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quarters in Paraguay might be. These (in On the 16th of June, the acting Portuguese January, 1869) were said to be about 50 miles Consul, Pereira, fled from his chacra at Trinfrom Asuncion, and he was said to be intrenched idad, and sought refuge at the American Legawith 5,000 men.

tion. He was induced to this step in conseEarly in the year, the Government of Para- quence of a notice he got from the French Conguay believed to have discovered a wide-spread sul of the feelings of Lopez toward him. Mr. conspiracy against the rule and even the life Washburn at once admitted Pereira, although of President Lopez, and a number of the most at the time there were four pickets of solprominent men of the country were arrested. diers around the Legation. On the 20th of No trustworthy information about the origin of June, the Paraguayan Government demanded the pretended conspiracy was ascertained dur- of Mr. Washburn a list of all parties at the Leing the year, but in January, 1869, it appeared gation, which Mr. Washburn supplied on the from documents said to have been found in the 22d of June. camp of Lopez, after the capture of Angostura, On June 27th, Gumecindo Benitez, Minister and from the statement of several Paraguayans, of Foreign Affairs, demanded almost perempthat the suspicion of Lopez was awakened in torily that Pereira be delivered over to the February, 1869, when the iron-clads appeared police officers. Mr. Washburn, in reply, rebefore Asuncion, carrying with them the news minded the foreign minister of the strange that they had passed the hitherto invincible character of this request addressed to him. Humaita. There was a general desire for & He pointed out, also, that the character of a gathering, according to these statements, to talk consul is considered almost as sacred as that of common danger, and to devise means of of a minister, and declined to give Pereira up. defence. Lopez regarded all the men who had Minister Benitez, on July 4th, pointed out met that day, and all the foreigners of the that, from Mr. Washburn's letter, stating that city, as conspirators against him. The military it was in consequence of a communication from officers he shot at sight, the civilians were im- the French Consul that Pereira had gone to prisoned and in the course of time tortured the Legation, it would seem that he received until they perished, or else he had them execu- Pereira as a refugee, and not merely as a guest, ted in some barbarous manner. From the and therefore "requested ” that Pereira and papers found in the camp of Lopez, it was all others “who, not belonging to the Legation, ascertained that, at San Fernando, 90 prisoners are at present in it, some as guests and others in were shot, among whom was the Minister of other capacities," be dismissed from the hotel Foreign Affairs, Berges. On December 21st, a before sunset the next day. large number of prisoners were shot at Loma Mr. Washburn replied that all the gentlemen Negra, among whom were Barrios and his wife, referred to in the correspondence, in order to & sister of Lopez, Benigno Lopez, a brother of save him from embarrassment, had declared the President, and the Bishop of Asuncion. their readiness to leave, and would leave the The mother of Lopez had been exiled for hav- same day. There would only remain Dr. Caring asked him to pardon her children.

reras, formerly Vice-President of Uruguay, Closely connected with this pretended con- Señor Rodriguez, formerly Secretary of the spiracy was the difficulty between President Uruguayan Legation, Mrs. Pereira, and two Lopez and the Minister of the United States in American ladies. Asuncion, Charles A. Washburn. Previous Minister Benitez, in his reply of July 12th, to February, 1868, Mr. Washburn was on good insists that the Orientals, Dr. Carreras and Dr. terms with the Paraguayan Government. On Rodriguez, should be dismissed from the Legathe 224 February, a decree came ordering every tion. He permits, however, the ladies, friends one to leave Asuncion. Mr. Washburn refused and attendants of Mrs. Washburn, to remain. to remove, alleging that his Legation was The demand was again complied with, alAmerican territory. All the foreign consuls though Mr. Washburn, in his reply, stated that fled the city, and, with the exception of the he was fully convinced of the entire innocence American minister, none dared to disobey. of the two Uruguayans, both of whom had Some twenty-two English, some two or three been steadfast friends of the cause of Paraguay. Americans, and a few others, sought refuge at On July 13th, Minister Benitez demanded the Legation. Mr. Washburn advised those the dismissal of the American citizen Cornepeople first to apply to the Vice-President, and lius Bliss, and of the Englishman, George that, if the Government had no objection, he Masterman, " accused of crimes not less grave would take them in. The Government con- than the others" already dismissed. On July sented, and accordingly Messrs. Carreras, Rod- 14th, Mr. Washburn declined to accede to this riguez, and servant, Bliss, Manlove, and Duf- request, stating that Mr. Masterman was the feld, besides twenty-two English, took up medical attendant of his family, had been mentheir quarters at the American' Legation. tioned as such in his communications to the Masterman, it appears, had been a resident at Foreign Ministry, and that he considered him Mr. Washburn's house for fully eight months recognized as a member of the Legation. On previously. Most of the foreigners after a July 23d, Minister Benitez demanded the imwhile left the Legation, and as soon as they mediate delivery of a sealed packet of commuleft it were arrested.

nications which the ex-Minister of Foreign Af

fairs, Jose Berges, "personally delivered to your Excellency." Mr. Washburn denied that he ever received such a package. In a long letter, on July 23d, Benitez distinctly charged Bliss with conspiring to accomplish the "treacherous assassination of the President of the Republic," and denied emphatically that they were recognized as members of the American Legation.

Minister Benitez, in a long letter dated July 31st, gave the substance of an interview he had with Mr. Washburn, in which he charged him with conspiring with the ex-Minister of Foreign Affairs, Señor Berges. On August 3d, Mr. Washburn categorically denied the accusations made against himself personally.

Benitez replied, quoting at length, against Mr. Washburn, statements of Carreras and others at that time in Lopez's power, which seemed to implicate Mr. Washburn. Mr. Washburn, in reply, explained at great length the circumstances under which he sent letters abroad, and repeated again and again his denials of complicity with the alleged conspirators. The correspondence was continued in this style until the arrival of the United States war vessel Wasp. At the first interview of Captain Kirkland, of the Wasp, with President Lopez, the latter threatened to keep the United States Minister as a prisoner in the country, to which Captain Kirkland replied, that in that case the Government of the United States would not only use its whole power promptly to punish him, but would hunt him, if necessary, through all South America and even through Europe. Mr. Washburn was subsequently allowed to go on board the Wasp, but Messrs. Masterman and Bliss, while on the way to the vessel, were arrested. On board the Wasp, Mr. Washburn, on September 12th, sent a final letter to Lopez, in which he says:

The declarations of Berges, your two brothers, Venancio and Benigno, and Sr. Urdepilletta, as given in the notes of your two last Ministers of Foreign Relations, in so far as they implicate me of having any knowledge of a conspiracy, are entirely false, and you know it; and you know that not one of them would confirm or affirm the declaration imputed to him if he were out of your power, but would deny it in toto, and declare that he had never made it, or that he had done so under torture. Declarations of that kind, your Excellency ought to know, will have no weight outside of Paraguay. Not one word of them will be believed, and, that all may not be denied by them, you must not only kill off all the persons who have made them, but all by whom they were extorted. Before finally leaving Paraguay, is my duty to make my solemn protest against the arrest of those two members of my Legation, Porter Cornelius Bliss and George F. Masterman. Their arrest in the street, as they were going with me from the Legation to pass on board the steamer, was as gross a violation of the laws of nations as would have been their seizure by force in my house. It was an act, not only against my government, but against all civilized powers, and places Paraguay outside the pale of the family of nations; and for this act you will be regarded as a common enemy-one denying allegiance to the laws of nations.

You will also be regarded as a common enemy for having seized and made prisoners, and loaded with

fetters, nearly all the foreigners in Paraguay, and af terward entered their houses and taken away their money on the miserable pretext that, finding less in your treasury than you expected, those who had any money in the country, must, therefore, have robbed it from the government.

In November, Rear-Admiral Davis, commanding the United States squadron in the Paraguayan waters, accompanied, with several vessels, the new Minister of the United States to Paraguay, General McMahon, to the place of his destination. On December 3d, Admiral Davis anchored at Angostura and communicated with Lopez. The Dictator came to the river-bank, had an interview of three hours duration with the Admiral, was courteous and frank in his demeanor, and declared that he intended to accede to the demand of the United States and deliver up the captives Bliss and Masterman. Some correspondence ensued, and, on December 10th, Bliss and Masterman were sent on board the flagship. On the 12th the new American Minister, General MeMahon, landed, presented his credentials, and was received by Lopez with great friendliness and the customary honors. The American vessel withdrew to Montevideo.

PARSONS, USHER, M. D., a physician, medical professor, and author, born in Alfred, York County, Me., in 1788; died in Provi dence, R. I., December 17, 1869. The early education of Dr. Parsons was obtained in the vicinity of his native town, the schools and academies of that part of Maine having kong had a high reputation. Having acquired a good academic education, he went to Boston, and entered the office of Dr. John Warren as a medical student, and had just become quafied to practice when, in 1811, he entered the naval service, and joined the frigate Joha Adams, in 1812, as surgeon's mate. The of ficers and crew of the vessel volunteering for service on the lakes, Dr. Parsons went with them, reaching Erie in June, 1813. Great sickness prevailed in the fleet at this time, to such an extent, indeed, that finally the only surgeon fit for duty was the deceased, on whom devolved the task of attending to the sick men. At the battle of September 10th, he was the only medical officer on duty, and was board the flagship Lawrence, commanded by Commodore Perry, during the engagement. His efficiency and courage during the day won the admiration of his commander, who, in his report to the Secretary of the Navy, referred in most flattering terms to the young surgeon, closing his remarks by stating that in the event of his having another command he should consider himself peculiarly fortunate in having Dr. Parsons with him as surgeon. For his conduct on this occasion, Dr. Parsons was ap pointed a full surgeon in the navy, with a coramission bearing date of September 10th, the day of the battle. In May, 1814, he was ordered on board the Lawrence, which, with the fleet under Commodore Sinclair, sailed to Mackinse for the purpose of transporting the troops

23 231 137 155

5 248

In number of teachers..

destined to attack Detroit. The attack failed, The increase in these items, as compared and in November following the deceased was with those of last year, is as follows: ordered to the frigate Java, at the request of In number of districts. Commodore Perry. His services from this In number of schools.

In number of graded schools. time were not of particular importance. In

In number of school directors. 1823 he resigned his commission, married, and In number of superintendents.. settled in his profession in Providence, R.

In number of pupils.

11,126 I. Dr. Parsons was at one time Professor of In the average number of pupils..

27,234 Anatomy at Dartmouth College, Professor in In cost of tuition, building, etc., and contin


$1,037,136 08 Brown University at Providence, President of In total cost, including expenditures of all the Rhode Island Medical Society, and first klnds....

1,039,787 79 Vice-President of the American Medical Asso

The average cost for the tuition of each puciation. He was also the author of several pil is about $7.747. The average amount paid medical works and other literary productions. to each teacher is 195.174, the average wages

PENNSYLVANIA. The financial condi- for male teachers being $37.28 a month, and tion of this state shows considerable improve those of females $28.76. It is a noteworthy fact, ment during the year. On the 1st of Decem- that, while the number of male teachers in the ber, 1867, there was a balance in the treasury Staté, exclusive of the city of Philadelphia, has of $4,661,836.46. The ordinary receipts for diminished by 1,256, the number of female the fiscal year ending November 30, 1868, teachers has increased by 3,932. The average amounted to $5,216,049.55. The ordinary ex- length of the school term for the year is 5 penses of the government for the same period months, 193 days. were $2,454,506.09 ; loans were redeemed to

An inquiry was set on foot, during the past the amount of $4,417,463.64, and $1,979,690.91 year, by the board of controllers of the city vere paid in interest on the various State loans. of Philadelphia, to ascertain how many chilOther payments were made to the amount of dren in that city did not attend schools of any $12,800, and at the close of the year there were kind. The census was taken by the police, un$1,013,415.37 the public treasury. The der the direction of the mayor, and revealed State debt of Pennsylvania amounted on the the somewhat startling fact that, out of 150,000 Ist of December, 1867, to $37,704,409.77. children between the ages of six and eighteen, During the year following that date it was re- 20,534 attended neither public nor private luced to $33,286,946.13. The indebtedness of

schools. A similar state of things has been he Commonwealth on the 1st of December, found in other places, and it is estimated that 868, was made up of the following items: in the whole State there are 75,000 children Funded Debt.

whose education is entirely neglected. In con$25,311,180 00

nection with this subject of popular education 7,749,771 56 * per cent loans.

'112,000 00

the following facts are of interest : Total funded.

-$33,172,951 56 There were admitted into the houses of refUnfunded Debt.

uge of the State, during the past year, 636 Relief notes in circalation.....

$96,415 00

children, whose average age was 145 years. nterest certificates outstanding. 13,086 52

Of this number there were, who did not know nterest certificates unclaimed... 4,418 38 Jomestic creditors' certificates..

the alphabet, 57; who knew the alphabet only, Total unfonded....

113,994 57 92; who could read poorly, 262; who could Total funded and unfunded...... $33,286,946 13

read well, 21; who could not write, 246; who

could write poorly, 177; who could write tolerThe State has a sinking fund which, during ably, 94; who could write well, 19. he last fiscal year, yielded the sum of about

There were in the almshouses of forty-six 33,000,000.

counties the year 1867, when visited by the The last Legislature increased the State ap- connty superintendents who made the reports, propriation for the support of public schools 2,809 persons over ten years of age. Of these rom $350,000 to $500,000. The following

1,181 tatistics relating to common schools are taken The number who could not read was..

The number who could read a little.

1,189 'rom the official reports:

The number who could read well.. The number of school districts in the State

The number who were good scholars.. 1,918

There were in the jails of the same number

13,666 amber of graded schools.

2,382 of counties, as reported by the same officers at sumber of school directors amber of superintendents.

11,698 the same time, 1,601 occupants. Of whomSunber of teachers..

16,771 The number who could not read was..

The number who could read a little was.. trerage number of pupils..

The number who could read well was.. Cost of tuition for the year.

$3,273,269 43 The number who were good scholars was.. Jost of building, purchasing and renting school-houses.

1,991,152 65 There were received in the Eastern PenitenCost of contingencies..

854,253 21 Total cost for tuition, building, etc., and

tiary, for the year 1867, 291 convicts. The contingencies.

6,118,675 19 classification of these, by the officers of the Total cost, including expenditures of all

6,200,537 96 prison, according to their educational relations, Estimated value of school property.

per cent. loans. per cent, loang.

44 67


412 70

is Number of schools

Sumber of pupils..


434 840 504 123

10,556,765 00 is as follows:


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The normal school system of Pennsylvania contemplates the ultimate establishment of twelve institutions in different parts of the State. Of these, four are already in operation and two others have their buildings in process of erection. The number of students at the four schools already established was 2,121 during the past year; 1,702 were in the normal department and 419 in the model schools. The number of graduates at all the schools was 77, all of whom declared their intention to become teachers in the common schools of the State.

The prosperous condition of these institutions is shown by the fact that they expended $30,991.47 in improvements during the year. The two schools not yet completed are at Bloomsburg and California.

The Agricultural College in Centre County, which has been heretofore considered a comparative failure, has received the attention of the Legislature, and is in a fair way to be put on a basis which promises much for its future usefulness. The interest upon a fund of $318,500 has been appropriated to the endowment of this institution, and $43,886 have been devoted to the purchase of three model and experimental farms-the largest at the college in Centre County, one in Chester County, and the other in Indiana County. The board of trustees has reorganized the faculty, and remodelled the course of study, and the new order of things is expected to go into full operation some time during the year 1869.

There are several schools for the instruction of soldiers' orphans, which are supported by the State. The total expenditure for this purpose, from the 1st of December, 1867, to the 31st of May, 1868, was $236,370.26, and the total number of pupils in the schools was 3,431. At Media is a training-school for feeble-minded children, where physical, mental, and moral training is systematically applied to those defective natures which develop only under the most assiduous care. Since the foundation of the institution in 1853, 501 inmates have been received, and, in most cases, a very satisfactory degree of improvement has been attained in the condition of those generally regarded as hopeless. This school is supported by funds established by the States of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware, and by private benefactions.

attempt was made to have the question of so amending the constitution of the State as to give the rights of suffrage to negroes, submitted to a vote of the people, but the proposition received only 13 votes in its favor in the House of Representatives, while 73 were recorded against it.

The following resolution was introduced, and referred to the Committee on Federal Rela tions:

Resolved, That we, the representatives of the people of Pennsylvania, urge upon the Secretary of State, Hon. William H. Seward, the propriety and impor mand of the British Government the immediate retance of instructing the United States Minister to de lease of all American citizens imprisoned for alleged political offences, and to insist upon the adoption of some fixed policy that will insure to every America citizen on British soil such immunities and prozeetion as he is entitled to under the laws of a proud republic.

When Edwin M. Stanton (who was a citi zen of Pennsylvania), was removed from the office of Secretary of War, by the President, of Congress, the following joint resolution was and restored to that position by the action the Senate of the United States, where it was adopted by the Legislature and forwarded to allowed to lie on the table:

1. Resolved by the Senate and House of Representstives of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in Genera wealth hail with joy the restoration of Hon. Edva Assembly met, That the loyal men of this Comme M. Stanton to the office from which he has been ille gally excluded, and that the thanks of the people of Pennsylvania are hereby tendered to the Senates meritorious officer and rebuked an apostate Presi who have by their action in this case vindiested


2. Resolved, That it is the universal wish of the loyal men of Pennsylvania that Hon. Edwin M. Starton shall retain the office he now holds; that he sink his personal wishes for the public good, and t the country, more than ever requiring his services, may again rest in security with the unflinching retary at the head of military affairs.

3. Resolved, That while the suspension of Mr. Su ton for a time so unnecessarily and unjustly from the to the country that the great leader of the Uni War Office is lamented, it is cause of congratulate armies, General U. S. Grant, was the Secretary interim, who brought to the administration of th office that courage, energy, ability, and loyalty, the delighted the heart of the nation in the darkness of and confidence in future. rebellion in the past, and directs it to him with boge

4. Resolved, That the Governor of the Comme wealth be requested to forward copies of these res lutions to the Secretary of War and the Senate of the

United States.

ELISHA W. DAVIS, Speaker of the House of Representatives JAMES L. GRAHAM Speaker of the Senate. Approved the 11th day of February, A. D., 186 JOHN W. GEARY. The following relates to the impeachment of President Johnson:

Whereas, Andrew Johnson, President of the United States, in disregard of a law passed by constitutional majority of Congress over his veta, is sued an order to remove E. M. Stanton as Secretary General of the United States Army, Secretary of War of War, and appointed Lorenzo Thomas, Adju An ad interim; and whereas, E. M. Stanton has refused

The Legislature of Pennsylvania meets on the first Tuesday in January. The last session continued until the early part of May, but no laws of general interest were passed.

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to obey the illegal order to remove him from office, and the national House of Representatives has passed a resolution to impeach Andrew Johnson of high crimes and misdemeanors; therefore

Resolved, That the prompt action of the majority of the members of Congress in passing the resolution for the impeachment of Andrew Johnson, President of the United States, of high crimes and misdemeanors, be and the same are hereby commended and approved.

Resolved, That the refusal of E. M. Stanton to obey the illegal order to remove him from office meets with the approval of the Union-loving and law-abiding citizens of Pennsylvania.

Resolved, That the Governor be and is hereby requested to forward a copy of these resolutions to the Speaker of the national House and to Mr. Stanton.

The Democratic State Convention met in the chamber of the House of Representatives at Harrisburg, on the 4th of March. Delegates to the National Democratic Convention were chosen, and presidential electors and State officers nominated. Charles E. Boyle, of FaySette County, was nominated for the office of Auditor-General, and General Wellington Lut, of Columbia, for that of Surveyor-General. These were the only State officers to be filled at the election of the year. The platform of principles adopted by the convention was contained in the following resolutions:

Resolved, That the happiness of the people and the preservation and continuance of our power as a republic depend upon the perpetuity of the Union and the preservation of the constitution, and the prompt restoration of each and all of the States to the enjoy ment of their rights and functions in the Union is essential to our progress, our prosperity, and the protection of our liberties, and radical legislation is the barrier thereto.

Resolved, That the Constitution of the United States is the supreme law; it is binding upon the people and upon every department of the Government, and it is the highest duty of those in and out of official place to yield implicit obedience to all its provisions until it is changed in the manner provided therein; that the recent attempts of the legislative branch of the Government to usurp the office of the Executive and to destroy the independence of the judiciary, are deliberate attacks upon the plainest provisions of the Constitution, in utter violence of its spirit, and tend to the overthrow of the Govern

ment itself.

Resolved, That the radicals in Congress have wrung from the people enormous sums of money, which they have squandered in reckless extravagance; that their system of revenue is ill devised, incongruous and inequitable; that rigid economy in every branch of the public service, a decrease in the number of officials, a reduction in the army and navy, and reform in the collection of the revenue, are imperatively demanded; and only by this means can a reduction in the amount of taxation now imposed on the industrial and manufacturing interests be attained, and the payment of our indebtedness be assured.

Resolved, That the Republican party is responsible o the country for the delay in the restoration of the Southern States to their just relations in the Union, nd for the government of their people by military le; that the purpose of these measures is to peretuate radical power through the votes of illiterate


Resolved, That, in enacting the Tenure of Office law e legislative and executive branches of the Govnment each had a right to judge of its constitutionty, and that, in thus exercising the right, the Extive was only complying with that portion of his th of office which required him to preserve, protect

and defend the Constitution of the United States, and that it is the right of every branch of the Government and of every citizen to have the questions involving the constitutionality of any law speedily adjudicated by the Supreme Court of the United States, and the right of all the people to have said decision enforced.

Resolved, That the pending impeachment of the President of the United States is a gross and reckless abuse of partisan power, without justifiable cause, and intended for the attainment of party purposes at the sacrifice of the most vital interests of the country.

Resolved, That a return to a specie-paying basis at the earliest practicable moment is essential to the interests of the people and the prosperity of the nation.

Resolved, That the national debt should be paid as rapidly as is consistent with the terms of the laws upon which the several loans are based.

Resolved, That the five-twenty bonds and the legal tender notes are component parts of the same finance system, and, until the Government is able to redeem the legal tenders in coin, the holders of those bonds should be required to receive legal tenders in pay


Resolved, That every species of property should bear its fair proportion of taxation, and that the exemption of government bonds therefrom is unjust and inequitable.

Resolved, That we recognize with emotions of the deepest gratitude the efforts of the gallant volunteer soldiery who so freely took up arms to protect the flag and preserve the Union, and we denounce as unjust to them the efforts of the radicals to prevent a restoration of the Union until negro supremacy is established in certain States and negro equality made the

rule in all.

citizens places them on the same footing as those Resolved, That the naturalization of foreign-born born in this country, and that it is the duty of the Government to see that all citizens, naturalized and native, are protected in their rights of life, liberty, and property, abroad as well as at home, and that, in the view of the democracy, the flag of the country ought and must be made to protect all our citizens.

The Republican State Convention assembled at the Academy of Music, in the city of Philadelphia, on the 11th of March. A vote of the delegates was taken, in order to ascertain their preferences with regard to candidates for President and Vice-President. The Convention pronounced unanimously in favor of General Grant for President; and, for VicePresident, gave 109 votes for Andrew G. Curtin, 22 for Benjamin F. Wade, and 1 for Edwin M. Stanton. General John F. Hartranft and Col. Jacob M. Campbell were unanimously nominated for reëlection to the offices of auditor and surveyor-general. The resolutions adopted were as follows:

Resolved, That the great Republican party of America, without which the rebellion against the Government would have consummated a division of the Union and perpetuated human slavery, with the aid, comfort, and full approval of the present Democratic party, is in the fore-front of another peril and another trial. Electing its candidate for President in 1860, and reelecting him in 1864, it is now called upon to decide whether all its sacrifices of blood and treasure have not only been vain, but were simply contributions for a restoration of treason under the influence of a man who, clothed with the confidence of his country, is prevented from overthrowing the Government solely by the wise and patriotic stand taken by a loyal Congress.

Resolved, That we add our voice to the loud acclaim

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