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TRANS (L.), with the form tra-, signifies across, over, beyond, through, completely, from one to another; as, transgress, to step beyond; transmit, to send over or beyond; traverse, to pass over.
UL'TRA (L.), beyond, on the other side, extreme; as, ultramontane, beyond the mountains; ultraist, one who goes to extremes.
UN- (A. S. un, a privative or negative particle), before an adjective, denotes negation or privation; as, unworthy, not worthy. Before a verb it denotes the undoing or the destroying of the energy or act expressed by the verb; as, unsay.
UNDER (A. S.) signifies, as a prefix, beneath, that which is less than right or ordinary, lower in rank or degree; as, underrate.
U'NI- (L. u'nus, one), used as a prefix, or in composition, signifies one or producing one; as, uniform, having one and the same form. UP (A. S.) denotes motion upward, as, upstart; rest in a higher place, as, uphold; sometimes subversion, as, upset.
VICE- (L. vi'ce), instead of, in place of, denoting one who acts in place of another; as, viceroy, one who acts in place of a king.
WITH (A. S.), as a prefix, except in the word withal, signifies opposition, privation, departure from or against; as, withstand, to stand against; withdraw, to retire.
TO THE TEACHER.-Care should be taken to refer the pupil frequently to the list of Prefixes and Suffixes for the explanation of words in which they may occur. In regard to Anglo-Saxon words, we rarely find it necessary to apply to a dictionary for their meaning; but for a full understanding of words the roots of which are to be found in the Latin and Greek some acquaintance with their etymologies is indispensable. In the Select Etymologies under the Reading Lessons we have frequently given the prefix of compound words without its meaning; but in all such cases the pupil should be called on to give not only the root-word, but the change wrought in the signification of the compound by the prefix. Suppose the word attraction occurs; it may be etymologically analyzed as follows: the literal meaning of attraction is a drawing to; it is formed from attract by the addition of the suffix -ion, denoting act of, state of being, or -ing; attract is from the Latin tră'ho, trac'tum, to draw, with the addition of the prefix ad, to, which here, for the sake of euphony, as it comes before t, is converted into at-. Thus, to attract is literally to draw to. The questions may then be put, What word expresses to draw from? (Ans. Abstract). To draw out? (Extract). To draw forth, or to prolong? (Protract). To draw together? (Contract). To drau back? (Retract), etc., etc.
SUFFIXES OF ENGLISH WORDS.
-ABLE, -IBLE, -UBLE, a. See -ble.
-AC, a., having, pertaining to, like; as, demoniac, like a demon; cardiac, pertaining to the heart.
-ACEOUS, -ACIOUS, a., of, like, having; as, arenaceous, of, like or having (ă-re ́na) sand; crustaceous, crust-like; capacious, having capacity; pugnacious, having a disposition to fight.
-ACITY, -ICITY, -OCITY, n., the state of having, etc., signified by the above suffixes, -aceous, etc.; as, veracity, duplicity, ferocity.
-ACLE, -ICLE, n., agent, place; as, oracle, curricle.
-ACY, n., state of being; as, celibacy, the state of being cœ'lebs, unmarried; con-tumacy (tum'eo, I swell), the state of being puffed up. -AGE, n., a collection of, state of being, an allowance for; as baggage, a collection of bags or bundles; bondage, the state of one bound; wharfage, an allowance for the use of a wharf.
-AL, a., relating to, like, capable of being; as, mental, relating to mind; social, like a (so'cius) companion; n., capital, the head of a column; removal, the act of removing.
-AN or -IAN, a., of, like, pertaining to; as, republican, pertaining to a republic; diluvial, relating to the (dilu'vium) deluge; n., one who; as, historian, one who writes history.
-ANCE or -ANCY, n, quality of, act of, result of, the being; as, ignorance, the state of being ignorant; elegance, the quality of being elegant; constancy, the being constant.
-ANT, a., quality of; as pleasant, the quality of pleasing; n., that which, one who; as, consonant, that which is sounded with; servant, one who serves.
-AR, a., relating to, having; as, insular, relating to an island; cellular, having cells; n., one who; as, scholar, one who goes to school.
-ARD, n., one who, that which; as, drunkard, one in the habit of being drunk; placard, that which is stuck up, as a proclamation.
-ARY, a., relating or pertaining to; as, salutary, relating to (salʼus) health; literary, pertaining to letters; n., one who, the place where, the person or thing that; as, antiquary, one who studies antiquity, apiary (ap'is, a bee), the place where bees are kept; voluptuary,
a person given up to (volup'tas) pleasure; bound'ary, the thing that bounds.
-ATE, a., having, being; as, passionate, having passion; n., one who, or the person or thing that; as, advocate, one who pleads a cause; mandate, a thing that is commanded; v., to make, to give, to put; as, debilitate, to make (deb'ilis) feeble; retaliate, to give back like (ta'lis) for like; inoculate, to put an (oc'ulus) eye in or upon.
-BLE, -ABLE, -IBLE, -UBLE, a., may be, can be, full of, causing; as, laudable, that may be lauded; arable, that can be plowed (ǎr'o, I plow); flexible, that may be bent; soluble, that may be dis solved; forcible, full of force; terrible, causing terror.
-CLE, n., diminutive; as, article, a little (arʼtus) joint; canticle, a
-DOM, n., domain of, condition of, act of; as, dukedom, the domain of a duke; freedom, the condition of being free; martyrdom, the act of a martyr.
-EE, n., one who, or to whom; as, grantee, one to whom something is granted; trustee, one specially trusted; absentee, one who is absent. -EER, n., one who, or the person that; as, engineer, one who has charge of an engine; mutineer, one who is guilty of mutiny.
-EN, a., made of, like; as, brazen, made of brass; v., to make as, fasten, to make fast; harden, to make hard.
-ENCE or -ENCY, n., being or state of being, a doing; as, absence, a being away; eloquence, a speaking out; innocency, state of being innocent.
-ENT, a., quality of -ing, being; as, ardent, burning (from ar'deo, I burn); potent (pot ́ens), being powerful; n., one who, that which; as, president, one who presides; serpent, that which creeps.
-ER, n., one who, that which; as, teacher, one who teaches; fender, that which fends off; a., more, forming the comparative degree; as, wiser, greater.
-ERY, n., the place where, state of being; as, distillery, a place where distilling is carried on; knavery, the state of being a knave. -ESCENCE, n., state of becoming; as, convalescence, state of becoming well; quiescence, state of being quiet.
-ESCENT, a., growing or becoming; as, excrescent, growing out. -ESS, n., denoting the feminine; as, princess, lioness.
-FIC, a., making, causing (from fă'cio, I make); as, pacific, making peace.
-FICE, n., that which is made, done, etc. (from fă'cio, I make); as, artifice, something done with art; orifice, an opening made (from os, gen. o'ris, a mouth).
-FUL, a., full of; as, joyful, full of joy; careful, full of care.
-FY, v., to make, etc.; as, stupefy, to make stupid; nullify, to make (nul'lus) null; purify, to make (pu'rus) pure.
-HOOD, n., condition; as girlhood, the condition of being a girl. -IC, -ICAL, a., relating to, like, made of; as, prophetic, relating to prophecy; metallic, like metal; historical, pertaining to history. -ICE, n., quality of, being, a thing that; as, malice, a being evil; notice, the thing that makes known.
-ICS, n., the doctrine, science or art of; as, ethics, the science of morals; optics, the science of vision.
-ID, a., quality; as, acid, having the quality of sourness; timid, fearing.
-ILE, a., that may be, relating to, apt to; as, puerile, relating to a (pu'er) boy; tractile, that may be drawn out; fragile, apt to break. ́-INE, a., of or belonging to; as, canine, belonging to a (canʼis) dog; feminine, belonging to a (femʼina) woman.
-ION, n., act of, state of being, that which; -ing; as, expulsion, the act of driving out; salvation, the state of being (sal'vus) safe; immersion, a plunging in; production, that which is produced.
-ISE or -IZE, v., to make, give, practice, etc.; as, criticise, to give judgment on; civilize, to make civil; tyrannize, to practice tyranny. -ISH, a., somewhat, like; as, blackish, somewhat black; girlish, like a girl; v., to make; as, cherish, to make dear.
-ISM, n., condition, act, idiom, doctrine; as, barbarism, the condition (also the act and idiom) of a barbarian; republicanism, the doctrine of republicans; Anglicism, an English idiom.
-IST, n., an agent, one who; as, annalist, one who writes annals; botanist, one who studies botany (Gr. bot'a-nē, a plant); Calvinist, one who is a follower of Calvin.
-ITE, n., he who, that which; as, favorite, one favored.
-ITY or -TY, n., quality, being or state of being; as, equity, the quality of justice; security, the state of being secure; liberty, the state of being free.
-IVE, a., having the quality of; as, delusive, having the quality of deluding; n., he who or that which; as, captive, he who is taken; missive, that which is sent.
-IZE, v., to make, etc. See -ISE.
-KIN, n., diminutive; as, napkin, a small (Fr. nappe) tablecloth; lambkin, a little lamb.
-LESS, a., without; as, worthless, without worth; artless, without art.
-LET, n., diminutive; as, rivulet, a small stream; driblet, a small drop.
-LIKE, a., like or resembling; as, warlike, like war.
-LING, n., diminutive; as, darling, a little dear; duckling, a little duck; underling, an inferior; witling, a small wit.
-LY for -LIKE, manner; as, friendly, like a friend; freely, in a free manner.
-MENT, n., being, act of, the thing or place that; as, excitement, the state of being excited; punishment, act of punishing; acquirement, the thing acquired.
-MONY, n., the state of being, thing that; as, acrimony, the state of being sharp or bitter; testimony, the thing that is affirmed by a witness.
-NESS, n., state or quality of being; as, firmness, the quality of being firm; gladness, the state of being glad.
-OR, n., one who, quality; as, actor, one who acts; error, of erring; debtor, one who is in debt; donor, one who gives.
-ORY, a., of, belonging or relating to; -ing; prefatory, relating to a preface; inflammatory, inflaming; n., the place where, the thing that; as, armory, the place where arms are kept; directory, the book that directs.
-OSE, a., full of; as jocose, full of jokes; verbose, full of words. -OUS, a., full, like, having, etc.; as, perilous, full of peril; malicious, having or bearing malice; populous, full of people.
-RY, n., a being, the art of, the place where; as, bravery, a being brave; chemistry, the art or science of the chemist; nursery, the place where the young are nursed.
-SHIP, n., office of, state of; as, clerkship, the office of a clerk; friendship, the state of a friend.
-SOME, a., having the quality or habit of, causing; as, gladsome, having the quality of gladness; troublesome, causing trouble.
-STER, n., the person who; as, songster, one who sings.
-TUDE, n., being or state of being; as, altitude, the state of being (al'tus) high; fortitude, the being (for'tis) strong.
-TY, n., being or state of being; as, novelty, state of being novel. -ULE, n., diminutive; as, animalcule, a little animal; globule, a little globe.
-ULENT, a., full of; as, virulent, full of (vi'rus) poison; opulent, full of (o'pes) wealth; fraudulent, full of fraud.
-URE, n., the thing, state of being, act of; as, creature, the thing created; composure, the state of being composed.
-WARD, a., in the direction of; as, eastward, in the direction of the east; windward, in the direction of the wind.
-Y, a., full of, consisting or made of; as dewy, full of dew; oily, consisting of oil; rocky, made of rock; n., condition, faculty, etc.; as, honesty, state of being honest; memory, the faculty of remembering.