Εικόνες σελίδας
Ηλεκτρ. έκδοση



other remedy against its attacks is known, In another hospitable abode where I than that of keeping the wood free from now and then stop the night, Mary, the salt water for three or four days, in which housemaid, who had heard her mistress case it dies; but this method, it is obvious, read my observations on housewifery, asked can be rarely applicable. In order to as- with great seriousness if it could possibly certain how far pure sea-water is essential be there that any visitor met with so little atto this insect, and consequently what danger tention. “O, you know best, Mary,” exists of its being introduced into the wood- plied her mistress, “whether you have been work of our docks and piers communicat- negligent or not.” Now there never was a ing with our salt-water rivers, as at Hull, more attentive servant than Mary, nor a Liverpool, Bristol, Ipswich, &c., where it kinder and better housewife to me than her might be far more injurious than even on mistress; but these things prove that my the coast, I have, since December 15th, observations have made a little stir. 1815, when Mr. Lutwidge was so kind as It often happens, that in attending to to furnish me with a piece of oak full of one thing, we are neglectful of another, and insects in a living state, poured a not very in the case alluded to, I certainly ought to strong solution of common salt over the have pointed out the errors of visitors, as wood every other day, so as to keep the in- well as of housewives: not having done sects constantly wet. On examining it this it then, I will do that now, which I conday, (February 5th, 1816,) I found them fess I ought to have done long ago. alive; and what seems to prove them in as It is a great error to go on a visit without good health as in their natural habitat, num- giving due notice; at least, if we have the bers have established themselves in a piece opportunity of doing so. An additional of fir-wood which I nailed to the oak, and inmate oftentimes renders a change in have, in this short interval, and in winter various household arrangements necessary, too, bored many cells in it.”

and we have no right to disturb a whole family for our own accommodation.

It is an error not to ascertain and fall in

with the regulations of the family; inattenSome time ago I gave an account of an tion in this respect makes a visitor burdenunexpected visit paid by me,* and I think some : he may be borne with, but his that I made it plainly appear that my company will not be desired. Many visitworthy hostess, in some respects, was in are faulty in this particular. They fault, not in manifesting a want of due atten- rise too late to attend the family devotions; tion or of friendly feeling, but only a defi- they are negligent of meal hours; and they ciency in those attentions that add to the sit up late, keeping the family and servants comfort of a visitor. Perhaps the observ- from their accustomed repose. ations that I made about the matter bore It is a sad error to give unnecessary rather hard on the good lady, and I am trouble, and yet this is a very common fault. led to believe that this may have been the Hospitable people will be sure to put themcase, because I have heard that several wor- selves to some pains in pleasing their visitthy ladies have alluded to the circumstance. ors, and they ought not to be trespassed They em to think that Old Humphrey upon, neither ought the time of servants to might either have given notice of his visit, be trifled with. or, at least, have provided himself with a It is an error to consume the time of those night-cap; and that, in neglecting to do we visit, when it is either unpleasant or in both the one and the other, he brought the convenient to them. A little tact is necespunishment down on his own head. sary when this is the case, but good feeling

A respected friend of mine some time and consideration will generally succeed in ago slept at the habitation of an acquaint- ascertaining it.

And going up stairs to bed, he It is an error not to be kind and consiheard the mistress of the house calling after derate where there are children in a family, him, “Old Humphrey! Old Humphrey! or to lose any opportunity of doing them you will find a night-cap on the pillow.” good. It is another to make your visit too The good lady would have it that my friend long

as Soloman says,

“ Withdraw thy either was the writer, or an acquaintance foot from thy neighbour's house ; lest he be of Old Humphrey; and if so, she was de- weary of thee, and so hate thee,” Prov. termined that he should find no want of xxv. 17. good housewifery in her habitation.

In a word, you will do well when you • See page 175.

visit to bear in mind, among others, the



[ocr errors]

following rules : To give proper notice of In that far land they did not forget me. your intended visit-To conform to the re- I have seen before now on a seal the imgulations of the family-To occasion as pression of two doves flying in different little trouble as possible - To be careful in ways, holding in their beaks the opposite consuming the time of your host and ends of a silken cord tied like a true lover's hostess, To be kind and considerate where knot, so that the farther the doves got there are children.—To confine your visit asunder, the tighter the knot was tied. Ft to proper limits; and to do as much good was a pretty device, and I am sure that it while you stay as possible : ay! to master aptly sets forth the increase of affection that and mistress; to children and servants. absence in many cases produces. My reAn attention to these rules will render your latives corresponded with me, they named visit an agreeable thing, you will leave a tree after me, and often, at sun-set, took favourable impression behind you, and will their tea, or a glass of their own wine, never stand in need of a future invitation, made from the maple tree, underneath it,

Old Humphrey once in his life was so and talked of old times, of old friends, and circumstanced that he was almost com- of their father-land. Sometimes, too, the pelled to lengthen his visit beyond the voice of prayer and psalmody rose from the term to which his judgment and his inclina- place, for the head of the family was as tions would have confined it. There was a patriarch among them. every attention paid him, and not the slightest Often and often has Old Humphrey indiminution of respect; but, for all that, it dulged the thought, that he should like to was a sore trouble to him, a heavy burden cross the heaving ocean, and surprise them to his heart.

in their solitude. To take bales and packOld Humphrey has paid many a visit, ages of all sorts of things for their comfort, and received many a visitor in his day, and and to steal upon them when they were alí he can hardly tell which is the most plea- assembled under that tree, either refreshing sant-to partake or to practise the rites of their bodies with sustenance, or their souls hospitality.

with prayer and praise. If the injunction be given us in holy writ, It seemed an idle dream, but it was a “Be careful to entertain strangers, and given delightful one. to hospitality,” it is certainly not a less Well ! why am I telling you that which duty and privilege to entertain our friends. may give you no pleasure to know, however The visit of a true christian is oftentimes a full of interest it may be to me? I will great blessing; for many a word fitly spoken inform you: one of my relations is now over by him, and many an observation dropped in England, and he talks of returning in a kindly spirit, is remembered in after shortly: now, if Old Humphrey should days to the edification of many. This is return with him; if, after all, he should especially the case when he acts up to his realize his dream, he would not like to do high profession, setting forth his Lord and so without bidding you farewell. In anMaster, and saying emphatically, by his other week or two, this matter will be conduct, temper, and general behaviour, settled one way or other ; whether I remain “I am a companion of all them that fear in the land of my birth, or visit the Pennthee, and of them that keep thy precepts." sylvanian log-house, you will still have the

Having thus spoken a word on visitors, warm wishes of Old Humphrey, and he will let me just touch on a subject that has not forget to inform you of his determination. latterly occupied much of my attention.

Many years ago, some of my relations embarked for America, and settled on the

BOTANY.-No. XXXIII. banks of the Ohio, in the state of Pennsyl- AMENTACEÆ.—WILLOW, OAK, PLANE, vania. There were thousands of uncul. This family includes many of our timber tivated acres around them when they first and ornamental trees, and hence its memset about building their log-house. They bers generally predominate in the wood had to fell the trees, to clear away the and the forest. The lofty and imposin 3 brush-wood, to cultivate the ground, and to stature of the oak and the elm, forms a produce order from the existing chaos. remarkable contrast to the small size of Industry is seldom without its reward, and their flowers, which are individually miin course of time, comfort smiled around nute, though, in the latter, they are conspithem; the thorn and the brier gave place cuous in spring, from their numbers. The to the olive and the myrtle; and the wilder- flowers are never provided with a corolla ness blossomed as the rose.

to give them beauty, and the calyx is


frequently a single scale. They obtained in a point, which lodges in a furrow, holtheir name from amentum, or a catkin, a lowed to receive it. This point is the term applied to the mode of flowering, as radicle, or that part which, in vegetating, in the birch and willow, where a series of sends forth the root. In all the members flowers are closely set together upon a of this family it is straight, as we may simple stem, so as to resemble the end of a also see in the nut of the hazel and the rope, or the tail of a cat. The fruitful and chestnut. And, if we compare them togebarren flowers are generally in different ther, their similarity in nature and intercatkins, as in the birch, and sometimes in nal conformation will be apparent, and caikins upon different trees, of which the wil. show how consistent it is with the diclow furnishes a ready example; in a few in- tates of nature, to consider the oak, the stances, the same flowers produce both the hazel, and the chestnut, as belonging to stamens and the fruit, as in the elm, which the same family. may be seen in flower some time before the THE CHESTNUT.-The genus to which season of leafing commences. The calyx, the chestnut belongs, includes two species, which forms the principal part of the flower, the sweet chestnut, (fagus castanea,) and since the corolla is absent, is seldom more the beech, (fagus sylvatica,) and is chiefly than a little scale, which bears one or more discriminated by the long spikes of flowstamens in its bosom. To examine them ers and the fruit, which is completely with some degree of accuracy and satisfac- invested by a thorny calyx. Here again, tion, a lens of a small power is necessary though the flowers, from their vast numto render the parts distinct, which often, at bers, form a conspicuous object in the the first glance, seem to be placed in a chestnut, yet it is better to have recourse confused manner. After this brief allusion to the fruit, where in the calyx we find a to their leading peculiarities, it will, per- mark, which cannot be easily unistaken or haps, be more convenient, as well as more overlooked. These trees are instructive, to consider the several genera mended to our notice, not only by the which compose this family, each one by peculiar beauty of their spreading foliage, itself.

but by the utility of the wood in one, The OAK.-In the oak, (quercus robur,) and of the fruit in the other. the barren flowers are found sitting about a The HORNBEAM.–Of this genus, we common stem or peduncle, and consist of have only one species a native of this five calyx-scales, which are united toge-country, (carpinus betulus,) or common ther, and form a small circle or empale- hornbeam tree. In the barren catkin, ment, including ten stamens. In the fer- the calyx-scale is nearly round, and tile flowers which are ranged upon a com- fringed, bearing from eight to ten slamon peduncle, in a similar way, we meet

In the fertile one it is the same, with that well-known calyx or cup, which and contains a small nut, so that the subsequently contains the acorn. The rough, catkin, which possesses a distant resemdense, and bark-like nature of this organ, blance to a pine-cone, is a collection of is the great and distinguishing peculiarity small nuts, which are very remarkable of the oak, while there is a great variety in winter. This tree is distinguished for among the numerous species of this genus retaining its withered leaves through the (quercus) in the shape and size of the rest dreary succession of inclement changes, of the acorn.

It may be proper to remark till they are displaced by the buds in the in this place, that while some degree of following spring. indistinctness seems to exist in the barren THE HAZEL.—The catkins of the coflowers, the fertile ones are so distinct in rylus avellana, or common hazel-nut, form and nature, as in all cases to furnish begin to appear in autumn, and are, we a characteristic of the genus.

may see, composed of a multitude of We have, on one or two occasions, al- scales, laid one over the other, like the luded to what are called the seed-lobes, or tiles upon the roof of a building. Each cotyledons, and, as they are exhibited with of them, as they separate, is seen to be great distinctness in the acorn, it will be cleft into three divisions, and contains useful to bespeak attention for them on about eight stamens. But the obvious this occasion. If, after removing the shell and peculiar feature of the hazel is found of the acorn, we peel off the inner covering in the two large tattered leaves of the of the seed, we shall find that it parts from calyx, which invest the base of the nut, below into two halves, which are jointed as we see in the filbert. In winter, the together at the top. This joint terminates / red pistils make their appearance from



between the folds of the calyx, and afford | a pitcher-shaped cup, besides that of the an interesting object to the reflecting calyx, both in the barren and fertile mind, which thus discerns a lively anti- catkins. The seed-vessel is divided into cipation of spring, amidst the rigours of two cells, and, in this particular, differs winter.

from the salir, or willow, though in each The Birch.-The birch, or betula, the seeds are invested with down. Popcomprehends two species; the alba, or lars, it is known, have a peculiar smell, common birch tree: 'and nana, or dwarf- and are remarkable for having the leafbirch tree; the former is known by its stalk so placed, that if the edges of the pendent branches, and the latter by its eaf be held north and south, the edges of diminutive stature. The generic mark, the leaf-stalk will point east and west. which is of the greatest consequence for This is best seen in the aspen. the sake of distinction, is found in the fruit There are four species natives of this or seeds, which have a filmy wing on each country: P. nigra, or black poplar, known side. As you approach the shores of by its gaunt and erect stature; P. tremula, Kamschatka, the birch trees send forth or aspen, more diffusive, and less dense; such a pleasant smell, that the sea-worn P. alba, or white poplar, the leaves downy traveller suddenly imagines himself al- underneath, and of a snowy whiteness ; ready on shore, inhaling the sweets of P. canescens, which resembles the last. the fragrant grove. The peculiar scent The Elm.-The flowers contain staof the Russia leather is owing to the mens and pistils in each. Fruit, a juicebark of the birch with which it is tanned, less berry: úlmus campestris, common and a subsequent finish with an essential elm: U. montana, broad-leaved elm, oil distilled from the same tree.

THE WILLOW.-In the salir, or osiers, and willows, the barren catkins are on a different tree, and at the base of each scale there is a small nectariferous gland. him his Son, he will then easily be induced

When a man is assured God hath given In the fertile catkin, the seed-vessels are two-valved, and contain seeds, which are

to believe and expect: How shall he not furnished with a white down, to float them with him give me all things ? If once he for the purpose of a wider dispersion.

God as a Father, he will then The presence of this down forms the easily conceive what Christ says: If fathers characteristic of the salix, which contains that are evil can give good things to their a great many species, some of which are give his Spirit to them that ask him! And


how much more shall your Father of great use in feverish disorders. One, for

example, was often pointed out to the if he gave his Son when we did not pray writer of this when in Mexico, as an ex

unto him, how much more shall he with him cellent remedy for the calentura, or inter- give us all things we pray for ! Rom. viii. mittent fever, which prevails in some

32; Luke xi. 13.-Goodwin. parts of that country.

The Alder, alnus glutinosa.-- This was formerly considered as belonging to betula, but has of late been separated The sinner being persuaded of the from it by a reference to the seeds, which, sufficiency of this salvation, he must be though flattened, have not the filmy wing assured of Christ's willingness to be his on each side. There is also an inner ring Saviour, and so be encouraged to make surrounding the stamens, which is called application to him. To this end the gosits corolla, which may be its right name, pel invitations, “ Come, and be saved;” though of a very unassuming description. the gospel complaints against such as

SWEET GALE.-This little shrub, which come not, “ Ye will not come to me;" upon the watery waste of low heaths the gospel commands, “This is the will grows in great abundance, is, like the of God, that ye believe;" the gospel birch in Kamschatka, remarkable for the threatenings,

" He that believeth not delightful fragrance which it diffuses. shall be damned,”-must be made out to There is only one species, myrica gale, him.-S. Walker. distinguished by its fertile catkin, which is composed of numerous berries, as the

JOHN DAVIS, 56, Paternoster Row, London. covering of the seed becomes soft as the fruit ripens.

Price jd. each, or in Monthly Parts, containing Fivo

Numbers in a Cover, 8d.
The Poplar.— The populus possesses W. TYLER, Printer, Bolt-court, Flert-street.

looks upon


[merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][graphic][merged small][merged small]

THE STAR-FISH AND SEA-URCHIN. their possessing a hard coriaceous skin, The wide expanse of ocean, which occu- more or less covered with points or spires. pies so immense a portion of the surface of The sea-stars have a flattened and circuourglobe, teems with a countless population; lar centre, which may be called the body, a population made up of beings of various from which diverge five principal rays, habits, and of various forms. Some cleave which are sometimes subdivided. In the the waters with arrow-like velocity, pur- centre of the body, on the under surface, is suing or pursued; some seem the sport of an orifice, for the reception of food, and the waves, which throw them about, as if also for the rejection of the refuse portion. they were unable to struggle against the This aperture leads directly to a sort of force of the agitated element; but in every stomach, in

which numerous minute wave they find their food, and are at home. tubes, from different parts of the surface, Some, almost plant-like in their nature, also centre; the office of these tubes apfixed on a rocky base in the depths be- pearing to be that of the absorption of neath, deposit layer by layer, a hard calca- water, which is thus introduced into the reous mass, till there rises to the surface, common cavity, most probably, in order to a coral reef, just covered by the water, and effect a due oxygenation of the circulating fatal to many a sea-tried vessel. Some, of Auid. The covering, thus pierced with tender structure, attach themselves to the little pores, consists of an osseous layer, sides of rocks, or the walls of sub-marine composed of various small portions; and caverns, and stretch abroad their feelers each ray has on the under surface a longifor prey. Some creep on the bed of the tudinal furrow, into which open small orideep, and plough their way along the sand; fices for the protrusion of little arms or prisoners, with the wide waste of billows tentacula. The under surface, generally, is around them ; such are the bivalve shell- furnished with small moveable spines, fish, and many more, among which the which are organs of progression and prestar-fish, or sea-stars, (stelleride,) and the hension. sea-urchins, (echinide,) are not a little re- The food of the sea-stars consists of markable for the strangeness of their forms worms and small crustacea, The most and appearance. They constitute a part of curious circumstance, however, connected the extensive assemblage of zoophytes, and with their history, is the power they manibelong to a class of that assemblage termed fest of reproducing, with great rapidity, echinodermata, from the circumstance of such parts as they may have lost. In very VOL. III.

3 M

« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »