« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
A, a, âh, a. N, n, en,
D, 0, 0,
ano a Deasemenea
sé ord ojai toimii
2. Double Vowels. The double vowels aa, ee, oo are no diphthongs, because only one letter is sounded, and the second only serves to indicate that the syllable is long. Aar, âhr;
Seele, zey/-lai; Boot, bote. ge, ie, is pronounced like ee in meet. Biene, beel-nai; tief, teef;
3. Diphthongs. In the German diphthongs, the two vowels must be sounded one after the other, but so quickly as to form only one syllable. Ai and ei are pronounced almost alike, and have the sound of the English i in the word fire.
Saite, zi/-tai; Seite, zi/-tai; reimen, ril-men.
Baum, boum; blau, blou.
4. Consonants. At the beginning of syllables, these differ but little from the English, as the end b has the sound of Mod of t, g of ch or k, v off and 8 of 6. 6, ¢, before ä, e and i is pronounced like ts.
Cäsar, tsail-zâr; Ceder, tsail-der; Citrone, tsee-tro'-pai. Before a, o, u, before a consonant and at the end of a syllable it is pronounced like k, by which in most cases it may be replaced. Carl, Kârrl;
Conrad, Kon'-râht; Tombac, tom/-bâck. Ch, at the beginning of a word is pronounced like k, except in words derived from the French, when it preserves the French pronunciation. Chor, kore; Christ, krist;
Charlatan, shâr/-la-tân. In the middle or at the end of a word ch has a pronunciation peculiar to the German language, and more or less guttural, and for which no corresponding sound can be found in English; it is like the Scotch ch in the word loch after a, o, u, au, but softer after ä, e, i, ö, ü, äu, eu, and after a consonant. Dach, dâch ;,
Rauch, rouch; : nichts, nichts;
Küche, küch-chai; redynen, rech'-nen;
Tochter, toch -ter; : Bäumchen, boim'-chen. ch8 or chf is pronounced like cks when these consonants belong to the root or radical syllable.
Wachs, vâcks; Fuchs, fõõcks; Ocho, ocks. But the preserves its guttural pronunciation, when it stands before the 8 or by contraction or in a compound word.
nadsehen, nach-zeyl-hen; des Buchs, boods, instead of des Buches, bool-chess. G, g, at the beginning of a syllable it is pronounced hard, like the English g in the word good.
Gabe, gâ-bai; gehen, ghey'-hen; Gruß, grooss;
3. }, is sounded like ts.
Zorn, tsorrn; Holz, hõlts;
zwanzig, tsvân'-tsich; Herz, herrts,
Nußen, nõot/-tsen; eßen, zet’-tsen.
III. SYLLABIC ACCENT. The Accent is on the root of the word.
In verbs beginning with a separable particle, and in words derived from such verbs, this particle has the primary accent.
Words terminating in ei or ey have the accent on the last syllable.
IV. DIVISION OF SYLLABLES.
1) A simple consonant between two vowels is joined to the latter. Except the letter r; as, Her-en.
2) Of two consonants, meeting between two vowels, one is joined to the preceding and the other to the following syllable. — df, idh, ph, th, st, sp, đ, B, B are treated as simple consonants.
3) When three or four consonants, which are not proper to begin a syllable, meet between two vowels, such of them as can begin a syllable, belong to the latter, the rest to the former syllable; as, Men-schen, die Deut-schen.
4) A compound word is divided according to its elements.
OF THE SIGNS USED IN THE PRONUNCIATION. Quen represents the German a; like all the vowels, it is long at the end of a syllable,
short before one or more consonants. To represent the long sound before a
consonant â is changed into âh. . ai, ey, the former, when accented, represents the German long and open e, as ai in
the word air, the latter the long and close e, as ey in obey. When unaccented
the former represents the sound of ey in the noun survey. 00, õõ, the former is long, as oo in boot, the latter short, as oo in foot or u in put. ou, always like ou in pound. ' An apostrophe after the vowel makes it long before a consonant, where in English
it would be short, or might be either short or long. A breve over the vowel, makes it short, where it would be long, or might be either
long or short. | indicates the accented syllable. !! Compound words have frequently two accented syllables, the primary accent is
indicated by 11, the secondary by '. ö, ü and ch, these have no corresponding sounds or characters in English, and are
therefore indicated in the same manner as in German. In every other respect each syllable must be pronounced as in English.
In the following exercises the English idiom has been frequently sacrifioed to facilitate the laborg of the student; thus, for the compound tenses of intransitive verbs, the auxiliary “to be” has been substituted for "to have,” &c.
I am little. Thou art young. We are tired. They are rich. Art thou sick ? You are poor. Is she old ? Are you sick ? Are they good ? He is tall (groß). Am I poor?