavery, as far as it is a legal the contemplated measure to be carried into effect, institution at all, is merely municipal; and must be a question of overwhelming importance is at once bounded by the jurisdiction of the power that suppresented to our view: In what capacity is this
ports it. Being a slave in South Carolina, no more new accession to our territory to be occupied ?
makes a man a slave in New Mexico, than being Even while the cession was apparently remote
a slave in Constantinople or Samarcand. If he is and uncertain, the advocates of slavery have boldly legally held as a slave in New Mexico, it must be insisted that Congress has no power to prohibit by force of the laws of that place, and not by virtue the owners of slaves from moving into the ceded
of Carolina law. territory, and carrying their property with them.
Now it is well understood that slavery is not a The meaning of this declaration is easily under- legal institution in any part of the Mexican territory. stood. Such parts of this extensive territory as
Upon what principle of law can the emigrant slave. will bear the burden of slave culture are to be holder then claim property in man, when he takes occupied by slaveholders and slaves; while, as a
possession of the ceded territory? It cannot be necessary consequence, free labour, and those insti- done by the laws of the state from which he retutions which a free population is sure to form, moved, for they do not extend beyond the boundamust be excluded. There is abundant reason to ries of the state. It is a settled principle of law, fear that this will be the actual result, and it is that in case of conquest or cession, the relations of therefore of the utmost importance that the inha- man to man, and the rights of property, remain unbitants of the free States, or rather that the friends changed. The laws of Mexico as they were, preof republican freedom and equal laws, should vious to the cession, must be in force after the trans
fer, until revoked by competent authority. Unless
MARRIED, -On Third-day the 7th instant, at Congress should legalize slavery in the ceded terri- Friends' meeting, Sixth street, Philadelphia, Chas. tory, the act of cession will not render slavery law. Walton to Deborah Ligetroot, both of this city. ful in New Mexico or Upper California.
DIED--At Shrewsbury, New Jersey, Second But the great danger is, and one against which month 17th, 1848, Mary Williams, daughter of early provision ought to be made, that slavery will the late Tylee Williams, in the 36th year of her be introduced into the new settlements in total defi age. ance of law. It is probably true, if not absolutely qualities of mind, she was greatly beloved by those
Possessed of superior endowments, and amiable certain, that slavery was never introduced into civiliz- among whom her lol was cast, and gave promise of ed society, under the sanction of law. During the being a polished shaft in the Master's hand. days of villanage in England, no man was deemed Whilst
, with too many young persons, there was a a villein or slave, if any of his paternal ancestors and honoured, she appears to have been preserved
lack of entire dedication to Him whom she loved could be shown to have been free. Slavery must from glaring deviations, and to have been of late have immemorially existed in the paternal line, or years, sweetly submitting to the preparing hand. it did not legally exist at all. When the first The discipline of protracted and acute suffering twenty slaves were imported into Virginia, they
was seen io be meet for her, and gently casting her were not held by law, but without it. Wherever could not have spared one pang as a preparation
care upon a faithful Creator, she testified that she slavery has been tolerated, it has been introduced for an introduction into the realms of blessedness.” in fact before it was established by law. Hence Strongly attached to the religious society of which slavery comes to be recognized as an existing in- it was her privilege to be a member, and earnestly stitution; owing its legality to usage.
solicitous for its welfare, although unable for some If the ceded territory should be filled up with purified spirit has left a void which is sensibly felt,
years to attend its meetings, the removal of this emigrants from the United States, without any pro- even as a loss to the church. As the time of her vision for the exclusion of slavery, there is a strong departure drew near, her physical sufferings inprobability that such portions, as are suited to slave creased, yet her better life, as she approached its cultivation, may be occupied by slaveholders and fulness
, was renewed day by day; and, leaning on
her Saviour's breast, she was preserved calm and slaves: and that this slavery will be maintained collected to the very last. Ai a moment of great under shadow of the Missouri compromise ; though prostration she said—“Weep not for me-my that compromise was designed to apply to the terri- Heavenly Father deals very gently with me,"'tory then belonging to the United States, and not sire for patience, and her trust that it was her at.
and repeated our Lord's prayer, expressing her deto that hereafter acquired. Under such circum- tainment, as also her comfort, in the hope that she stances it will no doubt be an invidious, probably had a building with God eternal in the Heavens; a dangerous task, to attempt the legal investigation she said that the prayer on her behalf, of a friend of the authority by which the slaves may be held. who had visited her, was heard in Heaven. Taking
an affectionate leave of her family on Third-day In this manner slavery may be established by evening, the 15th, she expressed considerable in usage, until that usage acquires the force of law. the way of exhortation and benediction, and claspAfter which a state government may be formed ing her hands exclaimed, “Lord Jesus, receive my under a slave holding influence, and claim a spirit in mercy, this night!” She continued during place in the Union on a level with the original occasionally finding utterance for her feeling; at
the next day and night, growing gradually weaker, states.
one time reciting the hymn Without stopping to examine the cost already in
“ Jesus, refuge of my soul, curred, we may justly reflect that the money to be
Let me to thy bosum fly,"&c. paid for the ceded territory must, in all probability, tal," about” 6 o'clock on the ensuing Fifth-day
She gently and peacefully “ceased to be more be chiefly drawn from the people of the free states,
morning Are we then willing to contribute our money,
At his residence in this city, on the mornassume the moral responsibility of extending the ing of the 28th ult., Jesse THOmson, a member of evils of slavery over a tract of country from which the Northern District Meeting, in the 78th, year of it is now excluded ? Shall the future historian
age. record the fact, and will posterity believe, that in
On the 18th of last month, at his residence the middle of the nineteenth century, a people pro- JACOB Bell, 'a member of Rochester meeting, aged
in Rochester, N. York, after an illness of two weeks, fessedly the most free and enlightened on the globe, upwards of 82 years. He was a native of England, reestablished the system of slavery on a soil from and convinced of the truth as professed by the which it had been previously expelled by a semi- Society of Friends, in his youth, and remained atbarbarous nation ?
tached to them until his end. Although his power of speech was much impaired, and his words not
easily understood, yet it was evident to his family, MARRIED, -At Friends? Boarding School, near that on the day of his death, he was engaged in Richmond, Indiana, on Fifth day, the 24th ult., prayer, thanksgiving and praises to the most High. Lewis A. Estes, of Durham, Maine, to Hulda C. He died without a struggle, and we believe his end Hoag, of Charlotte, Vt.
For Friends' Review,
201 have been in the house at one time. NotPENNSYLVANIA HOSPITAL FOR THE INSANE. withstanding the extensive accommodations, such
The kindness of Dr. Kirkbride, the Physician is the well-merited confidence reposed in its mato the Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane, nangement, that every room in the building has has furnished the writer with his Seventh An- been filled for several weeks together, and further nual Report to the Board of Managers.
additions will ere long be necessary. Of the We have, from year to year, looked attentive-401 under care during the year, 213 were disly over the Reports of this officer, and have uni- charged or died—and of these, 111 were cured. formly arisen from the perusal of them with the The statements of Dr. Kirkbride clearly show, conviction, that the Board has been particularly what has been heretofore repeatedly urged, the fortunate in being able to place the concerns of great importance of an early consignment of a this noble institution under the management of diseased subject to the management of a skilful an individual who, while he gives all his time physician, and the privileges of a well-ordered and energies industriously to the promotion of institution, before the excitements of home and its great objects, brings to his aid the advantages its associations have strengthened the malady, of an enlightened judgment, matured by a course
or time shall have confirmed it. of study and investigations, bearing directly upon
Among the admissions of 1847, have been the diseases of the mind.
many cases of great, and some of peculiar inWhen the popular mind became so well in- terest. A lad only nine years old is among the structed in reference to insanity, as to admit that number who have been admitted, and who, from functional diseases of the brain, if promptly and an early period of life, has manifested symptoms properly treated, may as naturally yield to the of mental disease. A child only three years old, skill of the medical practitioner, as diseases of whose father was a well-educated full Indian, the stomach, or other organs, a great step was
was brought to the Hospital for advice. This made towards a general melioration of the con- case was one of deep interest, from the very dedition of this afflicted part of our species. The cided character of the symptoms, and the fact writer well remembers when the practice was that they were induced from fright! A person common to farm out the crazy of the township of "great private worth, and distinguished for to those who would give them a home for the his scientific acquirements, but deaf and dumb least possible compensation. They were aban- from birth, after labouring for many months undoned to their fate, with a hopelessness which der inequivocal symptoms of mental derangecherished no attempt at restoration, and which ment, was compelled to enter the Hospital." seemed almost to discard the idea, that they were The Dr. refers to a still more striking combinaentitled to the privileges of humanity. The old tion of afflictions, which occurred in a boy whom system of caring for them, or rather, of getting he had occasion to see frequently, but who does rid of them, was liable to the most revolting not appear to have entered the Hospital. He abuses; and, indeed, it must be admitted, thai, had been, as it was believed, blind from his birth ; even at this day, and in some parts of our own he subsequently lost his hearing—then the country, there is abundant room for the exercise, power of speech, and, after some interval, unin these matters, of that great practical law of questionable indications of insanity were maniChristianity which teaches love to all
, and to do fested, by acts of the most violent and singular to all as we would have them do to us; ever character.” A sound mind in a sound body, is remembering that they who are more particular one of the greatest of earthly blessings. Where ly afflicted, have proportionably stronger claims these are withheld or destroyed, the true Chrisupon our sympathies, and upon our greatest ef- tian remedy is an acquiescence in the Divine forts to improve their condition.
will and a firm reliance upon the wisdom of We can scarcely refer to a more unquestiona- Him, of whom it is declared, that he doeth all ble indication of the progress of the age, than the things well. To amuse and instruct, and to numerous institutions formed for the benefit of soothe the feelings of the inmates of the Insane the insane, under the care of persons who give Hospital, are among the very prominent objects their days and their nights to the study of men- of Dr. Kirkbride and all his assistants. To protal diseases, and which are conducted solely with mote these, the light labours of the farm and the reference to the restoration of the subject—or, if garden are encouraged. A course of lectures that be impracticable, to the promoting of his coin- of which fifty were delivered last year by Dr. fort in the greatest possible degree. These duties, Curwen, the assistant physician, on various sub in reference to such as are visited by the most jects—is a means of much instruction and mendreadful of human maladies, are opened to us as tal employment for the patients. They fully we cherish the promptings of a broad Christian appreciate their value, and are greatly interested philanthropy, and the full performance of them, in Entomology, Electricity, Astronomy, Ornithowill bring in return the rich rewards for well logy, &c., as theya reablyillustrated by the lecdoing.
turer. Employment and amusements are, we The average number in the Hospital during doubt not, with much reason, relied upon as the past year was nearly 185—and as many as powerful means for the benefit of the patients ;
For Friends' Review,
For Friends' Review.
and it does appear to the writer, that the Prin-| rather than to discourage from the proper use cipal of this Institution has been eminently suc- of a remedy whose virtues we would acknowcessful in these and other respects, in the em-ledge with cheerfulness and gratitude, we ployment of a tact, which is above all rule, and transcribe the following case, as it appeared in which comes forward at the needed moment, to a late paper. *
INDEX. do the best thing in the best possible manner. The expenditures of the year were $39,814 48,
At Cincinnati, Ohio, on the 23d inst., a the receipts were $34,247 40.
Mrs. Symonds went to the office of a Dr. Mere-
tracted. Chloroform was administered, and the
usual symptoms were exhibited. After the exETHER AND CHLOROFORM.
traction of two teeth she began to sink, and
every effort thereafter to revive her, proved inEach returning month is increasing our know, effectual, and she finally fell into the arms of ledge of the use of these remedies, and, as all death. The husband of Mrs. S. witnessed this feel that they may have need of them, all are in sadly sudden scene, he having accompanied her. terested in noting their progress. The remedies Dr. Mussey and other physicians were immeare new, or a new use is made of them; they diately sent for, and conducted to the house, are powerful, also, and accessible to every one, but the efforts were all unavailing. Death's and as they are stimulating, anodyne, or nar- work was done. This is the first death from cotic, according to the quantities administered, chloroform. or the temperament of the individual using them, they are liable, in no ordinary degree, to abuse.
LETTER ON SLAVE PRODUCE. Among the professional men who have used these remedies most extensively, and given the
The subsequent letter from an unknown corresult of their experience to the public, is Dr. respondent, was received on the 6th inst., and John Snow, of the St. George's and University is submitted, without comment, to the readers Hospitals, London. The Dr. has divided the of the Review. phenomena of etherization into stages, or degrees, and has thus rendered more intelligible After reading the notice of John Woolman, the diverse effects hitherto witnessed under its in the Review of the 4th inst., I was strongly administration. “In the first degree, the feel- reminded of the circumstances by which my ings of the patient are changed, but he retains mind was impressed with doubts, as to the proconsciousness and the power of voluntary mo- priety of using the product of slavery. With tion; in the second degree, mental functions kind feelings towards the Editor, and the work may be exercised and voluntary actions per- he has engaged in, I offer them for his service. formed; in the third, there is no evidence of
Being some winters past at Charleston, S. C., any mental functions being exercised or any I had left the sumptuous accommodations of the voluntary motion occurring; but muscular con- Planters' Hotel for the more retired boarding tractions may sometimes take place, as the ef- house of E. B. on East Bay street, when fect of the ether or of external impressions; in one morning, at our breakfast table, I learned the fourth degree, no motions are seen except that a sale of negroes, the property of a bankthose of respiration ; in the fifth degree, (not rupt, was to take place on Vendue range, near witnessed in the human being, the respiratory the Exchange. movements are more or less paralyzed, and be- The thought of attending such a sale was at come difficult, feeble or irregular.” He after- first revolting, but not knowing that another wards says, in the fourth degree, a snoring oc- opportunity would ever occur, and having heard curs, and it is the commencement of this snoring, different statements respecting the behaviour of or the beginning of the fourth stage, that he re- the negroes on such occasions, I concluded to commends as the most eligible for the operation; go. and adds further, that “so soon as there is the On approaching the place, I beheld a large least sign of snoring, he always leaves off the number of slaves sitting on the curb-stones opvapour entirely."*
posite the auction buildings. Some were enIt has seemed to me that the popular tenden- tirely too young to comprehend the cause of cy was strong to an indiscriminate, almost a their being there, and some almost as unconheedless use of this powerful agent, and that it scious on account of age; but many appeared was of importance that the public, as well as the alive to their distressing situation. Notice physician, should have some appreciation of the was soon given that the sale had begun. dangers as well as the benefits that may attend Several couples of young men and women were it. With a view to induce a salutary caution, ordered to mount the stand, and respectively, to
their surprise, were sold as man and wife!! A Ranking's Half-Yearly Abstract, No. 6, page 198,
• North American and U. S. Gazette, Feb. 29, 1847.
middle-aged female was then brought forward Vera Cruz stands on a bleak coast, with no and strongly recommended for health and abili- natural protection for its harbor, except a coral ty as a field hand, who, the meanwhile, was reef in front, just rising out of the water at low protesting her inability for service, on account tide, on which stands the celebrated Castle of of rheumatism and weakness. She was re- San Juan de Ulua. In the rear of the town is a buked by the actioneer, with savage fierceness, plain of some forty miles in width, the first fifordered to hush, and lie no more. Then came teen miles of which consist of piles of burning forth a man-yes, indeed, he was a man- sand, apparently blown together by the wind who, after being highly praised as a good me- which sweeps down the coast here at short chanic, was knocked off to a Santee planter for periods, while the sun is south of the equator, $700. Before he left the block, he declared as though it had been accumulating strength all “ to the Santee he would not go." A struggle the way from the north pole. This part of the ensued, but being soon overpowered by num- plain is grown over in places with the prickly bers, he was forced away, and my heart went pear, and a thorny matted shrub called chaparral
. with him. I found my teeth began to grind hard Further back the soil becomes fertile, and suptogether; and to make the matter worse, two plies this market with every kind of tropical respectable foreigners, looking on from a win- fruit and production. The plain is terminated dow in the Exchange just above me, observed, by a vast range of mountains, the highest peaks “ This is republican America.”
of which are the Coffer of Perote and Orizaba. A separation of some near relations now took The latter is 17,373 feet high-all above 15,000 place, calculated to wring out sympathy; but feet being covered with perpetual snow. the distress of a likely young woman was as
The walls of this city enclose about one much as I could endure, and with difficulty I hundred and fifty acres of ground, which is regu, stood (remembering the end of Korah, Dathan larly laid out in squares of moderate size, and and Abiram) till the sale and separation of seventy all built up in solid blocks, with little variety of
my fellow creatures were ended. I then went style, and apparently little difference in age. home, told what I had seen, and hasted to bed, All has the appearance of having stood—as it although it was yet early in the afternoon really has-for centuries; and its massive maThen and there it was, that with weeping eyes, sonry might bid defiance to the “ tooth of time" and a throbbing heart, I seriously pondered how for many centuries to come, though not perhaps far I had been instrumental in producing the to the “ rasure" of cannon shot and natural condismal scene just witnessed. I found the verdict vulsions. The walls of the houses are of great was against me, "My conscience was aroused thickness, and composed of a mixture of coral, from a stupor into which it has not yet relapsed. brick and cement, which is about as hard and Truth demanded a sacrifice, and tobacco was durable as stone. The roofs are all flat, and surcalled for first. I desired to be excused, as my rounded by a thick wall or parapet of the same love of tobacco knew no bounds. Take what material, making every house a very good forthou wilt, only let me enjoy my tobacco. I tress. The city was once much larger than at did not wish to trifle with conscience, but ne- present, extending far outside of the wall ; but vertheless I did. Conviction was sealed that I wars have long since destroyed the unprotected was evading the performance of known duty. portion, and the population now numbers only But at length the final conflict took place, and about seven thousand. through grace, obedience triumphed, to my
Vera Cruz, like the cities of Mexico generally, great advantage many ways.
is greatly over-supplied with enormously large But even recently, when far from home and churches, each surmounted with a dome at one somewhat indisposed, the desire of a sweetened end, and a square tower at the other. The cup presented ; the temptation was quenched towers are literally crammed with bells of all by remembering the morning passed on Vendue sizes, which are ringing wretchedly out of tune, range.
by way of religious ceremony, a great part of Let others do as they may in these matters, the time from daylight in the morning till ten and I feel no disposition to force my brethren o'clock at night. -yet permit me, without further trespassing,
Fruit of all sorts is abundant and cheap, but to say that SEEING IS BELIEVING.
provisions are scarce and remarkably dear. A meal of victuals at the hotel, or any where else,
costs a dollar. People eat but twice a day, and LETTER FROM VERA CRUZ.
scantily at that. Indeed, the natives seem to reEvery thing here reminds the Hyperborean of quire but little, and can form no conception of his change of latitude. The people are clad in the capacity of a northern stomach. My own the light garments of summer, and the tables are appetite being a little sharpened, perhaps, by a supplied with the salads of spring together with sea voyage, I am compelled to use the most dilithe fresh fruits of autumn. Plants are all green, gent exertions at the table to keep them from and growing on in perfect ignorance of its being starving me. mid-winter.
The Mexicans, as a race, are evidently much