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fore he moved in so important a step. He ascer- It appears, that David Barclay resided at tained, that notwithstanding all the calumnies Edinburgh at the time of his convincement, and reproach with which their enemies loaded which, as before remarked, took place in 1666. them, this class of men were a sober, plain, self- In the 4th month following, he sent his son denying, religious people; that they never Robert to reside on his estate of Ury, near shunned suffering or persecution for their testi- Stonehaven, being accompanied by his agent, mony; that they gave up their all for the sake David Falconer, a worthy Friend, who had of their religion ; that they had beat their swords several times suffered imprisonment for coninto plough-shares, and their spears into prun- science sake at Edinburgh. The first public ing-hooks, and neither taught nor exercised war meeting for the purpose of worship was kept any more,—the certain mark of the gospel times, Ury, with some others in that neighbourhood, according to the language of the evangelical that same month and year; Robert being then prophet, Isai. ii. 4. Further, that they loved one not nineteen years of age, and having quite another,—the infallible character our blessed newly become united in faiih and fellowship with Saviour hath given, of their being his disciples, this religious body. Such a fact is thought John xiii. 35 ; in short, that their practice and worthy to be pointed out; and it is affectionately principles were most agreeable to the primitive recommended to the contemplation of the youthstandard recorded in the New Testament. He ful reader, taken in connexion with the extensive therefore came to this fixed and certain conclu- religious growth and fruitfulness of “this blessed sion ;-if Jesus Christ hath followers, disci- young man”. in after life :-it seems to have ples, or a visible church upon earth, these must been as an early offering by way of earnest, and, be they. So, upon full conviction, he joined with doubtless, not merely indicated, but opened the them, and became eminent for his religious and way to further acts of dedication. His father exemplary life, resolving to suffer indignities and soon after, settling with his family at Ury, injuries for conscience sake,-a virtue he was meetings of the like kind continued from that time before very much unacquainted with.
to be regularly held, in a building close to the This change in his resolutions, belief, and family mansion, for the space of, probably, more practice, made him suffer nothing in the esteem than one hundred and twenty years. of the generous and better part of his acquain
(To be continued.) tances; but it had the contrary effect among the more mean and malicious; and the laws being then against all meetings for worship, not con- PLAINNESS OF LANGUAGE AND BEHAVIOUR. ducted after the prescribed national standard,
Among the deviations from the usual habits these greedily laid hold of the occasion, to mo- of his cotemporaries, which George Fox believed lest so peaceable a people; although it was himself divinely required to exhibit, not the clearly the main intention of the government, in least remarkable were the disuse of the usual the enactment of these laws, to put down those modes of salutation, and the adoption of the corfield conventicles of armed men among the Presby- rect scriptural language, in the use of the perterians in the south and west of Scotland, where sonal pronouns, thee and thou. On this subfew of the Quakers ever were disturbed. In the ject his own statement is clear and pointed : north, on the other hand, chiefly at Aberdeen,
“ When the Lord sent me into the world, he they were often “mobbed by the dregs of the forbade me to put off my hat to any, high or town, set on by the zealots of that day.” It was low; and I was required to thee and thou all remarked, that none bore these indignities with
and women, without respect to rich or poor, greater calmness than did David Barclay. One of his relations, upon an occasion of uncommon great or small. O, the rage that was in the rudeness, lamenting that he should now be treated all sorts,* and especially in priests and pro
priests, magistrates, professors and people of so differently from what formerly he had been ; fessors ; for, though thou, to a single person, was he answered, that he found more satisfaction as well as honour, in being thus insulted for his religious principles, than when, some years before; of that time, it may probably be difficult to conceive,
* To those who are not acquainted with the manners it was usual for the magistrates, as he
why so inoffensive a practice as the adoption of Scripthe city of Aberdeen, to meet him several miles, tural phraseology should excite such indignation as it and conduct him to a public entertainment in did. But this may be readily understood, if we recoltheir town-house, and then convey him so far out lect, that this language was much used among those
who had but little intercourse with the world; again, in order to gain his favour. His humility and sincerity as to religion were feriors. And, although it was always used in prayer
was often, if not generally, employed in addressing in“most remarkable in his whole conduct;” but to the Almighty, and retained in the higher orders of his deportment is said to have been particularly composition, its adoption in common conversation apawful and striking, when engaged in public peared, in the eyes of the fashionable world, not only prayer. In his person, he is represented as “ one
vulgar, but disrespectful. Hence we perceive the point
of George Fox's remark, that he was required to use of the largest, strongest, and handsomest men this language, without respect to rich or poor, great or that could be seen among many thousands."
according to their grammar rules, and according sober rationality, a matter of little importance to the Bible, yet they could not bear to hear it.” whether a man that approaches us, or enters a
While George Fox was imprisoned in Scar- roon where we are, carries his hat on his head borough Castle, during the year 1665, he had or in his hand; yet, we find even now, a degree numerous visitors, who came to dispute with of regard paid to the ceremony of the hat, which him. One of these was a priest, who inquired sufficiently proves the hold it has taken upon why he and his friends said thee and thou to the feelings of many among us. When we bepeople ?-adding that he counted them fools and hold all the men, with a very few exceptions, idiots for speaking in that manner. George, who enter the halls of justice or legislation, mewe may observe, in reply, made no allusion to chanically take off their hats as they pass the the conviction of duty on which he acted, but door, we may reasonably inquire whether this defended his practice, and refuted his opponent, is an unmeaning ceremony. If it is destitute of on grammatical principles.' He asked the priest meaning, why is it so generally followed ? Why whether those who translated the Scriptures, does the man who avoids it appear singular? and those that formed their grammars, were fools If it has a meaning, what is it? Are we showand idiots ? And if they were, why he, and such ing reverence to the place or to the people, from as he, who considered themselves wise men, whom the same indications of reverence are exhad not altered their grammars, and substituted pected in return? This usage, which custom you for thee and thou there and in the translation of seems to have riveted upon us, has evidently a ihe Bible ? But if the translators of the Scrip- degree of slavery in it, if nothing worse ; and if tures, and the authors of their grammars were we ask what kind of feeling or propensity it is wise men, then he desired the priest to reflect that exacts it, we shall probably find ourselves whether they were not fools and idiots them- compelled to acknowledge that it is pride. selves, that did not speak as their Bibles and Would any man be punctiliously careful to doff grammars taught them, but were offended with his hat upon entering a room, if he knew that those who did, and reckoned them fools and every person in it but himself was blind? idiots for speaking so. This reply, we are told, Would this care prevail among those who can silenced the priest.
see, if pride was entirely banished from among It would have been a singular circumstance us? in the life of George Fox, if, with the keen pen- The history of William Penn exhibits several etrating eye of a reformer, with which he ex- striking instances of the importance attached in amined the doctrines and practices of his cotem- his day to the ceremony of the hat. When his poraries, he had not found himself called to re- father found that he was adopting the principles form the customary language of the world. The of George Fox, he offered to tolerate his behavior application of the plural pronoun to a single per- towards others, on condition that he would apson, having originated in flattery-for that mode pear bareheaded in the presence of the king, the of address was first used to persons in authori- duke of York, and himself
. Had William Penn ty-was not reconcilable with the pure language considered this as an unimportant ceremony, dewhich he was engaged to maintain. The resto- void of connection with religious duty, there can ration of the Scriptural phraseology, appeared be no doubt that his filial regard for the wishes then, no doubt as it does now, to a majority of of his parent, would have procured an unhesithose who speak our language, a matter with tating compliance. But whatever respect he which religion had but little connection. It was, might be willing to accord to the royal or pahowever, with George Fox and his friends, not ternal relation, he well knew that the king, the merely the restoration of a pure language, but duke and the admiral were only men, and conan essential part of their testimony to the intrin- sequently, if he should consent to manifest his sic equality of men. They did not, in con- reverence to them by the same indication as he formity to the usages of the day, employ one did towards his Creator, he would be abandoning phraseology for the poor and another for the the principle which he felt himself called to suprich. Uncovering the head was an indication of port. He could not give to any man, whatever the reverence with which they engaged in the his rank or relation might be, the indications of ministry of the word, or approached the Almighty reverence which he reserved for his Maker. in prayer; and therefore, they could not con- This was more than the pride of habitual auscientiously indicate, in a similar manner, a real thority could patiently bear, and the promising or spurious reverence to their fellow man. young man was expelled from the paternal manHence, we may perceive, that if the use of the sion. plain language, and abstinence from the practice Now it must be admitted, that the conduct of of uncovering the head and bowing the body, many who have had the advantage of an educawere not parts of the same testimony, they were, tion in the Society of Friends, too clearly proves at least, closely allied, and appear to have been the little importance which they attach to the almost equally offensive to the pride of professors testimony for which William Penn was made and profane.
willing to sacrifice all his worldly prospects, as It must appear, when viewed in the light of well as to its kindred testimony, the restoration of the genuine Scripture language. To those the indiscriminate application of you to one, and who believe as George Fox did, that they are to inany, would, if universal, annihilate this disdivinely commanded to maintain these testimo- tinction, and consequently diminish the clearness nies, arguments to prove their reasonableness and force of our language. would be of little importance. The duty of the But considerations of a philological character, Christian is not to reason upon the commands however clear, constitute a feeble barrier against of his Lord, but to obey them. Yet, it may not the influence and slavery of custom. It is to the be improper to remember, that every general operation of religious conviction that we must look practice into which the humbly devoted follower for a complete emancipation from the slavery of of Christ is led by the convictions of duty, how. improper customs. In regard to the customary ever opposed to the prejudices and habits of the address, it is apprehended that those who have day, is found, when soberly examined, to be en- been educated in the religious Society of Friends, tirely and eminently rational. Thus, what the and who retain the profession, generally regard Saviour taught his disciples in secret, they were the use of the plain language as a part of that directed to proclaim on the housetop; and prin- profession, and consequently as a religious duty. ciples of action which are unfolded to pious in- And we can fully avow the opinion, that if our dividuals are eventually acknowledged as objects young people would maintain this testimony in worthy of the attention of nations.
a firm and unflinching manner, they would find With regard to the ceremony of the hat, and the their strength in regard to other peculiarities of use of correct Scripture language, it requires but the society sensibly increased. Nothing that is few arguments to show the superior rationality likely to obstruct or to accelerate our progress of the practice of George Fox and his coadjutors, in the way of a Christian life, is too small for What custom could he more completely slavish serious consideration. And we would affecthan one which endangered the life of a man, tionately admonish such readers of the Review, because he happened, when walking the streets of every age or condition in life, as feel an apof a crowded city, not to observe another who prehension of duty in regard to the use of the saluted him by the cap and knee? Yet such, plain language, never to permit themselves to be Wm. Penn informs us, was once his situation. drawn aside, by any species of reasoning, from And upon what principle of rationality can we a faithful adherence to conscientious convicdefend the habit of using the same pronoun 'to tions. designate a singular and plural, while the lan- There is one aspect in which this subject guage we speak has furnished us with two ? may be viewed, which seems to merit more atYet irrational as the usages of the fashionable tention than it commonly receives. If we reworld must appear in these particulars, experi- gard the use of the Scriptural language as a part ence seems to warrant the conclusion, that no- of our religious duty, why is it not more fully thing less than religious obligation is forcible and consistently maintained ? If we attempt, as enough to change them.
George Fox did, to defend the use of the plain That the language which George Fox was language by pointing out its consistency with the instrument of bringing more conspicuously the rules of grammar, why are those rules so into use, is the genuine English idiom, is easily generally disregarded ? As the use of you, inshown by several considerations.
stead of the singular, in common conversation, We observe, as George Fox remarked to the has led to its adoption in familiar writing, so the priest, this is the phraseology adopted in our use of the objective thee, instead of the nominatranslation of the Scriptures; and it is generally tive thou, among Friends in their customary inadmitted that this translation, taken as a whole, tercourse, has led to the occasional introduction is the best specimen extant of pure and correct of this anomaly into writing. In that case, cusEnglish. In poetry, at least in the higher orders tom not having made this phraseology familiar of composition, where style is a paramount ob- to the eye, whatever it may be to the ear, its ject, this mode of expression is perhaps univer- awkwardness is obvious and offensive to correct sal. It is the uniform language of Milton's great taste. poems, as well as of all our best poets. In such As it would be an evident waste of time to go prose compositions as are designed to exhibit our into an elaborate argument to prove the proprielanguage in its utmost purity and perfection, we ty of endeavouring to support what we usually refind the same style preserved. Hence, we gard as one of our testimonies, in a thoroughly fairly infer, that this is the established usage, consistent manner, we will close our observaand that the colloquial style, so generally adopt- tions on the subject, by the insertion of a comed, is an anomaly.
munication received not long ago from a consciThe perfection of a language consists in its əntious correspondent, from which it will manicapacity of expressing with clearness and fa- festly appear that the editor is not alone in cility the various shades of thought. Of course, assigning to the correct use of the plain lana language which could not readily distinguish guage a more conspicuous position in the ecowhether an address was made to one or to more, nomy of Quakerism, than is usually accorded would be defective in an essential element. But I to it.
For Friends' Review.
I am sometimes struck with the chapter of PLAIN LANGUAGE.
beatitudes, on contrasting the characters on whom The observations found in number 11 of
the blessings and woes are pronounced, finding Friends' Review, on the plain language, interest- as I do " the poor," “ the meek,” “the mourned me much, and I would gladly have seen ere er," " the peace-maker," " the pure in heart,” this time, something corroborative of the views among the first, and their opposites among the of that writer, from the pen of some more able ad- last; and this line of providential conduct tovocate of propriety and consistency than myself
. wards the human race may, I think, be traced The noble, plain and appropriate manner in through much of the Scriptures, perhaps through which he treats the subject, is such, that the the whole of the New Testament. I rejoice in reading of it both cheered and rejoiced my heart. the comfort thou hast been permitted to take in My case was almost precisely similar to that of thy place and in thy God, believing as I do that the person he alludes to, who “ endured long
there is a joy chastised, a satisfaction restrained and painful suffering for years, for want of full
in the way I have hinted at. faithfulness in the CORRECT use of the plain
be as evident to thee as it is to myself, language, while the fear of those older,” and even that from difference of -temperament of our plain, too, “ who used the erroneous mode,
mental course—we are rather prone to lean to
operated as an almost incredible barrier;" and I the opposite sides of a subject, and this appahave reason, with him, to believe, there are rently without any design; whilst thou keepest many such, variously scattered.” And, as the guard on the right hand, I would place one on editor says, he “can assure his readers, from an the left. Thus whilst a leading position in thy
, experience of nearly fifty years, that the real letter is, (I speak with reverence,) that a gracious difficulty in the case, is almost wholly in the and merciful God is no hard task-master, and commencement," I also can assure those who that therefore He ought to be cheerfully loved, may read these brief remarks of mine, that when I perhaps may be allowed to think that for the I became fully resigned to make the attempt, it same reasons He should be solemnly feared ; was not only made tolerable, but easy-verify- and I dare say we shall both agree, that in the ing the encouraging declaration of the dear Mas- due proportion and exercise of these two princiter, when he said, “my yoke is easy and my ples, fear and love combined, like heat and moisburden is light." Let any man who under-| ture in vegetation, consist our greatest security, stands the English language determine to speak and deepest if not most luxuriant growth. After grammatically, whenever he speaks at all, and all
, it is to me a very pleasant circumstance in the pronoun thou, will soon take its place as our acquaintance, that our aim being similar, submissively as any member of the family." whatever route we take, we mostly meet at last, We find, that in the view of the considerate part and not unfrequently find, on comparing our of the community at large, it is a lowering of the thoughts
, that they have been previously running dignity of our profession, for us to make use of in nearly the same channel. Thus I was quite the objective pronoun thee for the nominative prepared to join in thy belief, that an entire rethou.
B. F. signation of all that we are, and all that we pos
sess, is the road to the purest and sweetest enHUTCHINSON'S LETTERS.
joyments; and further, that it is the only thing that can lead us to that most desirable, though too
little desired state, of “having nothing, yet posI sincerely congratulate thee, in that on thy sessing all things," in the will and at the disreturn to thy usual residence, after a pretty long posal of Him who thus really becomes our “ all absence from it, thou hast been enabled to rejoice and give thanks, on the very spot which, It seems that both thyself and thy dear comthough doubtless the former scene of thy highest panion (whom, though I have not yet named, I enjoyments, has also been that of recent and se hope never to forget,) had become much united vere trials. And is not this, I have been ready in love to the friends you have lately left. I do to say, the humble triumph of faith? Is it not not wonder at this, and I think with thee, that the victory of a spirit measurably redeemed ? thy last remark on the nature of this love was an Yet, whilst I thus infer from thy delight in the improvement or good addition to the first, by Lord, (for such, from thy “ dissection” of thank- considering it, in kind at least, as universal and fulness, I think thy delight must have been,) I complete, rather than an individual and propordo not regret thy being so far no poet as to be tionate enjoyment. This I think must be the restrained or incapacitated from rapture, think case when, in a collective body, this precious ing as I do that the Christian’s joy should par- influence is felt to pervade the whole, and circu- . take more of a certain old-fashioned, apostolic late freely, as from vessel to vessel-a rare thing, thing, called “trembling," and that the very of which I just know enough to believe in it; zenith even of religious rejoicing, should never but may not even this sublimest spiritual sense rise above the tranquil hope that "our names with which we are endowed, perfect and one as are written in heaven."
it is in its nature, vary in degree according to
TO JOSEPH GURNEY.
For Friends' Review.
the receptive power of different vessels, so that, | labouring classes, both in this country and in like the state of which I consider it an earnest Europe, excites in all reflecting minds; the obviand a foretaste, whilst the capacity of receiving ous danger of leaving such masses of human this blessedness may vary, yet every measure is beings in close contact, without an effort for full both as to quantity and quality, so that "he their improvement, and the certainty that, in that has much has nothing over, and he that has this country, at least, they are exerting a powlittle has no lack.” This, in short, is my view erful influence in the government, give importof the happiness of heaven, a view which, whilst ance to any suggestion for their elevation in it admits of one star differing from another star morals and intelligence.
0. in glory, yet, like the beautiful order of the planetary system, allows of no jarring or discord.
" Never did a greater fallacy possess the world All harmonize, all run their appointed courses, than that childhood is the principal time for eduand all without envying, perhaps without know- cation. Can ordinary childhood understand the ing, the different degrees of consciousness which laws and habits of mind the philosophy of laneach respectively possesses ; all, all unite in guage-the science of mathematics—the rules of their Creator's praise !
iaste and criticism—the economy and uses of history—the relative value of logic, geography, and drawing—the importance of moral know
ledge—the force of opinion, and the varieties of POPULAR EDUCATION.
literature? The answer from all parts of the Without adopting every sentiment expressed, world would be, from all ages, if we could assemmuch less every conclusion which may be de- ble them-NO! It would be unreasonable to exduced from the following paragraphs, taken pect childhood under 15 or 16 years, to apprefrom “ Bayley's Two Lectures on Education,” ciate these subjects. Now these subjects are as quoted in the Westminster Review, I think education. There can be no education, worthy they contain matter for profitable reflection. the name, without them. And if childhood canThe tendency, in too many of our schools, is not appreciate them, it is clear that childhood, to an excessive multiplication of studies. The in the proper sense of the term, cannot be eduresulting evils are manifold. The time for cated, and this is a most undoubted truth, which fastening elementary truths upon the still re- it behoves the nation to learn. Some of the tentive memory, is wasted in endeavouring to physical powers may be modified in children, cram the immature faculties with knowledge and many of its dispositions may be biassed, which they are wholly unable to appropriate but neither more than superficially. These can a lamentable ignorance of the rudiments of be done, because childhood is intensely imitalearning is not, perhaps, the result which is tive, facile of perception, and tenacious of memost to be deprecated. The proper train- mory. But in all that requires thought, reasoning of the mental powers is almost wholly ne- ing, self-discipline, and moral courage, it is not glected, and the boy's habit of slurring over the possible to make material progress with the daily lesson, with scarcely an attempt to compre- child-pupil. The imitative faculty is the mind's hend it, begets in the adult an incapacity for tender, filled with the materials which the vast the investigation of truth-the blind adherence and complicated machine of thought will reto pre-conceived opinions, or an equally blind quire; but the tender will not move the train. rejection of the views which he has been taught It is wise and gracious in Providence that the to advocate ; and, very probably, a thorough con- intellectual powers do not develope in childhood. tempt for that learning of which he has vainly It would be a lachrymose world if childhood endeavoured to discover the utility. Nothing is could reason and resolve like men-were conclearer to my mind, than that the benefits to be sumed with the same passions, or ridden by the derived from popular education, as at present same cares. Childhood's tears dry before they conducted, are greatly overrated. Nor is the have well fallen ; its repose is rarely broken by management of our common schools liable to a the ruined fortune, or its appetite spoiled by the more dangerous mistake than the substitution of change of fare, from venison to porridge, or by a specious, superficial and useless course of in- the decay of the last fine garment; for ihe heart struction, in a variety of branches, having exclu- of childhood rapidly domiciliates itself to every sive reference to the intellect, for a thorough place; finds associates in the nearest sport-feldrilling in the rudiments of knowledge, with a lows; thinks more of a water-frolic than of the constant view to moral training. So far as the verdict of the world, or of a handful of roseate passages quoted below may serve to show the fruit than the rising funds or falling thrones. folly of overtasking the youthful intellect, the • The war horse,' says Job, “taunts the battle writer seems to me to promulgate unquestiona- array with his ha! ha!' and so does childhood. ble truths. How far the plan which he has The lightning rives the oak and smites down the suggested might go towards providing for those tower; the flood sweeps away banks, bridges, wants which he deems so imperative, I know and docks ; revolution fills the streets, pestilence not. The interest which the condition of the the cemetery, and famine speeds its death