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which has gained so much under such adverse cattle from the South. The subject was sub
circumstances, and, disdaining the counsels of sequently brought to the attention of the LeMened timidity or the indifference of despair, continue gislature.
the struggle till the last hour of the 3d of On the night of the 18th of November, the November
, in the discharge of a solemn duty, Ohio Central Lunatic Asylum at Columbus was the reward of which will be the redemption of destroyed by fire, and six of the patients were our country from despotism and anarchy." suffocated, while terrible suffering was caused
At the November election 518,828 votes were to many others. This calamity is described as cast, of which 280,128 were for Grant and one of unusual distress. The loss to the State 238,700 for Seymour. Grant's majority was was nearly $200,000. The Legislature, which 41,428.
met in extra session on the 23d of November, The financial condition of Ohio is improving appointed a committee to investigate the cause In 1845, when the total value of the taxable of the fire, the extent of damage, and the expediproperty in the State was $136,142,666, the ency of rebuilding the institution. A majorpublic debt amounted to $20,018,515. In 1868, ity of the committee reported at the regular with the total of taxable property at $1,138,- session in January in favor of transferring the 754,779, the State debt was $10,532,675. The site and remnants of the buildings to the Asyreceipts into the Treasury during the year have lum for the Blind and building a new Insane been $4,347,484.82, and the disbursements for Asylum, the selection of a site to be made by the same period have amounted to $4,455,- a committee consisting of two members from 354.86.
the Senate and three from the House. There The Ohio railroads, in operation on the 30th was also a minority report, which recommended of June, measured 5,653.09 miles, including that the old buildings be rebuilt and refitted over 2,000 miles running into adjoining States, with as little delay as possible. in making connection with other lines to vari- The regular session of the Legislature for ous parts of the country. The number of work- 1869 opened on the 5th of January, and was men engaged in repairs and operations on these constituted as follows: roads was 19,884. The total cost of constructing these railroads was $288,269,958, and the Republican.
76 equipments cost $14,299,916. This is represented by paid-up capital to the amount Democratic majority..
7 10 of $172,047,542; funded debt, $133,111,294 ; floating debt, $8,494,466 ; or a total capital of
OLDENBURG, a grand-duchy belonging to
Grand$313,653,302, against an entire cost of $302,- the North German Confederation. 569,874.' The gross earnings of these railroads duke, Peter I., born July 8, 1827; succeeded for one year was $47,118,722, while the expense his father, February 27, 1853. Heir-appaof operating them was $32,920,034, leaving $14,- rent, Prince Frederick August, born Novem198,688 for the net earnings. $6,963,726 were
ber 16, 1852. Area, 2,469 square miles. laid out for construction and new equipment, Population, in 1867, 315,622.
The populaand $3,801,291 in dividends, while $1,644,375 tion connected with the Evangelical State were paid to the State and nation in taxes. hurch was 241,381; the Roman Catholic The number of school-houses in Ohio is population, 72,077; other Christians, 984;
The 11,353, with a total value of $9,072,443. The Jews, 1,527; religion not stated, 26. number of children in the State, between the public debt, at the close of 1867, amounted to ages of five and twenty-one years, is 971,705— 7,967,600 thalers. The army is fully incor494,458 male and 477,247 female-of whom porated with that of Prussia. The movement 704, 767, are enrolled as pupils; average daily of shipping, in 1866, was as follows: attendance, 397,436, of whom 3,036 were German, and 5,083 colored. Number of teachers, 21,568-male, 8,348, female, 13,220; average monthly wages of male teachers, $38.52, of Returns from 647 private or which Oldenburg
7,671 177,956 females, $23.80.
7,912 188,675 schools show an enrolment of 26,450 pupils;
4,785 | 80,086 5,100 there were 65 academies with 6,167 students;
The merchant navy, on January 1, 1867, con43 ladies' seminaries with 4,217 students; and sisted of 190 vessels, of 26,863 lasts. Besides, 26 colleges with 4,738 students, only 1,113 of there were 443 coasting vessels, of 7,227 lasts. whom were pursuing a regular collegiate course. OREGON. The relative strength of polit
Some alarm was created in the grazing dis- ical parties in Oregon was reversed during the cricts of Ohio during the summer by the ap- year, and the Democrats carried the State by pearance of what is known as the Texas cattle
an unusual majority. On March 9th, the ever, and in a few localities serious losses were
Democratic State Convention assembled at ceasioned by this malady. In the absence of Portland, and adopted the following series of ny legislative provision on the subject, the
resolutions : Fovernor issued a proclamation, and appointed
Resolved, That we renew our pledge of adherence ommissioners to prevent the spread of the dis- and unswerving fidelity to the time-honored prinse and prohibit the introduction of diseased ciples of the Democratic party.
Risolved, That the Federal Government is one of fifty miles was sent forward at the beginlimited powers, granted by the States in a written ning of the year. It is anticipated that the ity in war and in peace, and is alike law for the ruler Union Pacific road will connect with the and the people.
Columbia River and Paget's Sound road, big Resolved, That this Union under the Constitution crossing the Blue Mountains and following up is the only solid foundation of our strength and pros- the waters of the Malhuer, using a natural perity as a people, equally conducive to the welfare division, and proceeding down the John Day of all the States, both North and South.
Resolved, that the Constitution of the United River through a rich and extensive region, ani States confers no power on Congress to legislate up- reaching the Columbia at Dalles City. on the internal affairs of the States composing this The commerce of the State is rapidly growUnion. Risolved, That it is the highest duty of every lar lines of transportation are established to
ing. Grain is shipped to Liverpool; regnAmerican citizen to maintain against all their enemies the obligations of the Constitution, and the New York, and others are proposed to Au integrity of the Union under it.
tralia, China, and Japan. The population de Resolved, That we are opposed to sharing with the State is also greatly increasing with its servile races the priceless political heritage achieved wealth and commerce. alone by white men, and by them transmitted to us, their posterity, as a 'sacred trust forever.
OSGOOD, Mrs. Helen Louise Gilson, an Resolved, That good faith and justice to all de- eminently practical and active philanthropisi
, mand that the public debt shall be paid in like cur whose services to the sick and wounded sol rency as contracted, and we favor action by Congress diers of the Union army, during the late Fe. submitting United States securities to be taxed as other property.
secured her the love and admiration of tho:Resolved, that the burdens of taxation ought to be sands. She was born in Boston about 1835, azt equal among the people, and should be upon prop- died at Newton Centre, Mass., April 20, 186 erty instead of the industry of the country, as by She removed with her parents, during her ehitipresent laws provided.
Resolved, That wo protest against the reconstruc- hood, to Chelsea, Mass., and after their desto tion acts of Congress as unwarranted by the Consti
was the ward of Frank B. Fay, of Chelsch tution, revolutionary in tendency, and in positive in whose family she lived for some years. violation of the faith of the General Government She had received an excellent education, and pledged to the people of the United States.
was endowed with extraordinary musical .) Resolved, That we utterly condemn the attempt of Congress, to usurp the powers of the executive and conversational talent, and with an esecuzite judicial departments of the Government, as a flagrant ability rare even in the most accomplished basoutrage upon the Constitution and the liberties of ness men. When the war commenced she gare the people.
herself at once to the work of caring for the Resoloed, That we sympathize with the Irish peo- soldiers, first at home, and afterward in the ple in their efforts to secure to themselves civil lib- field. She was among the first to organic
Resolved, That it is the duty of the Federal Gov- Soldiers' Aid Societies in her own city, to preernment to extend protection alike to all native and pare and collect supplies, and to arrange them naturalized citizens both at home and abroad. for transportation. Finding that many of the
The Republican State Convention assembled wives and daughters of soldiers were in stru. at the same place on a later date, but their ened circumstances, she took a contract for the proceedings have failed to reach us.
manufacture of army clothing from the Ger The election was held on the first Monday ernment, and not only gave her own services in June, and resulted in the choice of a Demo- in the preparation of the work, but, raising, so cratic member of Congress, by a majority of her own subscription and the contribations 1,209 in a total vote of 22,369, and a Legisla- .others, a fund for the purpose, she furnista. ture with four Democratic majority in the employment to these poor women at we Senate and thirteen in the lower House. At which were much higher than those paid the Presidential election in November the the contractors, and which enabled them to life total voto was 22,086, and the Democratic comfortably. In the early spring of 1862, de majority 164.
felt strongly moved to go to the army and reThe Legislature assembled in September, der personal service in the care of the sick and and its action was confined to measures of wounded soldiers; and, when the Secretary of economy and of local interest, except the adop- the Sanitary Commission called for roluntee! tion of a resolution, withdrawing the consent nurses for the hospital transport service en tie of the State to the passage of the Fourteenth peninsula, she gladly made one of the sun zer Amendment to the Federal Constitution. who entered upon that hervic work. Hora
Preparations have been made to construct woman so delicately reared, and fragile in form railroads in the State, as has been stated in could endure all the labors and hardships when previous volumes. To the Oregon Central fell to the lot of those noble women who in Railroad Congress has granted 1,280 acres nearly three months worked incessantly in that of land for each mile of roadway constructed malarious climate, must remain a mystery ; bat to the California border, which is a distance though doubtless wearied and worn with tec of 300 miles. The State has also given a work, Miss Gibson (she was not married to guarantee to pay seven per cent. on $1,000,000 after the close of the war) did her work Fei of the company's bonds. The material for and cheerfully, and her coming among the setthe construction and operation of the first diers was always like a ray of sunshine
. After a
brief period of rest, she was again upon the field were more gentle or more skilful than she. with Mr. Fay and his party, and through the When this work slackened, she set herself the campaign around Washington, at Antietam and task of creating a model hospital for the sick Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville, was ever and wounded colored soldiers of the army of active and welcome. Another brief period of the Potomac, who had previously been much rest passed, and she then went to Gettysburg, neglected. From the most unpromising matewhere her gentle attentions, her sweet voice, rials, from inefficient help, and but limited and her great executive power, endeared her means, she succeeded by her executive skill in to the men, who almost worshipped her, and organizing and conducting, for many months, a enabled her to bring order out of chaos, and hospital for 900 to 1,000 patients, which had no subdue even the most turbulent spirits with a superior in the numerous army hospitals clusword or look. Though thoroughly self-con- tered in that vicinity. Every thing done in trolled she was naturally diffident and retiring that large hospital was under her personal in her manner; but her heart was so full of the direction, and not only was every patient well sufferings and heroism of the soldiers, that, cared for, and pains taken in their restoration,
whenever she was away from the battle-field, and their religious and intellectual interests se she could not refrain from pleading their cause carefully watched, but she found time amid all
and extolling their endurance and sacrifices; her other duties to provide for the comfort and she did this so simply and naturally that and improvement of the poor negro washershe always won the tears, the sympathy, and women attached to the camp. She remainthe liberal contributions of those who lis- ed with the army, and at the hospitals in tened.
Richmond and its vicinity, till July, 1865; But her greatest work was accomplished dur- spent the remainder of the summer in a ing the last year of the war, that year of ter- quiet retreat on Long Island, and in the rible slaughter and suffering. She went to the autumn returned with partially recovered front with Mr. Fay and other friends in May, health to Chelsea, Massachusetts. She so far 1864, and at Belle Plain, at Fredericksburg, at regained her strength, and apparently her White House, and at City Point, she was in- health, as to be married the following year to defatigable in her labors, so systematizing her Mr. Osgood, who had formed one of the party work, even amid those scenes, as to be able of Mr. Fay in the sanitary work in the army without distraction to administer comfort, re
of the Potomac. For a time her new life and lief, ease, and solace to thousands of the se- its happiness sustained her spirits and gave verely wounded and dying. Her cheering promise of future usefulness and peace; but words, her sweet songs and hymns, sung as soon the overtasked powers of nature began she only could sing them, and the benediction to fail, and she died a martyr to her patriotof her presence, exerted a powerful influence ism and philanthropy. The Third Army Corps, in sustaining the courage and supporting the to which she had so faithfully ministered, strength of the wounded soldiers, and in all have taken measures to erect a monument to the ministrations of love and tenderness none
P PAGE, CHARLES Grafton, M. D., an emi- examiners, instead of twenty, of whom the nent physicist, professor, and author, born in corps is now composed, and this position since Salem, Mass., January 25, 1812 ; died in Wash- that date he occupied with some brief excepington, D. O., May 5, 1868. He was early tions until the day of his decease. distinguished for his intellectual and and philo- very early day he was a contributor to the sophical tendencies; when only ten years of various literary and scientific periodicals, and age he constructed an electrical machine. He particularly to the American Journal of Science, was prepared for college, in Salem, by General or, as it is more frequently called, Silliman's H. K. Oliver, entered Harvard College in 1828, Journal. Within the last four or six months and graduated with distinction in 1832. After of his life he wrote and caused to be published leaving college he studied at the medical school one of the most concise, full, and elaborate in Boston. He made himself thoroughly ac- treatises upon the subject of electrical science quainted with the science and practice of med- and discovery which has yet appeared. It is icine, and in 1838 went to Virginia, where he now proved and admitted that to him, as much, pursued the practice of his profession for a if not more than to any other man, either on this period of two years. He was appointed Pro- or the other side of the Atlantic, are due the fessor of Chemistry in Columbia College, Dis- suggestions of that electric cable which, in the trict of Columbia, in 1839. In 1840 he was hands of others, at last spanned the broad called to a position of trust and responsibility ocean and made one great whispering gallery in the capacity of Examiner in the Patent of all the continents of the world. He had Office, under the Government of the United been for years engaged in perfecting machinery States, at a time when there were but two for the effective and economical use of electromagnetism as a motive power, and had so far behalf of the cause of the Union. In all the succeeded as to be able to use it for the pro- relations of life he maintained a simple dignity pulsion of machinery and to some extent as a of manner, a winning and gentle courtesy, a socomotive force. IIad his life been spared he tender and cordial sympathy with the poor and would undoubtedly have completed this great the suffering, and a large-handed liberality for work.
every worthy object. PAIGE, Hon. Alonzo CHRISTOPHER, a dis- PAPAL STATES, present pope, Pius II. tinguished jurist of New York, born in Scagh- (before his elevation to the Papal See, Gioticoke, N. Y., July 31, 1797; died in Schenec- vanni Maria, Count Mastai Ferretti), born at tady, N. Y., March 31, 1868. He was the son Sinigaglia, May 13, 1792; elected June 16, 1846. of Rev. Winslow Paige, D. D., and received his The ministry at the close of the year 1868 was early education under his father's direction. composed as follows: Secretary of State, CarHe entered Williams College in 1808, and dinal Giac. Antonelli, President; Finances and graduated second in his class in 1812. His Treasury, Giuseppe Ferrari (December 1, father was desirous that he should become a 1854); Interior, Augusto Negroni (February 8, clergyman, and after his graduation placed 1868); War, Brigadier-General Hermann Kanzhim with Rev. Dr. Banks, of the Scotch Church ler (October 28, 1865); Commerce, Arts, and in Montgomery County, to study theology. Public Works, Cardinal J. Berardi (April But not being interested in theological studies, 1868); Police, Lorenzo Randi (October 28 he removed to Schenectady after a time, and 1865). President of the Council of State, studied law, being admitted to the bar in 1819. Cardinal Teodolpho Mertel (since 1863). The Young as he was, his graceful and elegant area amounts to 4,552 square mlles; the popamanners, his fine scholarship, and his remark- lation, to 723,121. The population of the city able attainments in the law, commanded suc- of Rome, in 1867, was 215,573; in 1848 cess almost from the beginning. In 1828 he 217,378; among whom there were 4,650 15was appointed Reporter of the Court of Chan- raelites, 457 non-Catholics, and 6,429 persoas cery, and remained till 1846, publishing in the belonging to the clergy. In the budget for meanwhile 11 volumes of Chancery reports. 1867, the revenue amounted to 36,431,058 lire In 1826 he was elected to the Legislature, and (1 lira = 1 franc = 19 cents); the expenditure, served for four successive years. In 1838 he to 73,838,754 lire; deficit, 37,407,696 lire. For was elected Senator, and served with distinc- the year 1868, the revenue was estimated st tion in the State Senate four years, and was 28,845,359 lire; the expenditures, at 73,949, SE subsequently reëlected. He was elected Jus- lire; deficit, 45,104,444 lire. Public debt
, in tice of the Supreme Court in June, 1847, and 1867, 37, 402,695 lire rente; which, at the rate drew for the term of four years, and in 1855 of five per cent., would be equal to a capita was elected for the term of two years to fill of 748,053,900 lire. According to & CONTESthe vacancy occasioned by the resignation of tion concluded on December 7, 1866, the GutJustice Cady. In June, 1867, he was elected ernment of Italy assumed, in consideration of to the Constitutional Convention, where his the annexation of Romagna, the Marches, Tuefforts, in connection witi those J. bria, and Benevento, a part of the Papal des Landon, to purify the ballot-box entitled him and bound itself to pay to the Papal Gorersto the lasting gratitude of the people whom ment the sum of 20,642,292 francs, and si in every capacity he served so well. This was annual rente of 18,627,773 lire. the last public office which he filled. He had The arrivals and clearances of merchant been for thirty years a Trustee of Union Col- vessels in the ports' of Civita Vecchia, Furilege, and his finished education and wide cul- cino, Badino, and Terracina, amounted to ture rendered him an invaluable guardian of 3,654 ; together, 493,217 tons. that institution. As a lawyer, he was remark- According to the “official statistics of ably able, reaching at once beyond trivial and the Pontifical army for the year 1869," the unimportant issues to the great principles on Papal army was composed of 16,334 (officers which the law is based. As a judge, his de- underofficers, and soldiers), among whom cisions were regarded by his brethren on the there were : Italians of all provinces, 8240; bench, and by the legal profession generally, Frenchmen, 2,930; Belgians, 678 ; Dutch. as among the most valuable in the records of 1,713; Swiss, 970; Germans, 1,154; Ausjudicial opinions. Clear and unimpassioned in trians, 88; Spaniards, 42; Americans, Bis judgment and embodying the results of careful zilians, 27. The Corps of Zouves is compre] and extended research, they are and will be of 4,342 soldiers, of whom 230 are Italans, highly prized. Though never a professed poli- 1,211 Frenchmen, 1,683 Dutch, 233 Canadiais tician, and incapable alike from his charac- A proposal was made in 1868 by the American ter and disposition of resorting to political General Carroll Lewis, to raise a battalion of trickery and management, the sympathies of 1,200 men in the United States for the PosJudge Paige had always been with the old tifical army, which was abandoned in conse Democratic party, but he loved his country quence of the opposition of the Roman Cattobetter than his party, and at the outbreak of lic archbishops and bishops. Four of the archthe late war no political affiliation could re- bishops published, with regard to this subject. strain him from earnest and active efforts in the following card:
The publication in the newspapers of a circular from 25th, to General Lewis, communicating the Rome, to the effect that the Holy Father had consented positive instructions of the Pope to abandon men, to be raised in the United States, on condition recruiting in the United States for the prothat the said men shall be carefully chosen, and bejected volunteer battalion for the Papal 'serequipped and supported for three years by the Catho- vice. The letter expresses the thanks of his lics of these States, seems to call for some official notice Holiness for the General's zealous activity in from the prelates to whom the circular is exclusively the matter. addressed, and to whose discretion, as guardians of the interests of the church in this country, the sub
The political history of the Papal States ject is committed. For this
reason and for the pur- during the year 1868 was of no great imporpose, at the same time, of satisfying inquiries which tance. Brigandage continued to be troublehave reached us from various quarters, we deem it some, especially in the provinces of Frosinone proper thus publicly to define our position with ref
and Velletri. crence to a matter of so much importance; and in so doing we have the best reasons for knowing that we
On November 23d, the execution of two do but speak not alone our own sentiments, but those prisoners, named Monti and Tognetti, took It is needless for us to say how sincerely va Xesire place in Rome, for assisting in blowing up
some barracks at Rome, in the autumn of 1867. to uphold and protect, as far as in us lies, the temporal independence of the Holy Father, being per
The execution produced very great excitement suaded how essential it is to the free and unfettered throughout Italy, and resolutions, severely conexercise of his spiritual supremacy in the govern- demning the conduct of the Papal Government of the universal church. Yet the proposal to ment, were passed by the Italian Parliament nate with us. As far as we can learn, it has emanated (see ITALY). Two other prisoners were confrom, and been persistently urged' on the military demned to death. One of them, Ajani, was authorities at Romo by, some party or parties who have a woollen manufacturer in Rome, in 1867, and assumed to represent us, not only without our sanc- it was believed by the Papal Government that tion or authority, but even without our knowledge; and what renders this the more remarkable, is the his premises. They accordingly sent a strong
a large quantity of arms was concealed on ing for himself, in advance, the appointment of force of soldiers and police to the place. Ajani lieutenant-colonel, to have command of the proposed and his workmen resisted, and a violent battalion, is one who, we feel bound to say, does not struggle took place. Sixteen of the workmen enjoy, and is not entitled to enjoy, our confidence; especially in a position of so high' a responsibility
were killed, and several others were wounded. and trust. If he has found encouragement and sup- Some of the soldiers were also wounded, and port from one or two journals, edited by Catholic one was killed. laymen, which have given place to his ill-advised
PARAGUAY, a republic in South Amercorrespondence, this does not strengthen his claims; ica. President, General Francisco Solano Lorecognized as reliable exponents of Catholic views pez, born in 1827; assumed the presidency on os sentiments, still less as discreet or commendable September 10, 1862.
Area of Paraguay proper advocates of the Catholic cause. Besides, the pro- (situated between the Rivers Parana and Paraject, as proposed, with the conditions which are an- guay), 73,000 English square miles; but, innexed to it, cannot, in our judgment, be successfully cluding part of the Grand Chaco, a disputed apprehend, instead of serving tħe cause of our ven. territory on the right bank of the Paraguay, erable and beloved Holy Father, prove detrimental between Bolivia, Paraguay, and the Argentine to it.
Republic, and a small tract of land between It is not necessary to enter into further details; it the Parana and Uruguay, to which Paraguay will be enough to add, that we still have reason to lays claim, the territory would exceed 200,000 ment than military aid, and will be more acceptable square miles.
The population, in 1867, We shall continue, therefore, as hitherto, amounted to 1,337,431. The only religion o urge our generous and faithful Catholic children sustained is the Roman Catholic. There is o contribute abundantly, according to their means, for the support of our common Father, who will em
one bishop at Asuncion. The standing army, ploy their offerings in such manner as may to him in time of peace, is 15,000 men; the reserve, eem best ; not doubting that, by our so doing, we 46,000 men. According to recent documents, jhall meet his warm approval, and merit his apostolic President Lopez had, in 1867, an army of 60,penediction, Given at Mount St. Mary's College, Emmetsburg, the main army of the allies, 10,000 reserve at
000 under arms: 40,000 in the South, to resist June 24, 1868.
M. J. SPALDING, Archbishop of Baltimore. Asuncion, and 10,000 in the Brazilian province J. B. PURCELL, Archbishop of Cincinnati. of Matto-Grosso, which was conquered by the JOHN MCCLOSKEY, Archbishop of N. Y. Paraguayans in 1865. But, at the beginning PETER RICHARD KENRICK, Archbishop
of 1868, the army had been considerably reof St. Louis, per Archbishop of New York.
duced. N. B.-The Archbishop of St. Louis, not having reen able to attend the meeting, empowered the
At the close of the year 1867, the war of Archbishop of New York, in writing, to sign this Paraguay with Brazil, the Argentine Republic, Jocument for him, having been fully apprised of and Uruguay, continued without showing any hat would be its contents.
prospect of a speedy termination. A new efIn consequence of this attitude of the Cath- fort to mediate a peace had been made in olie bishops of the United States with regard September, 1867, by Mr. Gould, British Secreo the proposal of General Lewis, the Papal tary of Legation at Buenos Ayres, who drew ninister of war forwarded a letter, dated July up and sent to Mr. Caminos, first secretary of