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Sir Isaac Newton; John Woodward, the founder of the professorship of geology at Cambridge ; Richard Mead; John Hunter, the great anatomist, brought here in 1859 from the vaults of St. Martin's-in-theFields; Herschel; Sir Charles Lyell. EMINENT ACTORS AND ACTRESSES. -Betterton; the second Mrs. Barry; Mrs. Oldfield; Mrs. Bracegirdle; Mrs. Cibber; Henderson ; Samuel Foote; and David Garrick. EMINENT MUSICIANS. — Henry Purcell; Dr. Blow; William Croft; William Shield; Samuel Arnold; Sir Sterndale Bennett; and, greatest name of all in music, Handel. EMINENT DIVINES.—Dr. Barrow; Dr. South. OTHER EMINENT PERSONS.—Mountjoy, Earl of Devonshire, of the time of Queen Elizabeth; the unfortunate Arabella Stuart; the mother of Henry VII.; the mother of Lady Jane Grey; the mother of Lord Darnley; the wife of the Protector Somerset ; the wife of the great Lord Burghley; the wife of Sir Robert Cecil; Sir Dudley Carleton, ambassador and letter writer, temp. James I.; the Duke and Duchess of Newcastle (the poet and poetess); the father and mother of Villiers, Duke of Buckingham ; Villiers, first Duke of Buckingham, and his two sons, the profligate second duke, and Francis, killed when a boy in the Civil Wars; the Duchess of Richmond (La Belle Stuart); the second Duke of Ormond, and Atterbury, Bishop of Rochester, all of whom died in banishment; Sheffield, Duke of Buckingham ; Hakluyt, who collected the early voyages which bear his name; Dr. Busby, the schoolmaster; Tom Killigrew and M. St. Evremont, the English and French epicurean wits; Aubrey de Vere, the twentieth and last Earl of Oxford of the house of Vere; and old Parr, who died (1635), as was very positively affirmed, at the great age of 152.
“Victory or Westminster Abbey” was Nelson's exclamation at Trafalgar; and when we reflect on the many eminent persons buried within its walls, it is indeed an honour. There is, however, some truth in the dying observation of Sir Godfrey Kneller—"By God, I will not be buried in Westminster! They do bury fools there."
CHAPELS. — Observe that in each chapel are placed plans of its monuments mounted on cards, which will be found very convenient for reference, as they show at once the name and position of every monument.
I. Chapel of St. Benedict (the first south-east end of Poets' Corner). Observe. -Under glass, and on the left in entering, is part of an altar-decoration of the 13th or 14th century, 11 feet long by 3 feet high.
The work is divided into two similar portions; in the centre is a figure, which appears to be intended for Christ, holding the globe, and in the act of blessing ; an angel with a palm branch is on each side. The single figure at the left hand of the whole decoration is St. Peter ; the figure that should correspond on the right, and all the Scripture subjects on that side, are gone. In the compartments to the left, between the figure of St. Peter and the centre figures, portions of those subjects remain : the fourth is destroyed. These single figures and subjects are worthy of a good Italian artist of the fourteenth century. The remaining decorations were splendid and costly; the small compartments in the architectural enrichments are filled with variously-coloured pieces of glass, inlaid on tinfoil, and have still a brilliant effect. The compartments not occupied by figures were adorned with a deep-blue glass resembling lapis lazuli, with gold lines of foliage executed on it. The smaller spaces and mouldings were enriched with cameos and gems, some of which still remain. That the work was executed in England there can be little doubt.—Eastlake on Oil Painting, p. 176.
This is commonly called the “Chapel of the Deans of the College,” several of whom are buried here. The principal tombs are those of Langham, Archbishop of Canterbury (d. 1376); the Countess of Hertford, sister to the Lord High Admiral Nottingham, so famous for his share in the defeat of the Spanish Armada (d. 1598); and Lionel Cranfield, Earl of Middlesex, and Lord High Treasurer in the reign of James I. (d. 1645). Here are also the tombs of Archbishop Spottiswoode, Abbot Carlington, and Deans Bill and Goodman.
II. Chapel of St. Edmund.-Contains twenty monuments, of which that on the right on entering, to William de Valence, Earl of Pembroke, half-brother to Henry III., and father of Aymer de Valence, Earl of Pembroke (d. 1296), is the first in point of time and also the most important; the effigy exhibits the earliest existing instance in this country of the use of enamelled metal for monumental purposes. The other tombs and monuments of importance in this chapel are: tomb of John of Eltham, son of Edward II. ; tomb, with two alabaster figures, 20 inches in length, representing William of Windsor and Blanche de la Tour, children of Edward III.; monumental brass (the best in the Abbey), representing Eleanora de Bohun, Duchess of Gloucester, in her conventual dress as a nun of Barking Abbey (d. 1399); monumental brass of Robert de Waldeby, Archbishop of York (d. 1397); effigy of Frances Grey, Duchess of Suffolk, grand-daughter of Henry VII., and mother of Lady Jane Grey; alabaster statue of Elizabeth Russell, of the Bedford family-foolishly shown for many years as the lady who died by the prick of a needle. Edward Bulwer Lytton-Lord Lytton, the novelist and statesman—was interred here
III. Chapel of St. Nicholas. — Contains the monument of Anne, wife of the Protector Somerset; the great Lord Burghley's monument to his wife Mildred, and their daughter Anne ; Sir Robert Cecil's monument to his wife ; tomb of Lady Jane Clifford; a large altar-tomb, in the area of the chapel, to the father and mother of the celebrated Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, the “Steenie” of James I.; Philippa, Duchess of York (d. 1433); under it lies the body of Queen Catherine of Valois, removed here in 1776.
IV. Chapel of the Blessed Virgin, generally known as Henry VII.'s Chapel, is entered by a flight of steps beneath the chantry of Henry V. The entrance gates are of oak, overlaid with brass, gilt, and wrought into various devices— the portcullis exhibiting the descent of the founder from the Beaufort family, and the crown and twisted roses the union that took place, on Henry's marriage, of the White Rose of York with the Red Rose of Lancaster. The chapel consists of a
central aisle, with five small chapels at the east end, and two side aisles, north and south. The banners and stalls appertain to the Knights of the Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath, an order of merit next in rank in this country to the Most Noble Order of the Garter: the knights were formerly installed in this chapel; and the Dean of Westminster is Dean of the Order. The statues in the architecture of this chapel are commended by Flaxman for “their natural simplicity and grandeur of character and drapery ;” and speaking of the fanvaulting of the roof, Sir Gilbert Scott says it is here seen in “its most perfect beauty.”
The principal monuments in, Henry VII.'s Chapel are: altar-tomb with effigies of Henry VII. and Queen (in the centre of the chapel), the work of Peter Torrigiano, an Italian sculptor. Lord Bacon calls it
one of the stateliest and daintiest tombs in Europe ;" the heads of the King and Queen were originally surmounted with crowns; the enclosure or screen, of earlier date, is of brass, and the supposed work of English artists. In the vault below was placed the body of James I., the coffins of Henry and his Queen being “stripped of their cases and coverings” and removed from their places “to give convenient entry to the enormous bulk of the coffin of James.” In the South Aisle.Altar-tomb, with effigy (by Peter Torrigiano) of Margaret, Countess of Richmond, mother of Henry VII. ; altar-tomb, with effigy of the mother of Lord Darnley, husband of Mary, Queen of Scots; tomb, with effigy (by Cornelius Cure) of Mary, Queen of Scots, erected by James I., who brought his mother's body from Peterborough Cathedral and buried it here. The painting and gilding of Mary's monument cost £265; the tomb (sarcophagus and effigy] £825: 10.; the iron grate £195. Monument to George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, and his duchess; the duke was assassinated by Felton in 1628; his youngest son, Francis, who was killed in the Civil Wars, and his eldest son, the second and profligate duke, are buried with their father in the vault beneath. Statue of the first wife of Sir Robert Walpole, erected by her son Horace Walpole, the great letter-writer. In the North Aisle. Tomb, with effigy (by Maximilian Coult) of Queen Elizabeth (the lionhearted Queen); her coffin is placed on that of her sister, Queen Mary, in a low narrow vault, affording room only for the two coffins ; alabaster cradle, with effigy of Sophia, daughter of James I., who died when only three days old. Beneath, in the vault of the Stuarts, was found, on opening it in 1869, “a vast pile of coffins” of all sizes, rudely huddled together; "a chaos of royal mortality,” is Dean Stanley's striking expression. On a careful examination there could be identified the coffins of Henry, Prince of Wales; Mary, Queen of Scots, with that of Arabella Stuart upon it; Henry of Oatlands; Mary, Princess of Orange; Prince Rupert; Anne Hyde, first wife of James II. ; Elizabeth, Queen of Bohemia; ten children of James II. (including his "natural son James Darnley "); and the eighteen children of Queen Anne. James I. and his Queen lie elsewhere-Anne of Denmark, in a lonely vault, and James, as we have seen, in that of Henry VII. Monument to Lodowick Stuart, Duke of Richmond and Lennox, and his duchess, of the time of James I. : La Belle Stuart is buried beneath this monument; monument to George Monk, Duke of Albemarle, who restored King Charles II. ; sarcophagus of white marble, containing certain bones accidentally discovered (July 1674) in a wooden chest below the stairs of the White Tower, and believed to be the remains of Edward V. and his brother Richard, Duke of York, murdered by order of their uncle, King Richard III. ; monuments to Savile, Marquis of Halifax, the statesman and wit (d. 1695); to Montague, Earl of Halifax, the universal patron of the men of genius of his time (d. 1715); here Addison and Craggs are buried; to Sheffield, Duke of Buckingham, the patron of Dryden, with its inscription, "Dubius, sed non Improbus, Vixi,” which suggested to Prior his well-known lines
1 Dean Stanley, P. 559.
on Bishop Atterbury's burying the Duke of Buckingham.
Of these two learned Peers, I pr’ythee, say man,
The Duke he stands an infidel confest,
The Duke, though knave, still “ Brother dear " he cries,
And who can say the reverend Prelate lies ? In the vault at the base of the monument lie the Duke and his family—usually spoken of as deposited in the Ormond Vault. Northeast of Henry VII.'s tomb is the Argyll vault, in which, and not under the Sheffield Chapel as commonly supposed, are deposited the coffins of the great Duke of• Argyll and his Duchess, side by side, and on them those of their two daughters (Stanley.) Recumbent figure, by Sir R. Westmacott, of the Duke of Montpensier, brother to Louis Philippe, King of the French. King Charles II., William and Mary, and Queen Anne, are buried in a vault at the east end of the south aisle of the chapel. King George II. and Queen Caroline ; Frederick, Prince of Wales, the father of George III., his wife Augusta, and three of their children; and William, Duke of Cumberland, the hero of Culloden, in a vault in the centre of the nave of the chapel. The remains of King George II. and his Queen lie mingled together, a side having been taken by the King's own direction from each of the coffins for this purpose : the two sides which were withdrawn were seen standing against the wall when the vault was opened for the last time in 1871. In a vault south-west of Henry VII.'s tomb was found, during the search for the coffin of James I., a leaden coffin rudely shaped to the form, with an inscribed plate showing that it contained
1 See the very interesting "Account of the 2 "I am not sure that the head of Halifax in Search for the Grave of King James I.," printed Westminster Abbey does not give a more lively as an Appendix to Dean Stanley's Historical notion of him than any painting or engraving tha Memorials, p. 535, etc.
I have seen,”—Macaulay.
the undisturbed remains of Elizabeth Claypole, the favourite daughter of Oliver Cromwell. The great Protector himself was interred at the extreme eastern end of Henry VII.'s chapel, but, as is too well known, his corpse was exhumed after the Restoration and treated with every possible contumely,
V. Chapel of St. Paul.—Contains altar-tomb on the right on entering to Lodowick Robsart, Lord Bourchier, standard-bearer to Henry V. at the battle of Agincourt; altar-tomb of Sir Giles Daubeny (Lord-Chamberlain to Henry VII.) and his lady. Stately monument against the wall to Sir Thomas Bromley, Lord-Chancellor of England in the reign of Queen Elizabeth; he sat as Chancellor at the trial of Mary, Queen of Scots, at Fotheringay. Monuments to Sir Dudley Carleton, ambassador to Spain, from James I.; to Viscount Dorchester, and Francis, Lord Cottington, of the time of Charles I. Colossal portrait - statue of James Watt, the great engineer, by Sir Francis Chantrey, cost £6000; quite out of harmony with the rest of the monuments and out of proportion to the size of the chapel. As the huge mass was being moved across the threshold the arch of the vault beneath gave way, disclosing to the eyes of the astonished workmen rows upon rows of gilded coffins in the vaults beneath ; into which, but for the precaution of planking the area, workmen and work must have descended, joining the dead in the chamber of death. The long inscription on the pedestal was written by Lord Brougham. A marble bust (by W. D. Kayworth) bears the inscription, “Underneath is interred Sir Rowland Hill. Born December 8, 1795, died August 27, 1879. Originater of the Penny Postal System.” Archbishop Ussher is buried in this chapel ; his funeral was conducted with great pomp by command of Cromwell, who bore half the expense of it; the other half fell heavily on his relations.
VI. Chapel of St. Edward the Confessor, also called the Chapel of the Kings, in many respects the most interesting of all the chapels, occupies the space at the back of the high altar of the Abbey, and is entered from the north Ambulatory by a temporary staircase. The centre of this chapel is taken up by the shrine of King Edward the Confessor, erected in the reign of Henry III., and richly inlaid with mosaic work : of the original Latin inscription only a few letters remain. The wainscot addition at the top was erected in the reign of Mary I. by Abbot Fekenham Henry IV. was seized with his last illness while performing his devotions at this shrine. No part of this chapel should be overlooked. Observe.—Altar-tomb, with bronze effigy of Henry III. (the effigy of the King very fine); altar-tomb of Edward I., composed of five large slabs of Purbeck marble, and carrying this appropriate inscription :
"EDWARDVS PRIMVS SCOTORVM MALLEUS-HIC EST.
When the tomb was opened in 1774, the body of the King was discovered almost entire, with a crown of tin gilt upon his head, a