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the alternating kind; that is, the individual can employ the English Constitution ;' • The Antient History of the either eye singly, and bring it into the central axis, but then Hebrews Vindicated;' two essays, 1, `A Defence of the its fellow becomes everted. It is a more rare affection than Antient Greek Chronology;' 2, ' An Enquiry into the Origin the former one, and the deformity arising from it is seldom of the Greek Language; an edition of Plutarch's treatise so obvious. Whether we regard strabismus as affecting one On Isis and Osiris ;' An Essay on the Balance of Civil eye or both, it is certain that the vision of the one most dis- Power in England;" Indifference for Religion inexcusable;' torted is nearly always imperfect, and usually in a direct and Remarks on Mr. Cart's Specimen of his General ratio with the degree of distortion. Now we know that if History of England. There is also a Catechism by him, impressions on the two retinæ are dissimilar in force, the and a collection of sermons preached by hiri on public ocmind disregards the weaker, and takes cognizance only of the casions. More may be read respecting him in Nichols's stronger; so that a person who squints badly generally sees Literary Anecdotes of the Eighteenth Century,' vol. ii., objects with the sound eye only. If the sight of botli eyes p. 318. is cqual or nearly so, double vision results whenever both SQUIRRELS, SCIURIDÆ, a family of RODENTIA. are employed together, because the images of objects do not Mr. Swainson makes this family the fourth great division of fall on corresponding portions of the two retinæ (Sight]; the rodent animals, and he remarks that the strong resemand as the defect of sight is generally in a direct ratio with blance which several of the American marmots (Spermothe degree of distortion, double vision is most frequently philus) have to squirrels, leads him to believe that the two experienced in slight cases of squint.
groups naturally follow one another; a supposition which Causes.-The inequality of power in the two eyes has is, he observes, considerably strengthened by the subgenus been regarded by many as a cause of strabismus; the de- Tamias, Ill., putting on as it were an intermediate form. fective eye, it is said, ' instead of being fixed on the object With regard to these ground-squirrels, as he says they may before it, is left to wander from the true axis of vision.' be justly called, he adverts to the description of the habits When however we consider how numerous are the exam- and manners of two species (Tamias Lysteri and Tamias ples of unequal vision with the two eyes, yet unattended quadrivittatus) by Dr. Richardson, which two species live with squint, and the great and immediate improvement of almost like marmots, and both construct burrows beneath sight which generally results from the operation for the the surface of the ground. Mr. Swainson remarks that remoral of the defect, we may fairly question the influence some of the squirrels have short and rounded ears, but that of this cause in the production of strabismus. Among the the generality of the species have them tufted with a pencil remote causes which unquestionably contribute to this of hairs, as a perfect example of which he refers to our effect, may be enumerated convulsions, teething, the irrita- common squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris). Mr. Swainson does tion arising from worms, ophthalmia, imitation, a habit of not omit to notice the grace and liveliness that reign in the misilirecting the eyes, as by frequently looking at a mole on movements of these sprightly little animals. •Their agility the nose, &c. The proximate cause resides in some affec- upon all occasions of motion,' says he, “is very great; but tion of the muscles or nerves of the eveball ; either the when exerted to the utmost, it is truly surprising : so quick balance of power between the former is lost, or the sympa indeed do they bound from branch to branch, and so great thy which exists naturally between the motor-oculi nerves is the rapidity with which they suddenly turn and wind of the two eyes is impaired.
about, that the eye, partly confused by the intervention of Treatmeni.—This must depend upon whether the affec- other objects, is frequently unable to follow their movements. tion is of a temporary or permanent nature; in the former The true squirrels, unlike those of the subgenus Tamias, case it will be found to arise from some local irritation, and live almost entirely in trees, and build their nests on a fork can be removed by suitable therapeutic remedies ; in the of the branches.' the latter, an operation will generally be required. Among Mr. Swainson then adverts to the flying squirrels (Plerothe different oiher plans of treatment which occasionally mys), which are equally arboreal in their habits. These,' have proved successful, we may enumerate binding up the he writes, 'as their name implies, have an expansive skin, sound eye; the employment of spectacles having glasses of forming a sort of sail, between the fore and the hind feet, di Terent power; blinders projecting in front of the temples, examples of which structure we also see among the marwith a view of attracting the eyes outwards ; electricity, &c. supial or pouched quadrupeds of New Holland.” [MarsuThe operation for the cure of strabismus is said to have PIALIA, vol. xiv., p. 460.] There are six species of Plerosuggested itself first to Dr. Stromeyer, from witnessing the mys found in India, three in America, and one, common in Success of tenotomy in contractions of the linbs. Dr. Siberia, is likewise an inhabitant of Lapland. Of the habits Dieffenbach of Berlin however was the first who had the bold belonging to the Oriental species, we know but litile or ness to carry it into practice on the living subject. The nothing; but those of the Siberian Pteromys have been operation consists in dividing the muscle by which the dis- recorded by Pallas. It feeds principally on the young
shoots tortion is produced, and thus allowing its antagonist to of the pine-tree; and these, after being digested, preserve draw the eye again into the centre of the orbit. Although so much of their resinous quality, that the dung will burn most cases of strabismus may be either completely cured or with a bright flame and a strong scent of resin. Like the very much bettered by this operation, it is proper to remark ordinary squirrels, this species lives entirely in trees, sits thai in some, neither this nor any other plan of treatment erect, feeds itself with the fore-paws, and takes prodigious is of any avail. Provided however that the subjects to be leaps, assisted greatly by the expansive membrane between operated on are judiciously selected, and the surgeon the legs, which acts as a support, to break the force of its qualified for the task, there is no operation within the whole descent. It appears however that the flying-squirrels are j'ange of surgery which is more simple, more free from nocturnal animals, in which respect they differ essentially danger, or more satisfactory in its results, than the one from the true squirrels, which are diurnal. Dr. Richardson, in question.
speaking of an American species, expressly states this :Readers who wish for more full information on the sub-The Pleromys Alpinus of ihe Rocky Mountains lives in ject of sirabisinus are referred to the works of Mr. Lucas, dense pine-foresis, and seldom ventures from its retreat, Mr. Duflin, and Mr. Mackenzie; also to a very interesting except in the night.' Pallas, alluding to the Siberian practical paper on the same subject by Mr. Elliot, published species, asserts the same; and adds, that its eyes are proin the 55ih volume of the Edinburgh Medical and Surgical siled with a nictitating membrane.' (Classification of Journal.
Quadrupeds.) SQUIRE, SAMUEL, D.D. (born 1714, died 1766), a This family thien of Rodents, with very distinct clavicles, learned prelate of the English church, and author of various may be naturally and popularly divided into three groups, works, was the son of an apothecary at Warminster in Wilt- the True Squirrels, the Ground Squirrels, aud the Flyingshire. He was educated in St. John's College, Cambridge, Squirrels. and became early in life chaplain to Dr. Wynne, bishop of Fumily Character.-Molars simple, with tuberculous Baih and Wells, by whom he was made chancellor of Wells crowns, five above, four below, on each side; the lower inand archdeacon of Bath. He was afterwards chaplain and cisors very much compressed. Toes long, armed with sharp private secretary to the duke of Newcastle. In 1750 he claws, four on the anterior and five on the posterior feet; became rector of St. Ann's, Westminster. He had no other anterior thumb very slıort. Tail long and tufted. Cheekpreferinont, till in 1760 he was made dean of Bristol, and, pouches in some. In others the skin of the sides extended in 1761, bishop of St. David's. His life was prosperous, between the anterior and posterior limbs. but short: lie died at the age of fifty-two. His principal Geographical Distribution of the Sciuridæ.—The geopubiished writings are :- An Enquiry into the Nature of graphic range of the Squirrels is very wide both in the Old
and New World. None appear to have been discovered in Geographical Distribution.-Europe, Asia, Ir dia and Australia.
Indian Islands, Africa, North America, South America, The Sciuride have been divided into two principal and West Indian Islands. groups :
Macrotus.-Frontal bones very much depressed: nasa A. Squirrels with free limbs.
bones but little elongated; a deep depression between the Genera.- Tamias, Sciurus, Macroxus, and Anisonyx. cranium and the face. Tail round. No cheek-pouches. B. Squirrels with their limbs invested in the skin of Geographical Distribution.-Sumatra, India, Africa, and the sides.
South America. Genera.-Pteromys, Sciuropterus.
Anisonyx.-Teeth like those of the squirrels. No check The following dentition is given by M. F. Cuvier for pouches. All the feet with five toes; the two internal toes Tamias, Sciurus, Macroxus, and Sciuropterus :
of the anterior feet very short. Claws very long. Tail 2 5-5
distichous. A genus, considered as not certain, established Incisors
by M. Rafinesque for the reception of animals approxi.
Pteromys. Posterior part of the nasal bones a little convex; the frontal bones strongly depressed in their midde and rising slightly afterwards; the posterior parts of the head do not begin sensibly to curve downwards before the middle of the parietal bones; cerebral cavity small, only half the length of the head.
Geographical Distribution.—Asia, the Moluccas, the Philippine Islands, and Java.
Sciuropterus.-Differing from Pteromys in having the anterior part of the profile line of the head straight to the middle of the frontal bones, where it takes a curved direetion, very much arched, without any intermediate depression. Occiput projecting; frontal bones elongated; and the capacity of the cranium comprising three-fifths of the length of the head.
Geographical Distribution.-Northern Asia and North America.
For Mr. Waterhouse's arrangement of the Sciuridæ, see RODENTIA, vol. xx., pp. 61, 62.
EUROPEAN SQUIRRELS. Examples - Tamias striatus.- Description. — Upper part of the body yellow-brown, with five brown longitudinal stripes and two white ones on the upper parts; white be
neath; lumbar region rusty, as well as the tail, which is Teeth of Tamias, Sciurus, Macroxus, and Sciuropterus
blackish above, and bordered with black below. Length The same author has published the following modification rather more than nine inches, including the tail, which as characteristic of Pteromys, the numbers of the teeth measures about three inches. being the same with those of the genera above mentioned.
Habits, 8c.- Pallas states that this ground-squirrel burrows in woody districts, in small hillocks, or near the roots of trees; but never makes its nest in the trunks or branches of trees, like the common squirrels, although, when frightened from its hole, it climbs with ease, speedily making its way from branch to branch. The nest is reached by a winding tunnel, and there are generally two or three lateral chambers, for the stowage of winter food. It is allied in its habits to ihe hamster and citillus (Spermophilus), is connected with the latter by the convexity of its nose, and has cheek.pouches, but differs altogether in its manners from the tree-squirrels. The head is longer than that of the common squirrel; the ears are rounded and without tufts; the roundish hairy tail is seldom turned up; the body is slender, the extremities are shorter than those of the common squirrel, and the fur is very short, and not so fine. Its habits are diurnal, it does not become torpid in winter, and in these respects it approaches the true squirrels. It is not easily tained.
Dr. Richardson remarks that the Sciurus (Tamias) Lysteri of Ray, the Hackee of the United States, Ohihoin of the Hurons, Striped Dormouse of Pennant, is considered by the author the above description, and subsequent writers,
to be the same with the Asiatic Sciurus striatus ; but the Teeth of Pteromys.
Doctor adds that the descriptions given of the latter do not GENERAL CHARACTERS.
exactly correspond with American specimens, and that
he is not aware that the identity of the species on the tro Tamias. (Ground Squirrels.) Skull presenting a uniform continents has been established by actual comparison. He curved line on its upper part when viewed in profile, and allows however that the observations of Pallas regarding offering, when seen below, a very slender condition of all the manners and form of the Asiatic animal apply exactly the anterior parts. Cerebral cavity but little extended, and to the American one. advancing only to one half of the skull.
The Hackee, Dr. Richardson states, is common on the Geographical Distribution.-Europe, Asia, North Ame north shores of lakes Huron and Superior ; but he does not rica.
believe that it exists in a higher latitude than the 50th Sciurus. (True Squirrels.) A slight depression of the parallel. Although very wild, it is, he says, fond of esta. frontal bones, and a very slight posterior projection of the blishing its abode in the immediate vicinity of man, and same; profile of the face very nearly straight; cranial multiplies greatly in cultivated places. (Fauna Boreali. cavity as long as two-thirds of the face. No cheek-pouches. Americana.) Tail distichous.
Sciurus vulgaris.-Description.--Head thick, rounder
posteriorly, flattened at the sides and on the forehead; nose supposed ; and therefore may be a justification of those prominent; eyes black, prominent, large, and placed rather authors who have gravely mentioned what some have deemed high on the sides of the head; ears straight, large, termi- | to be a wild and improbable story. So many people went nated by a pencil of long hairs; cutting teeth of the upper to see the little squirrels suckled by a cat, that the fosterjaw broader than those of the lower, which are almost mother became jealous of her charge, and in pain for their pointed, and much flattened at the sides; grinding-teeth safety; and therefore hid them over the ceiling, where one four above and below, with the addition of a rudimentary died. This circumstance shows her affection for these fondone, consisting of a single tubercle, and often deciduous, lings, and that she supposes the squirrels to be her own placed immediately before the others in the upper jaw; young. Thus hens, when they have hatched ducklings, neck short, but distinct; body thick ; back arched; tail are equally attached to them as if they were their own long and very bushy, the hairs distichous; hinder legs very chickens.' (White's 'Selborne.) long, the heels touching the ground; fore-feet formed for In captivity the common squirrel is always in motion, holding food; fingers long, furnished with prominent but it is painful to see one of the most agile of animals concushions, and with long, sharp, curved claws. Colour above demned to tread the same unvaried round without advancreddish-brown, beneath white. (Bell.)
ing an inch. The number of cages made for this favourite The length of tlie common squirrel including the tail mode of incarceration is very great. (which last measures about six inches three lines) is about Sciuropterus Sibiricus. fourteen inches nine lines. Mr. Bell, after stating that it Before we proceed to describe this species, it may be deis liable to considerable variety of colour, becoming grey in sirable to give some notion of the organization which chathe northern regions, and quoting the passage in Lachesis racterises the Flying-Squirrels generally. Lapponica, which relates how the inhabitants of the Lap- • The group to which this attractive little animal belongs, land Alps procure a number of this species in their grey or says Mr. Bennett, in his description of the American Piewinter clothing for the sake of their skins, proceeds to re- romys Volucella, ‘are principally distinguished from the mark that even in this country a certain degree of change Common Squirrels by what is usually termed their flying takes place in the colour of the fur in spring and autumn. membrane. This apparatus consists of a folding of the skin Mr. Blyth informed him of this fact. In summer the fur along either side so as to form broad lateral expansions, is coarser and more uniformly red, and the pencils of hairs supported anteriorly and posteriorly by the limbs between on the ears are lost; in winter a greyish tint appears on the which they are extended, and by peculiar bony processes sides, the pencils on the ears are long and well developed, arising from the feet. These expansions are not naked and and the fur is softer and fuller. In July, and not till then, membranous, like those of the Bats, but are actual continuathe summer change is perfect.
tions of the skin, clothed externally by a dense fur similar This is the Ecureuil of the French; Scojattolo, Schiarro, to that which invests every other part of the body. Neither and Schiaratto of the Italians; Hardu, Hardella, and Esquilo do they serve, like the flying membranes of many of the of the Spaniards; Ciuro of the Portuguese; Eichorn and Bats, the purposes of wings; their functions being limited Eichmermlin of the Germans; Inkhoorn of the Dutch; Ikorn to that of a parachute, giving to the animal a considerable and Graskin of the Swedies; Ekurn of the Danes; and degree of buoyancy, and thus enabling it to take leaps of Guiwair of the antient British.
almost incredible extent, through which it passes with the Geographical Distribution. - Europe and the north of velocity of an arrow. The name of Flying-Squirrels is conAsia.
sequently founded on an erroneous assumption; but it may Habits, fc.—*This animal,' says Pennant, ‘is remark- nevertheless be admitted as a metaphorical expression of ably neat, lively, active, and provident; never leaves its their most distinguishing peculiarity.' (Zoological Garfood to chance, but secures in some hollow tree a vast ma-dens.) gazine of nuts for winter provision. In the summer it feeds Description of Sciuropterus Sibiricus.-Eyes full, the on the buds and young shoots, and is particularly fond of lids edged with black. Membranes extending to the base those of the fir and pine, and also of the young cones. It of the fore-feet, and forming a large wing-like expansion on makes its nest of the moss or dry leaves, between the fork each side. Tail full and rounded at the extremity. Body, of two branches, and brings four or five young at a time. above, of a fine grey colour, resembling the hue on the back Squirrels are in heat early in the spring, when it very of a sea-gull; beneath, pure white. Total length about diverting to see the female feigning an escape from the pur- 91 inches, of which the tail, measured to the end of the suit of two or three males, and to observe the various proofs hair, is five. they give of their agility, which is then exerted in full This is the Mus Ponticus vel Scythicus of Gesner; Sciurus force.'
Petaurista volans of Klein; Sciurus volans of Linnæus; Their agility is indeed surprising; the rapidity with which Sciurus Sibiricus volans of Brisson; Quadrupes volatilis they will run up a tree, or down, head first; the leaps which Russiæ of the Acta Petropolitana ; Polatucha and Letaga they will take from bough to bough, and from tree to tree, of the Russians ; Polatouche of the French; Konige der and the skill with which they dodge out of sight when pur- Grauwerke (King of the Squirrels) of the Germans; Wieisued, baille description. It is a very difficult thing to shoot viorka Lataica of the Poles; and European Flying-Squirrel a squirrel in motion. They (have been seen, when hard of English authors. pressed, and when the disiance to the next tree has been Locality.–Finland, Lapland, the Russian dominions beyond their most extravagant leaps, to throw themselves from Livonia to the river Kolyma or Kowyona in the northoff, spreading abroad their limbs so as to make their body east of Siberia. as parachute-like as possible to break their fall; and on Habits. This species haunts the woody mountainous reaching the ground without harm, bound along for the few country, feeding on the buds and fruit of the birch-trees intervening paces, and ascend the tree with a celerity almost and on the cones of the fir tribe. It is a solitary animal, too quick for the eye to follow. Their fondness for the and does not affect the company of others of its own kind, shoots of the fir tribe make them ill neighbours to planta- nor does it retire in the winter, at which season it wanders lions of that race of trees, the leaders of which they bite off. about. Its dwelling is in the hollows of trees, and its nest When they have paired, they are generally much attached is generally made of moss from the birch. It raises the tail to their home and to each other, and a pair of squirrels, like when at rest, but when it takes its flying leaps, extends a pair of carrion crows, will go on from year to year living that member. and breeding in the same tree if undisturbed.
Asiatic SQUIRRELS. White mentions a curious instance of the transfer of the maternal affections of a cat, which had lost her kittens, to Examples,- Tamias Palmarum. some young squirrels that were thrown upon her protection. Mr. Bennett states that he is not satisfied with regard to ' A boy,' says he, ' has taken three little young squirrels in the genus in which the Palm-Squirrel should be placed. their nest, or drey, as it is called in these parts. These small It seems, he observes, as M. F. Cuvier has remarked, to formi creatures he put under the care of a cat which had lately the type of a new one, intermediate between the tree-nesting lost her kittens, and finds that she nurses and suckles them and nut-cracking squirrels on the one hand and the burrowwith the same assiduity and affection as if they were her ing and frugivorous Tamias on the other. There is much own offspring. This circumstance corroborates my sus justice in these observations; but as this species approaches picion, that the mention of exposed and deserted children much nearer to Tamias than Sciurus, we think that the being nurtured by female beasts of prey who had lost their continental naturalists may be followed in arranging it young, may not be so improbable an incident as many have | under the former genus. The anterior part of the face is
eren more slender than that of a true Tamias, and contrasts feet, and, on all the toes, sharp, compressed, bent claws: strongly with the comparatively bluff visage of Sciurus. tail covered with long hairs disposed horizontally; colour
Description of Tamias Palmarum.- Pennant thus de- of the head, body, and tail a bright bay; in some parts inscribes the species: “Squirrel with plain ears; an obscure clining to orange; breast and belly of a yellowish white; pale yellow stripe on the middle of the back, another on length from nose to tail, eighteen inches; tail, fifteen. each side, a third on each side of the belly; the two last at (Pennant.) times very faint; rest of the hair on the sides, back, and Locality, Habits, &c.—Inhabits Java and others of the head, black and red, very closely mixed; that on the ibighs Indian islands. Leaps from tree to tree as if it flew; will and legs more red; belly pale yellow; hair on the tail does catch hold of the boughs with the tail. Differs in size : that not lie flat, but encircles it, is coarse, and of a dirty yellow described by Linnæus was the size of our squirrel; that barred with black. Authors describe this kind with only killed by Sir Edward Michelbourne in one of the Indian three stripes: this had five, so possibly they vary.' Length islands was greater than a bare. Nieuhoff describes this about 13 inches, of which the tail measures 6.
species under the name of the Flying Cut, and says the Vary ihey certainly do, for Mr. Bennett has figured two back is black; he has given two very good figures of it; marked varieties in his Zoological Gardens. One was per- one in bis frontispiece, the other in the page he describes it fectly black, and exhibited no traces of the usual stripes. in. (Pennant.) The other variety had red eyes, and appeared to be an This seems to be the Sciurus maximus volans, seu Feliz albino: it was of a dull reddish white, marked with three volans of Brisson; Le Taguan ou Grand Ecureueil volant very faint stripes of a still lighter hue. They were presented of Buffon. to the Zoological Society in 1828.
In the descriptions of Pennant, above given, there are This species is the Mustela Africana of Clusius; Sciurus tio points which deserve consideration : ihat which depalmarum of Linnæus; and Le Palmiste of Buffon. scribes the animal as catching hold of boughs with its tail, Locality.-India.
and that which states its difference in size. The first is Habits, 8c.—The Palm-Squirrels, which derive their given on the authority of Sir Edward Michelbourne's name from being often seen on those trees, are common voyage, in Purclias's Pilgrims, and should be received witá about Indian towns and villages, dwelling about the roofs of caution. The second would lead to the conclusion that houses and old walls. The female lays her young in holes more than one species had been included under the name of the latter. They are great destroyers of fruit, but are of the animal now under discussion. very familiar, entering houses to pick up the crumbs. We accordingly find that Dr. Horsfield, in his valuable Pennant states that Governor Loien informed him that they Zoological Researches in Juva, describes two Flying Squirlived much in the cocoa-trees, and were very fond of the rels (Pteromys genibarbis and Pteromys lepidus), both Sury, or palm-wine, which is procured from the tree; from nocturnal in their habits, nearly epproaching to Sciuropterus which it obtained, among the Indians, the name of Suri: Sagitta. He describes the first as living on fruits; the catsje, or the little cat of the Sury.
second as found in the closest Javanese forests, where the Pennant adds that, according to Clusius and Ray, this height of the trees and the luxuriance of the foliage effecspecies does not erect its tail like other squirrels, but has tually conceal it. Some have thought these two were oniş the faculty of expanding it sideways. The two noticed by one species. In the work last above referred to, Dr. Mr. Bennett ate sitting upright upon their hauriches, and Horsfield has given a General Enumeration of Indian conveyed their food, which was entirely vegetable and con- Sciuri well worthy of the attention of the zoologist. He sisted of bread chietly, to their mouths between their fore- enumerates sixteen species of Sciuri ; four of which were paws. He says that the tail is occasionally elevated in a first described by himself. These do not include the Flying vertical position, but seldom brought forward over ihe Squirrels. back.
AFRICAN SQUIRRELS, Sciurus maximus, the Malabar Squirrel.
Description.-Upper parts and external surface of the Sciurus Getulus.- Description.-Eyes full and black, limbs bright chocolate brown, which colour terminates ab- with white orbits. Head, body, feet, and tail cinereous ruptly, and is joined by the pale yellowish brown on the inclining to red: lightest on the legs : sides marked lengthunder parts, fore-arms, and internal surface of the limbs. wise with two white stripes : belly white: tail buslar, Front of the fore-legs, neck, throat, face, and head between marked regularly with shades of black, one beneath the the ears, lighter in colour: a broad darker patch on the rest other: size of the common squirrel. (Pennant.) of the upper part of the head extends from the forehead to This is the Sciurus Getulus of Caius and Linnæus; the middle of the nose. Back and shoulders sometimes | Barbary or white-striped Squirrel of Pennant; Barbarian deepening into black. Ears short, covered with long tufted Squirrel of Edwards ; Le Barbaresque of Buffon. hairs and brush-like; from the longer part of each ear a Locality and Habits. The norih of Africa, especially narrow line of deep brown passes downwards and backwards Barbary, where it lives in trees, preferring those of the Palm in an oblique direction. Whiskers scanty, long, and black. tribe. Claws incurved and strong, those of the anterior thumbs Sciurus Cerapi.- Description.-Ochrey-yellow above, broad, short, and flattened. Tail distichous, the hairs ex- slightly marbled with blackish-brown; sides of the body panding widely towards the extremity, bright chocolate and feet ochrey-yellow; upper lip, superciliary stripe, and brown at the base, black in the middle, and chestnut in the lower parts of the body white, belly iinged with yelius; extreme third part. Length about 33 inches, of which the tail distichous, ochrey.yellow varied with blackisli-brown: tail measures rather more than one-half.
ears short, with obtuse apices, the external margin notched Locality.- The Malabar Coast.
near the point; eyes brown. Figure slender. Head small. Habits, fc.-Sonnerat appears to have been the first zoo. Legs long. Tail depressed, narrow, slighily distichous, and logist who observed this richly coloured species, ilie largest pointed at its extremity; The tints vary in different specie of the true squirrels. It haunts among palm-trees, and is Length 14 inches 9 lines, the tail being 7 inebei stated to be very fond of the milky juice of the cocoa-nut, as Long. Female resembling the male in colour and size. well as of the solid part of the nut. In captivity it is tame (Smith.) and familiar; but it tries its teeth upon most substances Locality.-South Africa. that come within its power, and should be guarded against Habits, 8c.—Dr. Smith, who named this species, and accordingly.
has described and figured it in his Illustrations of the Sciuropterus Sagitta (Sciurus Sagitta, Linn.; Pteromys Zoology of South Africa, observed it for the first time upua Sagitta, Geoff.).
the immediate banks of the Limpopo River, in about 24 Description. --Squirrel with a small rounded head; cloven 20'S. lat. It was occasionally discovered upon the ground, upper lip; small blunt ears; two small warts at the out. but more frequently upon trees; and when it happened to most corner of each eye, with hairs growing out of them; be surprised in the former situation, it invariably endea neck short; four toes on the fore-feet; and instead of a voured to reach the latter, and, if successful, either atthumb, a slender bone, two inches and a half long, lodged tempted to conceal itself in the forks of the branches, or in under the lateral membrane, serving to stretch it out; from holes, if any existed, in the trunks or other parts. Its thence to the hind-legs extends the membrane, which is tight, when on the ground, was effected with amazing broad, and a continuation of the skin of the sides and belly; rapidity, and the perpendicular ascent of the tree was aethe membrane extends along the fore-legs, and stretches complished with equal facility. Dr. Smith concludes by out near the joint in a winged form : five toes on the hind- stating that it feeds by day, and, according to the natives,
also by night, and that in all the specimens he obtained the by Mr. Bennett • of two unquestionable specimens which stomachs were fully distended with berries, &c
among the numerous individuals' in ihe collection of AMERICAN SQUIRRELS.
the Zoological Society. The value of this description rests
on the number of squirrels that are regarded by many Tamias quadrivittatus ; Four-banded Pouched Squirrel. zoologists as mere varieties of the species under considera -Description.-Head long, tapering considerably from the tion, which is the most common species in the United eyes to the end of the nose, which is not, however, remark- States. ably sharp. Mouth situated far back. Whiskers black and Locality.—Nearly the whole of the United States of rather shorter than the head. Eye small when compared America: most abundant in Pennsylvania and the Carowith a true squirrel. Ear erect, semi-ovate, obtuse, and linas. tlat, except a slight duplicature at the base of the anterior Habits, fc.-The nest of the Grey Squirrel, which swarms margin ; it is covered on both sides with a coat of short in some of the localities where it is found, is made upon the hair. Cheek-pouches extending to the angle of the jaw. extremities of branches of trees, and its food consists of Body more slender than that of the squirrels in general. buds, tender shoots, nuts, acorns, and grain. In winter Five blackish lines and four alternating white ones occupy the provident animal retires to hollow trunks where its the whole back: sides reddish-brown, under parts grey: stores have been laid up. The fur is sought after in the tail long and slender, exhibiting dusky and light brown market, but the grey skins of the common squirrel are concolours. Length 9 inches 9 lines; of which the tail sidered of more value. They are exceedingly destructive to measures 4 inches 3 lines.
the crops, especially of maize, and were proscribed accordThis is the Four-lined Squirrel of Godman, and Sas- ingly. Pennant says that three pence per head was the sacka-wappiscoos of the Cree Indians.
reward for every one killed, and ihat such a number was Locality and Habits.- Dr. Richardson, from whose long destroyed in one year that Pennsylvania alone paid in and accurate description the above characters are drawn, rewards 80001. of its currency. states that this diminutive Ground-Squirrel is common So much confusion,' says Dr. Richardson, in his dethroughout the woody districts, as far north as Great Slave scription of the black squirrel (Sciurus niger, Linn.), ‘has Lake, if not farther. It is found, he tells us, at the south crept into the accounis of the American squirrels, that end of Lake Winipeg, in lat. 50°, and, within that range, great uncertainty respecting the species alluded to by seems to replace Sciurus Lysteri. He refers to Mr. Say's authors must exist until some resident naturalist favour observation of it on the Rocky Mountains, near the sources the world with a good monograph of the squirrels of that of the Arkansas and Platte; and to specimens brought by country. The black squirrels have been considered by some Mr. Drummond from the sources of the Peace River, which to be a variety of the Sciurus cinereus, or of the Sciurus rises on the same ridge. “It is,' says Dr. Richardson, ' an vulpinus, and by others have been referred to Sciurus exceedingly active little animal, and very industrious in capistratus. M. Desmarest describes a small black squirrel, storing up provision, being generally observed with its which is distinguished from the large black variety of the pouches full of the seeds of leguminous plants, bents, and masked squirrel by the softness of its lur. Pennani's black grasses. It is most common in dry sandy spots where squirrel is evidently the Sciurus capistratus of later writers.' there is much underwood, and is often seen in the summer- • The squirrel,' continues Dr. Richardson, which is the time sporting among the branches of willows and low subject of this article, is larger than the Ecuruil gris de bushes. It is a lively restless animal, troublesome to the la Caroline of M. F. Cuvier (lesser grey squirrel; Pennant, hunter, and often provokes him to destroy it by the angry Hist. Qual.), and rather smaller than the “large grey chirruping noise that it makes on his approach, and which squirrel” of Catesby. It is not an uncommon inhabitant of is a signal of alarm to the other inhabitants of the forest. the northern shores of lakes Iluron and Superior, where During the winter it resides in a burrow, with several the greater and smailer grey squirrels are never seen, and openings, made at the root of a tree, and is never seen in is by far the largesi squirrel existing on the eastern sides of The surface of the snow at that season.
When the show the Rocky Mountains to the northward of the Great Lakes. disappears, many small collections of hazel-nut shells, from It does not exiend farther forth than the 50th parallel of which the kernel has been extracted by a minute bule latitude, but its range to the southward cannot be detergnawed in the side, are to be seen on the ground near its mined until the species of American squirrels are better holes. Mr. Say states its nest to be composed of an extra- known. It is probable that it is not rare in the United ordinary quantity of the burrs of Xanthium, portions of the States. There are at present (1829) two pairs of American upright cactus, small branches of pine-trees, and other grey squirrels in the menagerie of the Zoological Society, vegetable productions, sufficient in some instances to fill a which differ from each other in size, and in the smaller kind cart. On the banks of the Saskatchewan the mouths of (lesser grey squirrels) having a tawny-coloured belly. Both their burrows are not so protected. The four-banded these kinds have, as was pointed out to me by Mr. Vigors, squirrel is, in common with ihe Hackee, named Le Suisse a peculiar wideness in the posterior part of the body, and a by the French Canadians, an appellation which, according fulness of the skin of the flanks, being an approach to the form to Father Theodat, arose from iheir skins being rayed with of a Pteromys. In the Sciurus Hudsonius (the Chickarce) black, white, red, and grey, like the breeches of the Swit- the hind quarters are as slender and distinct from the flanks zers who form the pope's guard. The same author informs as in common European squirrels; and there does not us that they bite bitterly when taken. The tails of this appear to have been any peculiar extension of the skin of kind of squirrel, particularly of the males, are often muti- the flanks in the specimen of a black squirrel procured for lated in their contests with each other, and they are very me at Peneranguishene by Mr. Todd, surgeon to the naval liable to be broken off in the attempt to catch them, so that depôt there. The total length of this specimen was 26 inches, it is very rare to attain a specimen with a perfect tail.' of which the tail, including the fur, measured 13. Dr. (Fauna Boreali-Americana.)
Richardson adds, that there is a specimen of rather larger Sciurus cinereus ; The Grey Squirrel.
dimensions procured at Fort William, on Lake Superior, Description.—Ashy grey on the upper surface and sides, and presented to the Zoological Society by Captain Bayfield. each hair being marked by alternate rings of black and Dr. Richardson describes it as having a few white hairs grey. Inner sides of the limbs and under surface of the scattered among the fur of the body, and rather more body pure white. Tail nearly equal in length to the body, in the tail, and he adds, that Lewis and Clark mention their and when thoroughly developed, completely overshadowing having met with grey squirrels on the Columbia, observing, it. Both surfaces of the tail similar in colour to the back that, from our ignorance of the species to which they belong, and sides, the under surface being somewhat lighter; the he could not admit them into his work (Fauna Boreali-Amelong diverging hairs ringed in such a manner as to give the ricana). appearance of an external border of white, enclosing a The well known industry of Dr. Richardson makes it broad band of greyish black. No decided linge of brown on important that these observations should be widely diffused, the muzzle, nor on the sides of the body, but a sliglit inter- in ihe hope that some zoologist competent to the task may mixture of that colour is visible on the muzzle on close be induced to undertake it. He will have a tangled skein examination. Ears covered with very short close-set hairs, to unravel; but a well executed monograph would be without any appearance of the bushy pencils which sur- highly valued by all who are interested in the subject. mount those of the common squirrel. Size one-third larger A friend informs us from experience thai the grey squirthan the last-named species.
rel and black squirrel make excellent pies; the flesh tasted Such in substance is the very accurate description given like that of the rabbit, but it was much more juicy. P. C., No. 1409.
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