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Nacional, of Lima, confirms the tidings which library. He went abroad soon after giving up other explorers had given us of the great Uca- the office of reporter, and lived in England and rali, with respect to the facility with which on the Continent of Europe for seven years, : t can be navigated in any season by larger returning home in 1849. He was much inter

"essels, as well as (what is now undoubtable) ested in science and natural history, and was hat the Ucayali is the true source of the Am- for many years a member of the American zon and not thu Marañon, as was formerly Academy of Arts and Sciences. He was one upposed.”

of those who, in December, 1814, organized On the 17th of December the Government “The New-England Society for the Promosued a decree, declaring the navigation of tion of Natural History," belonged to the 'eruvian rivers free to flags of all nations. It committee who framed its constitution, and ras expected that this measure would be the was chosen its treasurer. This society, a ieans of attracting on a large scale foreign im- month later, changed its name to that of "The igration, thus opening up the rich but un- Linnean Society of New England," and it was aown valleys of the Amazon. The Peruvian on its ruins that the present thriving “Boston overnment has several small steamers on the Society of Natural History” was founded in eruvian head-waters of the Amazon, and Ad- 1830. Of this last, as well as its predecessor, iral Tucker, in command of the little flotilla, in Mr. Pickering was an active member. 68, had surveyed the different branches of PORTUGAL, a kingdom in Europe. King, e great artery. There exists in that region al- Luis I., born October 31, 1838; succeeded his ost every description of mineral and agri- brother, King Pedro V., November 11, 1861. Itural wealth, but the difficulty of reaching Heir-apparent, Carlos, born September 28, e locality has always been an insuperable ob- 1863. A new ministry was formed on the 4th icle to immigration. When the railway from of January, composed as follows: Count ma to Janja, which was surveyed in 1868, d'Avila, President, and Minister of the Interior all be completed, the intervening distance and Foreign Affairs; Viscount Seabrea, Ministween the head-waters of steam navigation ter of Justice; Senhor José Dias Ferreira, Mind the terminus of the railroad will only be ister of Finance; General José Maria de Magalout twenty leagues, and the highway thus haens, Minister of War; General José Rodriostructed will form the connecting link in guez Caelho do Amaral, Minister of Marine; road which must be as important to Peru Councillor Sebastiano do Conto Castro Masthe Pacifio Railroad is to the United carenhas, Minister of Public Works. This minites.

istry remained in office only until July 21st, The yellow fever, in 1868, raged for about when it resigned and was succeeded by another "ee months with greater than usual severity. one, composed as follows: Presidency of the aong its victims were Don Toribio Pacheco, Council and War, Marquis de Sa da Bandeira; : Minister of Foreign Affairs, under the dic- Interior, A. Alves Martins, Bishop of Vizeu; orship of Prado, and Edmond de Lesseps, Justice and Worship, Anthony Pequite Seixas ench chargé d'affaires.

de Andrade; Finances, Charles Bento da Silva; In August

, Peru was visited by a terrible Marine and Colonies, Joseph Maria Latino thquake, which destroyed several towns, Coelho; Public Works, Commerce, and Indus1 caused the loss of several thousand lives. try, Sebastian Lopes Calheiros. Area, 36,510 e EarTHQUAKES.)

square miles; population in 1863, 3,986,558; PICKERING, OCTAVITS, LL. D., a distin- with the Azores and Madeira (in 1863), 4,350,shed legal writer and law reporter, and an 216. The population of the Portuguese coloinent naturalist, born in Wyoming, Pa., nies in Africa and Asia is given (in the Gotha tember 2, 1791; died in Boston October 29, Almanac for 1869) as 10,881,022, of whom 8. He graduated from Harvard College in 9,000,000 are set down for Angola, Ambriz,

class of 1810, and studied law in Boston, Benguela, Mosammedes.* The revenue in the the office of his eldest brother, Mr. John budget for 1868–69 was estimated at 16,910,137 kering, was admitted to the bar in Suffolk milreis, and the expenditures at 22,831, 941. nty, March 6, 1816, and opened an office Public debt, in June, 1867, 220,968,202 milreis; Boston. He assisted in reporting the de- in 1866, 196,562,673 milreis. The strength of 3 and proceedings of thế Massachusetts the army in the kingdom was in May, 1868, vention for revising the constitution, held 1,567 officers, and 23,092 soldiers; in the colo820. In 1822 Mr. Pickering became the nies, 1st line, 9,453; 20 line, 21,411. The fleet, e Reporter, and continued so during the in 1867, consisted of 26 armed, and 19 non

eight years of the chief justiceship of armed vessels; total 45 vessels, with 355 guns. C Parker, and the first ten of that of The imports of Portugal, in 1866, amounted to e Shaw, who succeeded to the office on 26,530,000 milreis ; the exports to 19,190,000 death of Judge Parker, in July, 1830. His rts of the decisions of the Supreme Court

* For a list of Portuguese colonies in Asia and Africa, assachusetts during these eighteen years see ANNUAL AMERICAN CYCLOPEDIA for 1866. The total 2-1840) fill 24 octavo volumes. They are population of the colonies was then estimated at 3,811,818. Pickering's Reports," and are re

The large difference proceeds solely from the discrepant

statements concerning Angola, for which then 2,000,000 -d as a necessary part of every good law and now 9,000,000 are claimed.

Vol. VII.-40

on as






Number Miles of offices, of routes.

Expesses of


22.081 75,359 128.614


1805, 1810.. 1815.

903 20.813
2.300 36,406
3,000 43,966
4.500 72,492
5.679 94,052
8,450 115,176
10,770 112,774

745,121 15.


14,183 143,940

24.110 227.908


milreis. The movement of shipping, in 1866, 1850; S. D. Hubbard, 1852; James Campilki was as follows:

1853; A. V. Brown, 1857; Joseph Holt, 1978;

Horatio King, 1860; Montgomery Blair, 1871; Portuguese..

5,490 5,250 William Dennison, 1864; and A. W. Rand. Foreign.....

5,258 5,333 1866. Total....

In the early stages of our national his 10,748 10,583

the growth of the department was slot. b From the official report and accounts for 1790 there were but seventy-five offices in L 1866 of the Crédit Foncier of Lisbon, it appears United States, and but 1,875 miles of postthat this association, which commenced in 1865, routes. The general post-office in that reas loaned during the last six months of 1865 to 41 was located at New York; in 1796 it was trans borrowers a sum of 1,300,000 fr., and in 1866 ferred back to Philadelphia, and in 1860) TE the operations amounted to 2,600,000 fr., and fixed at Washington, then just established v the number of clients to 400. In January, the capital. The growth of this service 1867, the sums loaned were equal to 1,650,000 be traced by the following figures, quinques fr., thus showing the rapid progress of the in- ally arranged, showing the number of ozit stitution.

the miles of post-routes, the expenses of trat The new ministry, which was appointed in portation, the total expenses, and the total :: January, 1868 (see above), dissolved the Cor- ceipts. tes, and a new election was ordered, which took place in April, and resulted in a ministerial majority. On the 15th of April the new Cortes were opened by the King, who announced that 1790.

1,875 the Minister of Finance would shortly present 1800. bills to the Cortes for improving public credit

31,076 and reorganizing the financial system of the


487,799 kingdom, that public instruction was receiving 1820

782, 125 1,1698 111! attention, and that measures had been taken to

785,616 1.206.34 1.4

1,274,019 1.922, 154 tranquillize the country.

1.719,007 2,737,310 On the 25th of June a complete amnesty was

13,468 155,739 3,213,013 4.716.28 130

2,898,030 4,391.446 granted for all political crimes.

18,417 178,672 3,095,974 5.912.99 * In July a ministerial crisis was caused by 1855.

6,076,335 9.695 342 660 the unanimous refusal of the Council of State

28,498 240.591

9,637,139 19,171,010 21

1865. 28,882 142,310 7,432,289 13.01.18 1459 to agree to the ministerial proposal to close 1866. 29,389 180,921 8,201,954 15,359,00 111 the Chambers until November. The result

25,163 203.245 11.940,730 1920,4 175 was the formation of a new ministry (see

26,481 216,928 12,647,949 29,730.3.2 above).

The whole amount of postal receipts POST-OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES. 1790 has been $284,658,142; the total s The foundations of the Post-office Department of expenditures, $319,236,096, showing a were laid by Congress at Philadelphia, May 10, the income of the department, during the 1775. A committee of six was appointed, seventy-eight years, has not equalled its : Benjamin Franklin chairman, to “consider thé penditures by more than thirty-five millet best means of establishing posts for conveying dollars, most of which deficiency has acera- letters and intelligence throughout the coun- the last fifteen years. England with a le try.” A plan was sketched out by Franklin, postage, and paying over four millions of di and adopted by Congress, that has always been subsidies to mail steamers, nets over serisi substantially followed. The committee recom- lion dollars profit per annum on her posts mended “that a Postmaster-General be ap- come; the United States, with a three pointed for the United Colonies, who shall postage, and paying but a million of dolin hold his office at Philadelphia, and shall be al- steam lines, suffers a deficiency of sis £ lowed a salary of $1,000 per annum for him- half millions. This deficiency mainly em self, and $340 per annum for a Secretary and in the Southern and Western States and Tec! Comptroller.” Dr. Franklin was the first Post- tories. The late war closed orer four they master-General, and the following list gives two hundred offices in the Southern States 47 the names of all the Postmasters-General, with few of which it has been found necessary the dates of their appointment, from the foun- reopen.

But the year 1868, when there was dation of the Government.

deficiency of six and a half millions of de Benjamin Franklin, 1776; Richard Bache, shows a postal profit of three and a hal 1776; Ebenezer Hazard, 1782 ; Samuel Osgood, lions of dollars in thirteen States, and a lot 1789; Timothy Pickering, 1791; Joseph Ha- four and a quarter millions in thirt; bersham, 1795; Gideon Granger, 1802; R. J. States and Territories. The remainder if Meigs, 1814: John McLean, 1823; W. T. Bar- deficiency was from foreign mails, route ry, 1829; Amos Kendall, 1835; J. M. Niles

, etc., etc., not chargeable to specifie 1840; Francis Granger, March, 1841; C. A. The following table exhibits the receipts Wickliffe, September, 1841 ; Cave Johnson, expenditures of each State and Territori : 1845; Jacobo Collamer, 1819 ; N. K. Hall

, that year, and the excess of either:


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North Carolina, south Carolina.


ndiang llinois.

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ansas ebraska.. evada.. olorado tah


arrangements, come under his supervision.



About six thousand postmasters are annually

appointed by this bureau, 1,150 new offices esMaine..

$298,107 $284,268 $13,838 tablished, and 750 offices discontinued. New Hampshire. 187,075 166,583

20,491 179,433 202,894 $23,461

The Second Assistant Postmaster-General has Massachusetts. 1,292,749 738,801 653,947 the charge of the transportation of the mails, Rhode Island. 145,315 71,0501


placing the same under contract, determining Connecticut. 402,836 298,375

104,460 New York,

3,688,002 1,912,927 1,775,075 the frequency of trips, the mode of conveyance, New Jersey 824,844 287,630

37,214 and times of departure and arrival on all routes; Pennsylvania. 1,434,781 1,108,781

527,999 47,856 42,305


the course of the mail, points of mail distribuMaryland. 831,670 364,131 32,460

tion, and all regulations for the government Virginia.. 261,362 892,330 130,967

of the domestic mail service of the United West Virginia.. 105,806 197,261 91,455

States. He prepares the quadrennial adver100,768 157,590 56,821

tisement of mail lettings, receives the bids, acieorgia

208,654 256,748 48,094 Florida 36,724 105,175 71,450

cepts the sureties, and has the supervision of Ohio 1,119,455 1,174,870 55,514

the adjustment and execution of contracts. Lichigan.. 508,186 626,041

To his division is assigned the duty of receiving 419,012 549,245 100,233 1,306,733 1,008,715

298,918 and examining the registers of the arrivals and Fisconsin, 420,426 434,865 14,439

departures of the mails, the service of route 396,119 375,999

20,119 Lissouri. 495,085 631,271 186,186

agents, and reports of mail failures. All busiCentucky. 274,603 311,737 37,133

ness respecting lost money, mail depredations, 'ennessee

200,500 246,823 46,322 labama..

and other violations of law, the preparation 136,325 272,759 136,424 lississippi 101,155 214,191 113,035

of post-route maps, diagrams, and other toporkansas

47,317 247,594 200,246 ouisiana

graphical work, belong

to this bureau.
220,484 335,543 106,058
145,916 396,062 250,145

The Third Assistant Postmaster-General has alifornia, 398,392 655,557 257,165

charge of the finance business of the departregon

30,109 384,119 354,018 {innesota.. 147,620 216,413

ment. He has the supervision of the quarterly 68,793 99,692 630,594 503,902

returns of postmasters, the weekly and monthly 54,494 138,586 84,091

returns of depositories; and receives all appli30,145 259,033 228,887 34.167 52,559 18,392

cations for postage-stamps, stamped envelopes, 16,068 485,573 469,505

and dead letters. ew Mexico,

8,264 250,122 242,858 lashington. 6,364 101,472 95,106

Post-Roads.—Post-roads established by law 15,412 77,034 61,622

are, 1st, those roads of the country declared rizona.

1,968 150,411 148,413 laho 9,482 33,891 24,409

such by Congress; 2d, all waters on which 16,611 44,127 27,515

steamboats regularly pass; 3d, the navigable istrict of Columbia. 122,694 97,261

25,433 canals on which mails are carried; 4th, all rail laska....




and plank roads; 5th, those roads on which the Total

4,285,796 3,456,448 Postmaster-General causes the mails to be car

ried from the nearest offices on post-roads to Grants in aid of the postal revenue, during court-houses not otherwise provided with the e past year, were as follows: for transporta- mail; 6th, all roads to special offices; and 7th, on between Atchison and Folsom, $900,000; roads established as post-routes under the 10th r steamship service to China, $125,000; to section of the act of March 3, 1851, in cities razil, $150,000 ; for free mail matter, $3,800,- and towns, where the postmasters are ap0; for post-route maps, $10,000; for new pointed by the President. Post-roads must ail routes, $486,525; and for the mail to Cali- be established by Congress, and the Postmasnia, $225,000; in all, $5,696,525.

ter-General can neither establish nor lengthen Organization of the Department.—The De- them. He can only place mail service on such tment is under the direction of a Postmas- roads as have been established by law, and for -General, aided by three Assistant Postmas- the expense of which an appropriation has been s-General. It is carried on by 26,481 post- made. During the past three years, the aggresters, each having the charge of a local gate length of mail routes has increased over ce; 6,891 contractors for carrying the seventy-four thousand miles, and the annual

8,226 routes; 1,468 money-order transportation over twenty-six millions of es; 722 route agents and railway clerks; miles. The carriage of mail matter over a 1,198 letter-carriers.

mail route by any other than the contractor is he First Assistant Postmaster-General pre- illegal, unless the same has been prepaid by a = over the appointment office. To his stamped envelope; and a fine of from $50 to ge belongs all business relating to the es- $150 for each offence is imposed upon the pershment or discontinuance of post-offices, son establishing an express for the transmission ges of name or location, appointment or re of mail matter out of the mails, and on the al of postmasters, route and local agents, owner of every stage, coach, car, steamboat, nstructions to postmasters. All postmas- or other vehicle, making regular trips, and whose salary is under one thousand dol- carrying any person acting as such express. are appointed in this burean. The Oce The Finances.—The Post-office Department nail steamship lines, and all foreign postal has nothing to do with the funds received for

ls on

postage, nor does it pay postmasters or con- are allowed sixty per cent. on the first $100 tractors : this is the work of the Treasury. No of letter-postage, fifty per cent. on the next moneys are to be paid into the department, $300, forty per cent. on the next $2.000, aná nor are any to be paid out directly by it. fifteen per cent. on all over $2,000. They are When postmasters remit the proceeds of post- also allowed in the salary all emoluments, such age to the department without due authority as box-rents, and fifty per cent. on newspafrom the Postmaster-General, it is returned at per-postage; but the salary can never exceed the risk of the person sending it. All the $4,000. They are allowed no perquisites

, the financial operations connected with the mails salary equalling the compensation formers are transacted by the Treasury Department. received from commissions and bos-tezte For the purpose of paying over the funds due, The postmaster of New York has a salary or offices are classed as collection, draft, or de- $6,000: all other offices are divided into fire posit offices. Collection offices, which class classes. Postmasters of the first class receive includes nearly all the offices of the country, from $3,000 to $1,000 annual salary; postrizia except those that are the termini of routes, ters of the second class receive from $2,000 to pay over the net proceeds of their office quar- $3,000; those of the third class, from $1,10 terly to the contractor who brings their mail. up to $2,000; those of the fourth class, fra Draft offices are ordered to retain their funds $100 up to $1,000; and those of the fifth clas in hand to meet drafts; and deposit offices are receive less than $100. Postmasters of the required to deposit, quarterly or oftener, their first and second class are allowed rent, fuel funds with some depositary. No allowance is light, and clerk hire, if their commissions on made for deficiency in weight of coin or for cancelled stamps will allow it. In our langt counterfeit currency.

cities Government usually erects an edince of The forging, counterfeiting, or using counter- which the lower stories are used for post-offices feit stamps is a felony, subjecting the offender and the higher for courts or internal rerente to a penalty of confinement at hard labor for offices. not less than two nor more than ten years. Franking and Postage.-The law requires

Postmasters.—Postmasters of offices, where the prepayment by stamps of postage on si the salaries exceed $1,000, are appointed and letters, excepting those written to and br the removed by the President, by and with the President, Vice-President, Members of (ttconsent of the Senate. The commission, which gress, or (on official business) to and by the runs for four years, issues from the State De- chiefs of the executive departments, the tests partment, and is signed by the President, and of bureaus, and chief clerks, and others intesta? countersigned by the Secretary of State; he is with the franking privilege. This privilta. legally known as “Deputy Postmaster." His formerly belonging to postmasters, has la1 bond is renewed every four years. At all withdrawn, except on matter sent on oi offices, where the salary does not exceed $1,000, business. The right to send or receive mai the Postmaster-General has the sole power of matter free is either a personal privilege i appointment and removal. Minors, married a trust for the maintenance of official women, and all other persons, who cannot respondence. The franking privilege canno legally execute an official bond and take the be delegated to another, but travels with te required oath, are incapable of holding the person possessing it, and can be esercizel is office of postmaster. No one can be postmas- but one place at the same time. Counterid ter, who does not reside in the city or town ing a frank subjects the offender to a fine or wherein the office is situated, or within the $500. One-half the penalties, for violation de delivery of the office; and all the assistants or the franking privilege, goes to the prosecc. clerks must be at least sixteen years old. Nor one-half to the United States. Gorenus is a postmaster permitted to transfer the charge makes an annual allowance to the departmof his office, and the performance of its duties, of $700,000, in consideration of the free ne: to another. He must permit no person, ex- ter it carries; but the actual cost, probably. cept his sworn assistants, clerks, and letter- exceeds $3,000,000. All mailable matter is carriers, to have access to letters, papers, or divided into three classes; 1, letters, or comme whatever constitutes a part of the mail, or to spondence wholly or partly in writing: the mail locks or keys: nor should the mails regular or printed matter, issued at state! be opened or made up within the reach of per- periods ; 3, miscellaneous matter, such as pinsons not authorized to handle them. In case phlets, books, proof-sheets, and all other ISof death, the responsibilities of the sureties ter which is, or hereafter may be, by lav de continue till a successor is qualified; and the clared mailable. No packet can be receire sureties can perform the duties of the office the mail weighing over four pounds. Packaras till that event. Postmasters, their clerks, containing liquids, poisons, explosire che postriders, and drivers of mail stages, are ex- icals, or other matter, calculated to enda empt from militia duties and from serving on the safety of the mails, must be excluded juries.

envelope or packet is allowed to contain l.: The salaries of postmasters are fixed once in ters addressed to different persons, and soca two years, based on the amount of stamps can- envelope or packet must be sent at once to the celled in the two previous quarters. They dead-letter office. Letters or packages at

dressed to fictitious persons or firms must be gle letters, not travelling over 3,000 miles ; forwarded each month to the dead-letter when not prepaid, five cents; when sent over office,

3,000 miles, double these rates. In 1855, a Postage must be prepaid on all mail matter, law was passed making drop letters one cent; except, i, matter lawfully franked; 2, foreign single letters under 3,000 miles, three cents; letters; 3, printed matter, sent to regular sub over that distance, ten cents, and prepayment scribers; and 4, letters sent by soldiers, sailors, compulsory. In July, 1856, all postage was and marines. The single rate of postage is made payable in stamps. The history of this and three cents per half ounce, with an additional of all countries proves that there is no instance rate of three cents for each additional half on record where a reduction of rates has been ounce or fraction of a half ounce. Prepaid and followed by a permanent reduction of revenue ; free letters are forwarded, at the request of and that all improvement and facilities bring a the party addressed, from one post-office to corresponding increase of postage. In Enganother without additional charge. Letters land, the penny postage enlarged the annual indorsed with a request for return to the wri- number of letters from eighty-seven and a half ters are sent back, when uncalled for, without millions to seven hundred and seventy-five charge. All drop letters must be prepaid at millions; and the net income of the departtwo cents per half ounce, where the carrier ment, after the payment of all expenses and a delivery is established; at other offices, one number of heavy subsidies to steam lines, has cent.

risen from $1,735,000 in 1857 to $7,106,000 in The postage on newspapers published every 1867; a gain of over four hundred per cent. lay of the week, prepaid quarterly in advance, within ten years. • * sthirty-five cents per quarter; when published Transportation of the Mails. All transporix times a week, thirty cents; tri-weekly, tation is by contract, and no Member of Confteen cents; weekly, five cents. Weekly gress, postmaster, clerk in a post-office, or in apers to subscribers living within the county the Post-office Department, can be a contractor f publication are free, even when the subscri or concerned in a contract for carrying the er takes the mail matter from an office in mail. The lettings must be advertised in not 1 adjoining county. The exchange of news more than five newspapers in the State where apers and periodicals is free. Religious, educa- the service is to be performed, for at least onal, and agricultural papers of small size, is- twelve weeks before the contract is made. ed less frequently than once a week, may be And, by the terms of the contract, the Postnt in packages to one address for one cent for master-General may discontinue or curtail the ch four ounces. And newsdealers may send service in whole or in part, allowing to the

actual subscribers papers and periodicals contractor one month's extra pay on the epaid at quarterly rates, and may receive amount of service discontinued, and a pro rata em from publishers at subscriber's rates. compensation for the amount of service reoks cost four cents per four ounces. Un- tained. led circulars, not exceeding three to one All the States and Territories are divided into Tress, are two cents; miscellaneous matter, four mail contract sections. A letting of one o cents per four ounces. All transient mat- of these occurs each spring, the service to

must be prepaid by stamps; if unpaid, commence the first of July following. The able postage must be collected on delivery. sections and their current contract terms are send writing on printed matter subjects the as follows: ire package to letter postage.

1. Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, MassaThe rates of postage have constantly varied chusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, and New this country, always tending downward. York; these contracts expire June 30, 1869. nklin was the first Postmaster-General who 2. New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Wed newspapers of his own city, other Maryland, District of Columbia,' and Ohio; ? his own, to travel post; and he intro- current term to end June 30, 1872. ed the system of free exchange between 3. West Virginia, Virginia, North and South spapers. He materially lowered the exist- Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Missisrates of postage, fixing the Oceanic rate at sippi, Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, and Indian

pence, whatever the distance; on land, Territory; June 30, 1871. niles, four pence; 100 miles, six pence; 4. Tennessee, Kentucky, Missouri, Iowa, miles, eight pence; and every additional Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin, MinneIred miles, two pence. In 1818, Congress sota, Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Colorado,

the rates at 61, 10, 124, 181 and 25 cents New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, Montana, Idaho, single letter, according to distance. In Washington, Oregon, California, and Nevada; - the half-ounce scale was adopted for June 30, 1870. 2 letters, and the rates were established There are 8,226 mail routes in these States, e and ten cents, against the earnest op- of an aggregate length of 216,928 miles, let to Eon of Hon. 0. A. Wickliffe, then Post- 6,891 contractors. Of these, railroads carry er-General. Six years later, a farther the mails 36,018 miles at a cost of about twelve etion was made, and one cent was charged cents per mile; steamboats, 19,647 miles at a cop letters, prepaid; three cents for sin- little over seventeen cents per mile; and stage

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