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Mantei'a, divination; necromancy. | Ora'ma, a sight (or'aō, I see); pan
Marai'nō, I wither; amaranth.
Mar'tur, a witness; martyr.
Ma-the'ma, knowledge; mathemat-

Mē'tēr, a mother; metropolis.

Mět'ron, a measure; diameter, geom

Mechana'ō, I contrive; mechanics.
Měl'as, měl'an, black; melancholy.
Měl'os, a song; melody (aei'dō, I

Mět-e-ō'ros, raised above earth; Ox'us, sharp; oxalic, oxggen, parmeteor.


Pais, pai'dos, a child; Paidei'a, learning; pedagogue (pais and a'gō, I lead), pedant, cyclopædia.


Mik'ros, small; microcosm, micro- Pa'lin, again; palingěněsis (a new


Mu'rioi, ten thousand; myriad.
Müs'tikos, secret; mystic, mystery.
Mu'thos, a fable; myth, mythic.
Nar'ke, torpor; narcotic.

Naus, a ship; nausea, nauseous,

Něk'rŎs, dead; necromancy, necropolis.


Mi'mos, an imitator; mime, mimic.
Mi'sŎs, hatred; misanthropy.
Mnë'mē, memory; amnesty, mne-

Pa'thos, suffering; antipathy, apa-


Mon'Ŏs, alone; monad, monarch, Pěn'tě, five; pentagon, Pentateuch monk. (teu'chōs, a book; the five books of Moses).

Mor'phe, form; amorphous (having no regular form), metamorph- | Pěp'tō, I cook, I digest; dyspepsia, osis.

Ně'Ŏs, new; neology, neophyte.
Ne'sŎs, an island; Peloponnesus,

Nom'Ŏs, law; anomaly, Deuteron

omy (the second book of the law), astronomy, economy. NŎs'Ŏs, disease; nosology, nosologist. O'dē, a song (aei'dō, I sing); melody, prosody.

Od'ous, Ŏdon'tis, a tooth; mastodon (mas'tos, a breast), odontalgia, (toothache).


Or'ganon, an instrument; organic.
Or'nis, ornithos, a bird; ornithol-

Od'u-nē, pain; anodyne.
Oikos, a house; economy, econom-


Or'thos, right; orthodoxy, orthoepist (ěp'os, a word).

Os'těŎn, a bone; osteology, perios


Ol'igos, a few; oligarchy.
On'ŏma, a name; anonymous, syn-


Neu'rŎn, a nerve; neuralgia, neu- Philos, a friend; philosopher.


Phob'ěō, I strike with fear; hydrophobia.


Op'tomai, to see; optical, synopsis.

Pas, pan, all; panoply, panacea, pantheon.


Pět'alon, a leaf; petal, monopetalous. Pět'ra, a rock; petrify, Peter, petroleum.

Pha'go, I eat; œsophagus, sarcophagus.

Phai'nō, I appear; diaphanous, phase.

Phar'makon, a drug; pharmacy.
Phĕ'mi, to say or tell; blaspheme.
Phĕ'rō, I bear; metaphor, phos-

Phō'nē, a sound; euphony, phonetic.
Phōs, light; phosphorescent.
Phra'zō, I say; phrase, paraphrase.
Phren, the mind; frenzy, phrenol-

Phthong'gos, the voice; diphthong. Phu'sis, nature; physical, metaphysical.

Phu'ton, a plant; zoophyte, neo-

Peira'ō, I try; empirical.
Pla'nē, a wandering; planet, plane-

Plas'sō, I mold; plastic, cataplasm.
Pně'o, I blow, I breathe; Pneu'ma

a breath, a spirit; pneumatic, | Stĕth'ŏs, the breast; stethoscope. pneumatology. Sti'chos, a line; acrostic, distich. Strat'ŏs, an army; stratagem (a'gō, I lead).

Poiĕo, I make; Poiē'tēs, a maker; poet; onomatopeia (the forming of words in imitation of sounds). Pŏl'ěmŏs, war; polemic (controversial).

Pō'lěō, I sell; monopoly, bibliopolist. Pŏl'is, a city; metropolis, polity, police.

Põllūs,many; polygon, polysyllable.
Pŏr'Ŏs, a passage; pore, emporium.
Pot'amos, a river; hippopotamus.
Pous, pŏd'os, a foot; antip'odēs.
Pras'sō, I do; Prak'tŏs, done; Prag'-

ma, a deed; practice, pragmatic.
Presbu'terŎs, older; Presbyterian.
Prō'tos, first; prototype.
Psu'che, the soul; psychical.

Pur, fire; empyrean, pyrotechny.
Rhe'ō, I flow; catarrh, diarrhea.
Rhē'ō, I speak; rhetorician.
Sarx, sar'kos, flesh; sarcasm, sar-

Schi'zo, I split; Schis'ma, a divis-
ion; schism, schismatic.

Schol'ē, leisure; school, scholastic.
Sit'os, corn, food; parasite.
Skěp'tomai, to examine; skeptic.
Skop'ěō, I observe; scope, telescope.
Soph'ia, wisdom; philosophy, soph-

Spa'ō, I draw; Spas'mos, a cramp;

Sphai'ra, a ball; sphere, spherical.
Spor'Ŏs, a sowing seed; Spor'as,
scattered; spore, sporadic

Staʼsis, a standing; ecstasy, apostasy.
Stal'azō, I drop; stalactite.
Stěl'lō, I send; apostle, epistle.
Stěn'Ŏs, narrow, close; stenography.
Stěr'ěŎs, solid; stereotype, stereo-

Stroph'e, a turning round; apostrophe.

Su'kŎn, a fig; sycophant.

Ta'phos, a tomb; cenotaph (ken'ŏs,
empty; a tomb to one buried else-
where), epitaph.

Tax'is, arrangement; Tak'tŏs, ar-
ranged; syntax, tactics.
Těch'ně, art, skill; technical, pyro-

Tē'lě, far off; telegraph, telescope.
Těm'nō, I cut; Tom'ŏs, a cutting;
anatomy, atom, entomology, epi-
tome, lithotomy.

Tĕr'ěō, I preserve; artery (a'ēr, air).
Thě-a'ŏmai, to see; Theō'ros, a spec-

tator; theatre, theory.

The'Ŏs, God; atheism, theology, theocracy.

Ther'mos, warm; thermal, thermometer.

Tith'ēmi, to place; The'sis, a putting; Thě'ma, something put; antithesis, epithet, synthesis, system, theme.

TŎn'ŏs, tension, tone; detonate, intonation.

Top'Ŏs, a place; topic, topography. Tròch’Ös, a runner, anything round; troche (tro'ke), a round cake; trochee, a metrical foot of two syllables, long and short. (scat-Trop'os, a turning; trope, tropic, he


Tu'pos, a shape; type, typical, typography.

Xu'lŎn, wood; xylography (wood engraving).

Zo'ŏn, an animal; Zō'ē, life; zoology, zoophyte, azote (a privative).


First Steps in Etymology. To give the pupil a general idea of the composite character of the English language, of the distinctions between Anglo-Saxon derivatives and those from the Latin and Greek, of the nature of prefixes, suffixes, etc., let the four divisions of the Etymological Introduction, from page 19 to 30, be used two or three times as supplementary reading lessons.

Prefixes. The pupil should have such a knowledge of prefixes as to distinguish them readily in compound words derived from the Latin and Greek, and his attention should be called early to the change of form they often undergo, as where ad is changed into a-, ac-, af-, etc., and we say ascend, accede, affix, instead of adscend, adcede, adfix. But prefixes may be best taught in connection with the words in which they occur, and the time spent on them may be spent most profitably in their practical application in the analysis of compound derivatives.

Roots of English Words. The lists of Anglo-Saxon, Latin and Greek roots with English derivatives, between pages 41 and 57, are for reference chiefly, and will come in use as the derivations of words in the reading lessons are traced.

Second Steps. Before entering on the regular reading lessons, page 61, a class should give a quarter of an hour to the Select Etymologies attached to the lesson. At first the study should be limited to the derivation of the words in black, omitting, for future attention, the cognate derivatives in italics.

It will be found that although the Select Etymologies of a lesson do not embrace all its important words, yet that nearly all those words or their cognates may be found in the Index, with numeral references to the pages where they are explained. But at first let attention be confined to the selected words.

Index of Words. It has not been thought necessary to include in the Index all the words given under roots in the Select Etymologies, so long as a cognate word is given as a clew. For

instance, we give resolve, but not resolution, conclude, but not conclusion, plaintive, but not plaintiff.

Teaching by Degrees. After the regular reading lesson is ended, books in the hands of pupils are closed, and the teacher proceeds with such questions as the Select Etymologies may suggest. These may be extended according to the hints on page 36, but the best plan is to proceed very gradually, and to rely upon the Index for the recovery of all dropped or omitted threads. The first object should be to excite an interest in the game of hunting down derivatives.

How to Look for Words. In looking for a word among the Select Etymologies, should you fail to find it among the black-letter words, look for the root-word or for some compound word related to it, which will be in black. For instance, if you would find opposite, the Index refers you to page 194, where you find it among the italicized words, alphabetically arranged, under Position; for you have already learned from your list of Prefixes, page 34, that op- may be a euphonic substitute for the prefix ob-, and you see that either posit or position will be likely to give you the root of opposite. But not unfrequently a list of derivatives may be found placed under a compound derivative in black instead of under a simple root-word in black: in such cases the root-word in italics always precedes the list.

Root-Words and their Inflections. In regard to the addition of the genitive case of nouns, or of the supine in -um of verbs, in giving root-forms, see the remarks on page 20.

The root-words and their inflections are meant to show (1) the probable origin of the English words; (2) their primary meanings; or (3) their equivalents in other languages. The root-words may be considered as a core for a group of related English words.

Repetitions have been purposely introduced to refresh the memory. Frequently, in order to show the unexpected relationship of words, a brief reference is made, as in the following on pages 72 and 83: Requisite: v. EXQUISITE,-Fashion: v. FACT.

Pronunciation of Latin and Greek. The Latin and Greek words in this volume are so marked and accentuated that any beginner may utter them correctly by observing the common rules for English pronunciation laid down in the dictionaries. See remarks, pages 29 and 53.

In words Anglicized from the Greek there is often a departure from the pronunciation of the original; thus the Greek letter gamma

(7), corresponding to our g hard, as in go, is changed into g soft, as in gem, in such Anglicized words as exegesis, geology, etc. In parago'ge, both g's are pronounced hard in Greek; but when we Anglicize the same word, we pronounce the first g hard as in go, and the second soft as in congeal.

In cenotaph, cephalic, etc. the initial Greek letter is kappa (our k), but it takes in English the sound of s, represented by c in those words; while in sceptic (better spelt skeptic), from the Greek skep'tikos, the sc is not sounded as in scent, but to correspond with the Greek. These are inconsistencies which it is now difficult to


Ai as in aisthesis, and ei as in ei'mi, are pronounced in Greek like long i in ice. Ou, as in akou'o, I hear, is pronounced as in out, acoustic, etc. Upsilon (pron. yoop'silon) has the long or y sound of u, as in lute, use. Ch is always pronounced like k in Greek and Latin words—a rule not to be forgotten in such Anglo-Greek words as architect, archives, etc.

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In Greek words, represented by English letters under the Select Etymologies, epsilon is distinguished by ; that is, e with the short mark over it; and eta by e, or e with the long mark over it; omicron by Ŏ, or o with the short mark over it, and omega by ō, or o with the long mark over it.

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