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blazoned by the hand of virtue. We know that we shall be met with the hackneyed cry, that the dignity of royalty must be supported, be it so then, but we cannot discover how that dignity can be supported by the appointment to so menial an office as that of a park-keeper, to which a certain annual income is attached, in the same manner as to the park-keepers of our nobility. It is, however, these rangerships, these colonelcies of regiments, these governorships of castles, that form the cheese parings and candle ends of royalty, and proud indeed must the individuals be, when they reflect, by what degrading means their pomp and splendour are maintained.
George III. was a strange compound of sense and stupidity of pride and imbecility, of obstinacy and subserviency, and on no occasion was that paradoxical character more conspicuously displayed, than in the pageant that was got up in the month of December, 1797, purporting to be a thanksgiving to the Almighty, for the defeat of the Spanish and Dutch Fleets, at the same time that his Majesty had forgotten that, the Almighty in his wisdom, had been pleased to allow the utmost disgrace and discomfiture, to befall the British army under the command of that most notable of all generals the Duke of York. If therefore the country had to thank Heaven on the part of the navy, the reverse was the case on the part of the army, and there were not a few of the serious and the deep thinking part of the nation, who reprobated a solemn procession to St. Pauls' for some partial successes, when on the other hand, the country was daily and hourly threatened by the most disastrous consequences, arising from the defeat of the British armies. The 19th of December however was the day fixed for this great solemnity, and fortunately the weather proved uncommonly fine for that time of the year, which rendered the spectacle particularly brilliant and impressive.
Long before daylight, the houses in the streets through which the procession was to pass, were filled with spectators, many of whom came from a considerable distance, during the night. About seven o'clock the military moved to their res'
pective stations. The Foot Guards took the duty from St. James' to Temple Bar, inside of which the streets were lined by the city militia, the East India volunteers, and several other corps of the same description. At eight o'clock, the seamen and marines, chosen to escort the colours, formed before the Admiralty. The procession began with two flags taken from the French-three from the Spaniards—and four from the Dutch. The colours were carried on artillery wagons, each set attended by a party of lieutenants on foot, who had served in the several engagements in which they were won.
A large detachment of marines, with music followed; and the whole corps took their stations in the cathedral, from the west door to the choir. The following admirals brought up the rear of this part of the procession—Viscount Duncan, Sir Charles Thompson, Sir Richard Onslow, Sir Alan Gardner, Sir Thomas Pasely, Sir Roger Curtis, Sir Horatio Nelson, Lord Hugh Seymour, Caldwell, Waldegrave, Hamilton, Goodall, Young, Lindsay, Gambier, Bazeley, and Captain Sir Henry Trollope.
The Lords and Commons followed in order; the Chancellor in the rear of the one, and the Speaker in that of the other.
These parts of the procession reached the cathedral about nine; and soon after ten, the firing of the Park guns announced that their Majesties had entered their carriages-preceded by the Dukes of Gloucester, York, and Clarence, with their respective suites.
At Temple Bar, the usual formalities took place, on the entrance of the King into the city; and then the Lord Mayor, with the principal authorities, by deputation, rode in their robes, bareheaded, before their Majesties, to St. Paul's.
When the procession reached the church, the lieutenants, taking the flags from the wagons, attended by the seamen and marines, divided into two lines, for the captains to pass to their seats in the galleries.
The colours were carried in procession, with martial music, to the middle of the dome, where they were placed in a circle. The Princesses, with the Dukes of York and Clarence, Prince Ernest, and the Duke of Gloucester, formed in crescent within, the church; and opposite to their Royal Highnesses, were the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, Sheriffs, and Admirals, waiting to receive their Majesties. The Common Council of London, in their mazarine gowns, were ranged, with their ladies, in two galleries, which filled the semicircle of the dome.
The King, on his alighting at the church, was received by the Bishops of London and Lincoln, who walked one on each side, preceded by the heralds at arms, and prebendaries of the church. The Queen, followed with her suite, and the other members of the Royal Family, with their attendants, closed the procession. On their arrival within the circle, the colours were lowered; and the royal party made their obesience to the company assembled which were returned with acclamations.
The service then began; and, at the end of the first lesson, the flag-officers entered in two divisions, right and left of the King's chair, the end of the flags supported by those officers who immediately followed the bearers in regular succession advancing to the altar to deposit the naval trophies. The King was observed to be much affected by this ceremony, and the whole assembly participated in his feelings.
The Bishop of Lincoln, dean of St. Paul's, then preached an appropriate sermon from the first three verses of the twentythird of the second book of Samuel. The whole concluded with the anthem that had been sung when Queen Anne went to St. Paul's, to return thanks for the victories gained by the immortal Marlborough.
In returning, the order of the procession was reversed, their Majesties going first.
The naval exploits celebrated in this scenic display were those of Lord Howe, on the 1st of June, 1794-of Lord Hotham, on the 14th of March, 1795—of Lord Bridport, on the 23d of June, 1795-of Lord St. Vincent, on the 14th of February, 1797-of Rear Admiral Harvey, at Trinidad, the 17th of February, 1797—of Lord Keith, at the Cape of Good Hope, the 17th of August-and of Lord Duncan, the 11th of October, 1797.
About this time the Legislative Union with Ireland was on the carpet. The Lords carried the resolution in favour of that measure immediately, for Pitt was their creature through whom they ruled the nation; and every measure he carried into effect was in unison with the boroughmongering party there, whose influence over the House of Commons was paramount. By accident Pitt was left in a minority on the first debate, being outvoted by five; but the Minister was victorious in the future stages of the measure, and at length carried it triumphantly.
The King was fired at in Hyde Park, at a review of the Guards on the 15th of May, 1800; and in the evening of the same day, a man discharged a pistol at the royal box in Drury Lane, but fortunately without effect. In the first case, a young man near the King on the ground was struck by the shot, which, however, did no other harm; in the second instance, the offender proved to be an old soldier, who had been with the Duke of York on the Continent. His name was James Hatfield, but he was acquitted on the ground of insanity. The Duke of Clarence was active in the examination of the culprit, having been in the theatre. His Royal Highness also aided in conducting him to the Coldbath Fields prison.
That which had not been witnessed for a long time before took place the day after these attempts on the King's life. The Royal Dukes and the Prince of Wales went to Buckingham House, and took breakfast with the King, Queen, and other branches of their family: a touching proof how very little had been acquired on the part of the King to call his children around him. The danger from which the King bad escaped induced the members of his Majesty's house to rally around him with feelings of filial gratefulness for his preservation. A levee was held the same day, which was crowded by those who came to congratulate the King on his escape. No one of the royal sons more feelingly expressed himself on seeing his Majesty on this occasion than the Duke of Clarence. The Duke complained about this time of the loss of his old
friends Macbride and Barrington, of the navy, both brave officers. Admiral Macbride was a very whimsical character, but a thorough seaman.
After the preliminary treaty of peace with France was signed, it came on to be debated in the House Lords. On the 3rd of November, Lord Grenville opposed the terms on which the peace had been brought about; while the Duke of Bedford, Earl St. Vincent, and the Duke of Clarence, defended it. His Royal Highness asserted that there was nothing in the
way of security which we had not obtained from the French Government which it was in the nature of a republican government to afford. His Royal Highness contended, that the conduct of our navy and army was no way compromised by the peace. He pronounced a 'high eulogium upon both services, and declared that the bravery of our land forces was equal to the French, though some contended that our superiority was only in our seamen, which he maintained was miserable slander. If the campaign of 1793 were examined, the conduct of the British troops was equal in glory to that of their ancestors; and in 1794 they had displayed qualities fully as brilliant. In India they had won their way to honour and distinction, the details of which were too recent and memorable to require repeating. The Marquis Wellesley had overthrown' the despot Tippoo Saib. These plans, so happily executed, were likely to have received some interruption by the projects of Buonaparte, who, it is well known, had forty thousand of the best French troops in the expedition to Egypt. This measure, grand in its conception, and inmense in its execution, menaced our power and territories in the East, besides endangering the Turkish Government: it was the revival of the plan of Louis XIV.;' and which, by the spirit and enterprise of the First Consul, enforced by such a numerous body of chosen troops, inured to every hardship of the field, appeared at first very formidable. The resistance which these invaders experienced from a handful of soldiers, under Sir Sidney Smith, long before the landing of that army which afterwards became in their turn the conquerors of Egypt, could not be too