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That make ambition virtue! O, farewel!

7 Farewel the neighing steed and the thrill trump,

Farewel the neighing feed, and the fhrill trump.


The fpirit-ftirring drum, the EAR-PIERCING fife,] Dr. Warburton has offered fear-fperfing, for fear-difperfing. But ear-pierc ing is an epithet fo eminently adapted to the fife, and fo diftinct from the thrillnefs of the trumpet, that it eertainly ought not to be changed. Dr. Warburton has been cenfured for this propofed emendation with more noife than honesty, for he did not himfelf put it in the text. JOHNSON.

The fpirit-ftirring drum, th' ear-piercing fife,] In mentioning the fife joined with the drum, Shakspeare as ufual, paints from the hite; thofe instruments accompanying each other being ufed in his ages by the English foldiery. The fife, however, as a martial inftrument, was afterwards entirely difcontinued among our troops for many years, but at length revived in the war before the laft. Is is commonly fuppofed that our foldiers borrowed it from the Highlanders in the lait rebellion but I do not know that the fife is peculiar to the Scotch, or even used at all by them. It was first used within the memory of man among our troops by the British guards, by order of the duke of Cumberland, when they were encamped at Maestricht, in the year 1747, and thence foon adopted into o ther English regiments of infantry. They took it from the Allies with whom they ferved. This inftrument, accompanying the drum, is of coniiderable antiquity in the European armies, particularly the German. In a curious picture in the Afhmolean Mufeum at Oxford, painted 1525, reprefenting the fiege of Pavia by the French king where the emperor was taken prifoner, we fee fifes and drums. In an old English treatife written by William Garrard before 1587, and published by one captain Hichcock in 1591, intitled The Art of Warre, there are feveral wood cuts of military evolutions, in which thele inftruments are both introduced. In Rymer's Federa, in a diary of king Henry's fiege of Bulloigne 1544, mention is made of the drommes and viffleurs narching at the head of the king's army. Tom. xv. p. 53.

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The drum and fife were alfo much ufed at ancient festivals, fhews and proceffions. Gerard Leigh, in his Accidence of Armorie, printed in 1576, defcribing a Christmas magnificently celebrated at the Inner Temple, fays, "We entered the prince his hall,

where anon we heard the noyfe of drum and fife," p. 119. Ar a itately mafque on Shrove-Sunday, 1510, in which Henry VIII. was an actor, Holinfhed mentions the entry "of a drum

and fife apparelled in white damafke and grene bonnettes." Chron. iii. 855, col. 2. There are many more inftances in Ho Iinthed, and Stowe's Survey of London.


The fpirit-ftirring drum, the ear-piercing fife,
The royal banner; and all quality,

Pride, pomp, and circumftance of glorious war! And O you mortal engines, whofe rude throats The immortal Jove's dread clamours counterfeit, Farewel! Othello's occupation's gone!

Iago. Is it poffible ?-My lord,

Orb. Villain, be füre thou prove my love a whore

From the old French word vifleur, above-cited, came the Es glish word avhiffler, which anciently was ufed in its proper literal fenfe. Strype, fpeaking of a grand tilting before the court in queen Mary's reign, 1554, fays, from an old journal, that king Philip and the challengers entered the lifts, preceded by their

whifflers, their footmen, and their armourers." Ecclef. Me mor. iii. p. 211. This explains the ufe of the word in Shakfpeare, where it is alfo literally applied, Hen. V. act iv, fc. ult, behold the British beach

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"Pales in the flood with men, with wives and boys,

"Whose shouts and claps out-voice the deep-mouth'd fea, "Which like a mighty whiffler 'fore the king,

"Seems to prepare his way.'

By degrees, the word whiffer hence acquired the metaphorical meaning, which it at prefent obtains in common fpeech, and be came an appellation of contempt, Whifter, a light trivial charac ter, a fellow hired to pipe at proceffions. WARTON.

In the old dramatic piece, intitled Wine, Beer, Ale, and Tobacco, 2d edit. 1630. Tobacco fays to Beer:

it will become your duty to obey me,"

To which Wine replies:

"You our fovereign! a mere whiffler !" Again, in Ram-alley, or Merry Tricks, 1611;

-he was known

"But only for a fwaggering whiffler." STEEVENS, Pride, pomp, and circunftance of glorious war !] Sir William D'Avenant does not appear to have been fcrupulous of adopting aimoft Shakspeare's own words. So, in Albovine, 1629:


"Then glorious war, and all proud circumftance
"That gives a foldier noife, for evermore farewell."

whofe rude throats] So Milton, P. L. b. 6.
"From thofe deep-throated engines," &c.
The quarto, 1622, reads whofe vide throats.


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Be sure of it; give me the ocular proof;

[Catching hold on him, Or, by the worth of mine eternal foul', Thou hadst been better have been born a dog, Than anfwer my wak'd wrath,

Jago. Is it come to this?

Oth. Make me to fee it; or (or at leaft) fo prove it, That the probation bear no hinge, nor loop, To hang a doubt on: or, woe upon thy life! Jago. My noble lord,

Oth, If thou doft flander her, and torture me, Never pray more: abandon all remorfe;

On horror's head horrors accumulate;

Do deeds to make heaven weep 3, all earth amaz'd For nothing canft thou to damnation add,

Greater than that.

Lago. O grace! O heaven defend me !

Are you a man? have you a foul, or fenfe?-
God be wi' you; take mine office,-Owretched fool,
That liv't to make thine honefty a vice !—

O monftrous world! Take note, take note, O world,
To be direct and honeft, is not fafe.-

I thank you for this profit; and, from hence, I'll love no friends, fith love breeds fuch offence. Oth. Nay, ftay:-Thou should't be honest,

mine eternal foul] Perhaps the quarto, 1622, more forcibly reads: man's eternal foul. Shakspeare might have defigned an oppofition between man and dog. STEEVENS,

-abandon all remorfe ;] I believe, remorfe in this instance, as in many others, fignifies pity, STEEVENS,


Do deeds to make heaven weep,] So, in Meafure for Meafure:
Plays fuch fantaftick tricks before high heaven
"As make the angels veep. STEEVENS.

4 That liv'ft] Thus the quarto. The folio-that lov't


5-fith-] The word anciently used instead of fince; and fo

the quartos read. STEEVENS,


Iago. I fhould be wife, for honefty's a fool, And lofes that it works for.


Oth. By the world,

I think my wife be honeft, and think fhe is not ;
I think that thou art juft, and think thou art not;
I'll have fome proof: Her name that was as fresh
As Dian's vifage, is now begrim'd and black
As mine own face.-If there be cords, or knives,
Poifon, or fire, or fuffocating streams,

I'll not endure it.-'Would, I were fatisfied!
Iago. I fee, fir, you are eaten up with paffion;
I do repent me, that I put it to you.

You would be fatisfied?

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Oth. Would? nay, I will.

Iago. And may; But, how? how fatisfied, my lord?

Would you, the fupervifor, grofely gape on?
Behold her tupp'd ??

Oth. Death and damnation! O!

Iago. It were a tedious difficulty, I think, To bring 'em to that profpect: Damn them then, If ever mortal eyes do fee them bolster, More than their own! What then? how then? What shall I fay? Where's fatisfaction?

It is impoffible, you fhould fee this,

& Were they as prime as goats, as hot as monkeys,
As falt as wolves in pride, and fools as grofs
As ignorance made drunk. But
But yet, I fay,

6 By the world, &c.] This fpeech is not in the first edition.

POPE. Behold her tupp'd?] A ram in Staffordshire and fome other counties is called a tup. So, in the first act ;

an old black ram


Is tupping your white ewe. Were they as prime as goats,] Prime is prompt, from the Celtic or British prim. HANMER.

So, in the Vov-breaker, or the Faire Maid of Clifton, 1536; More prime than goats or monkies in their prides."

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If imputation, and strong circumstances,→
Which lead directly to the door of truth,-
Will give you fatisfaction, you might have it.
Oth. Give me a living reafon that she's difloyal,
lago. I do not like the office:


But, fith I am enter'd in this caufe fo far,-
Prick'd to it by foolish honefty, and love,-
I will go on.. I lay with Caffio lately;
And, being troubled with a raging tooth,
I could not fleep.

There are a kind of men fo loofe of foul,
That in their fleeps will mutter their affairs;
One of this kind is Caffio:

In fleep I heard him fay,-Sweet Defdemond,

Let us be wary, let us hide our loves!

And then, fir, would he gripe, and wring my hand
Cry,-O fweet creature! and then kifs me hard; +
As if he pluck'd up kiffes by the roots,

That grew upon my lips and lay his leg
Over my thigh, and figh, and kifs; and then
Cry, Curfed fate! that gave thee to the Moor!
Oth. O monftrous! monftrous!

lago. Nay, this was but his dream.

Oth. But this' denoted a foregone conclufion; 'Tis a fhrewd doubt, though it be but a dream, Tage. And this may help to thicken other proofs, That do demonftrate thinly.

9 Give me a living reafon-] Living, for fpeaking, manifeft. WARBURTON.

The reading of the folio is fimoother:

Give me a living reafon fhe's difloyal. MALONE.
a foregone conclufion] Conclufion, for fact.

WARBURTON. Othel 'Tis a fhrewd doubt, &c.] The old qua to gives this line, with the two following, to lago; and rightly.


I think it more naturally fpoken by Othello, who, by dwelling fo long upon the proof, encouraged lago to enforce it.



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