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In June the Russian Government addressed 1. There shall immediately be organized a Gore a communication to several foreign Govern- ernment General of Turkestan, to be composed of the ments, proposing the prohibition by treaty of province of Turkestan, of the District of Tastiketi the use of explosive projectiles in war, or the 1866, and of that portion of the province of se limitation of such projectiles to submarine palatinsk which is situated to the south of the Tartatorpedoes. On the 17th of July Prince Gort- gatai chain of mountains. schakoff notified the Russian representatives bounded: (A.) On the side of the Government Get
2. The Government General of Turkestan shala abroad, by a circular, that, Russia having as
eral of Western Siberia by the Tarbagatai chain sed sented to the proposal of the Berlin Cabinet, its branches as far as the actual frontier which seythat commissioners and experts from the dif- arates the province of Semi-palatinsk from the ferent Governments should meet at St. Peters- the Khirghizes of Siberia; bý that frontier as far a
the Balkasch Lake, farther on by a bend at the enburg to draw up a protocol excluding the use
tre of this lake; and from its shores by a street of explosive missiles in future warfare, these line as far as the Tchou River,
and finally by commissioners would be able to assemble on course of that river as far as its confiuence with the the 13th of October. The meeting took place Syr-Daria. (B.) On the side of the Government Gaz at the appointed time, and agreed upon the eral of Orenburg, by a line going from the cente: following treaty, which was signed by the bes Mountain, thence to the place called Teroci representatives of Bavaria, Belgium, Denmark, thereafter to the Kalmas Mountain, to the list England, France, Greece, Holland, Italy, Persia, called Mozchille, to the Akhoun and Tchoubar Tas Portugal, Austria, Prussia, Russia, Sweden, Mountains to the southern point of the Myint-se Switzerland, Turkey, and Wurtemberg:
sands, and to the place called Syine Boulak a tere
the confluence of the Sary-Sou and Tchou Pirers. Considering that the progress of civilization ought 3. The new Government General shall be diride? to result in diminishing as much as possible the suf- into two provinces, those of Syr-Daria and Shui ferings inseparable from war; that the only legiti- chensk, whose line of separation will be funds mate object pursued in war is to weaken the force of proximately by the Kourogoty River. the enemy; that to attain this it suffices to place as 4. The superior administration of the contes many men as possible hors de combat ; that to make thus formed will be committed to a Goveret use of expedients which shall unnecessarily enlarge eral, and that of the provinces of Syr-Daris see the wounds of the men placed hors de combat, or en miretchense to Military Governors; as regards the tail inevitable death, is incompatible with the before- administration of the troops and military estats mentioned object; that to make use of such expedi- ments, these two provinces will form the Mi ents would, moreover, be contrary to the teachings Circumscription of Turkestan, and the comma of humanity :
the troops cantoned there will devolve on the ba The undersigned, in virtue of the instructions ernor-General with the title of Commandant at given them by their Governments, are authorized to troops of the Circumscription, and on the La declare as follows:
Governors with the title of Commandant to 1. The contracting parties engage, in the event of troops in those provinces. war between any of them, to abstain from the use of 5. On the opening of the provinces of Syn-Isra missiles of any description possessing explosive and Semiretchensk, the civil administrations de power, or filled with explosive or inflammable mate are now there will continue as before, subject to t rial, weighing less than 400 grammes. This restric- respective Military Governors, pending the san tion to apply to the army and navy alike.
of a general scheme for the government of the Fau 2. They likewise invite all those states not repre- country. The Senate will make the necessary ? sented at the deliberations of the military commis- rangements for giving effect to this order. sion assembled at St. Petersburg, to subscribe to this
(Signed) ALEXANDER mutual engagement. 3. In the event of war this engagement is to be ob
General Kaufmann, who, on July 26, 187,5 served only toward the contracting parties, and those appointed Governor-General of Turkestan. " be observed toward any who have not signified their kend he was received in triumph by the Pthat may subsequently subscribe to it. It need not rived in his province in November. At Isa assent to the above stipulations.
4. The above engagement likewise ceases to be sian settlers, and he was said to have made s valid, if a state that has not signed it takes part in a great impression upon the Asiatics. Accent war between parties that have signed it.
ing to English reports, the general feelin: 5. Whenever the progress of science results in any all the Khanates of Independent Tartart new definite proposals being made for improving the mained very hostile to Russia. The Fries well as those who have subsequently joined this India gave the following description of inte engagement, will assemble to maintain the principles situation at the beginning of the year 1808: laid down to reconcile the requirements of war with the demands of humanity.
The trade is reviving but slowly under the presc
of the Russian officials. Many of the Kokach It has already been stated in the ANNUAL are taking refuge with Yakoob Kush Bezi, and AMERICAN CYCLOPÆDIA, for 1867, that the Rus- Khan of Kashgar. Those who have remaineol sian Government, to consolidate its new pos- sians, that General Kaufmann has been otlus
given such demonstrations of hostility to this session in Central Asia, reorganized, in 1867, call in the mediation of Khludoff, who has been the new province of Turkestan. The following structed to assure the Khan of Kokand that D: is the text of the imperial ukase (dated July 23, fication will protect him from the Russian trus 1867), concerning this subject:
the event of any hostile disturbance. The ADA
Bokhara would seem to be playing a double Deeming it expedient to modify the civil and mil- the object of which is apparently to gain tirce. itary organization of the territories bordering on envoy has been evidently shuttling with the Is China and the Khanates of Central Asia which form sians, and it will be his last resource to eck! part of the Governments General of Orenburg and any alliance with the invaders. The Amee? * * Western Siberia, we hereby ordain as follows: bigoted a Mussulman, however, to observe 5
treaty that he may be compelled to make with in- Samarcand, which he annexed to the dominfidels, and is known to entertain exaggerated views ions of the Czar, and Bokhara fell subsequently. hopes of assistance from that quarter. In Khiva the Marching on Bokhara, the Russians left no dehatred against the Russians was still more intense, tachments south of Samarcand, and withdrew and the Khan was organizing alliances with the their troops from Charjoe. After the capture Turcoman chiefs, and constructing forts. The Khwans of Samarcand, the Russians sustained several athad also succeeded in levying tribute from the Rus- tacks from numerous bodies of enemies, especialsian Kirghizes. Sadyk, the Kirghiz chief, had been harassing the Russian outposts at the front, and com- ly at Zelah Bulah, twelve versts from Katy Kurmitting serious depredations.
gane, where they were finally beaten and routed.
The Ameer's troops were commanded by Hadja A new war with the Ameer of Bokhara began (a Turk), and Osman (a renegade and formerly in May, 1868. It appears that in the early a Siberian Cossack). Meantime the troops of days of May the Russian troops commenced a Schlahr-Sialz, of Djura-By, advanced to Samarmarch from their frontier near Bokhara in the cand to the number of several thousands. The direction of Western China, weakening their inhabitants opened the gates and joined those garrisons considerably, but still leaving a suf- troops to besiege the citadel. General Kaufficient number of men stationed along the mann, of the Russian army, went to the asgreat river route of their first advance to en- sistance of the besieged by forced marches, able their commanders to keep well informed and on the 20th of June, after a seige of eight as to any movements undertaken by the na- days, the citadel was liberated, and the enemy tives in their absence. On the 20th of May, driven from the town. Samarcand was then the Ameer, apparently deceived into an impres- declared fully and completely annexed to sion of the weakness of the Russians by these Russia. military movements, proclaimed a jehad, or holy In July, the Ameer of Bokhara accepted the war. Assuming for himself the position of terms of peace offered to him by General principal ruler of Turkestan, he formed an Kaufmann. They provided for the cession of alliance with the Khan of Khokand, and with Samarcand, and authorized the Russians to the Ameer of Oorgunge. The united forces of build cantonments at Karshi, Chasjui, and these chiefs gathered on the banks of the Zeraf- Kermineh. The first lies on the chief route. shan and menaced the Russians at Djizak from from Samarcand to Afghanistan ; the second the neighborhood of Samarcand. This formid- is a long-coveted site a little to the south of able coalition was at once met by the Russians, the Oxus; and the third a place of considerable by the march of enormous forces on Tashkend, consequence on the direct road between Samwhile the garrison of that place was pushed arcand and Bokhara. Cantonments and forforward to the seat of war. The army of the tifications in those three places form a triangle Khan was in comparison & mere rabble, since within which the Khanate of Bokhara will be every male in the Khanate, above the age of firmly locked. Among the other clauses of the twelve, was called upon to serve in its ranks. treaty were the following: 1. All Russian subWhile the force was gathering, the Ameer of jects, whatever their religion, are entitled to Oorginge, or Khiva, remembered that Sirdar carry on trade in all parts of Bokhara, the Yakoob Ali Khan, Governor of Herat, and son Ameer being obliged to protect their persons, of Ameer Shere Ali, was under an obligation goods, and caravans within the frontiers of his to him, and dispatched an emissary to the Sir- dominions. 2. Russian merchants will be enlar with a view of adding the forces of Af- titled to station mercantile agents in all towns ghanistan to the crowds which were being of Bokhara. 3. The duty on Russian goods nassed against the Russians. The mission imported is not to exceed 2 per cent. of Failed in consequence of the envoy falling their value. 4. Russian merchants will be free nto the hands of Shere Ali during the ab- to cross Bokhara on their way to the neighence of his son on the Candahar expedi- boring principalities. Similar terms had been ion. Ameer Shere Ali detained the Khivan, agreed upon with Khokand a short time ago. In nd declared his intention of sending him the last months of the year, the Russian General n to the Russian camp. The Ameer en- Abramof, who commanded at Samarcand, aided camped at a place called Kermineh, between the Ameer of Bokhara to put down the rebelamarcand and Bokhara. Here he was visited lion of his son and other chiefs who wished to y a deputation of Moollahs, all desirous of overthrow the Ameer for having concluded a reaching up the crescentade, or religious war, treaty with the Russians. gainst the Russians. The Ameer's nephew RÚSSIA, THE CRIMINAL CODE OF. As the ext set out for Samarcand with a body of Emperor Alexander II., of Russia, by his ukase (oollahs and Jehadis, and encamped at the of November 20, 1864, introduced a number arine of Ahmed Jan, a distance of five hun- of important reforms in the administration of red paces from the walls. Here they were at- civil justice, so he decreed by his ukase of cked by the Russians, and, many of their men March 19, 1867, that a commission of jurists, eing killed, the remainder fied. The eldest son to be appointed by the Minister of Justice, f the Ameer commanded at Samarcand. The should prepare a report in regard to the modiussian general-in-chief, immediately on hear- fications that should be adopted in the crimig of the Ameer's proceedings, marched on nal code in order to remedy its defects and
harmonize it with the spirit of the age. This degree: Criminals exempted from corporal report, which was presented to the Minister of punishment, after being divested of all the priviJustice in February, 1868, and approved by leges of their rank, are transported to Siberis the Emperor and the Senate in May, was a great where they are imprisoned for life at hard ladisappointment to the more enlightened por- bor in the mines. Non-exempted criminals tion of the people of Russia, who had confi- receive in addition one hundred lashes, which dently expected that the laws of their country are inflicted publicly by the executioner, and would in this respect, too, be rendered more with the exception of women, or men over like those of Western Europe. For, although seventy years of age, they are branded on the the report, as submitted to the minister and cheeks and forehead with the letters K. A. T. approved by the Government, recommended (Katorshnyi-convict), Second degree: Fo: the repeal of quite a number of sections of the exempted criminals, transportation to sthe criminal code, promulgated by the Em- beria, hard labor in the mines for from fifteen peror Nicholas on the 1st of May, 1846, the to twenty years, and colonization for life; fit changes which it proposed related principally the non-exempted, from eighty to ninety lashes to the mode of criminal procedure, and modi- and branding in addition. Third degree : Fur fied but very slightly the list of crimes, their the exempted, transportation to Siberia, hari definitions, and the penalties imposed upon labor in the mines for from twelve to fideca them. Considerations, partly of a political years, and colonization; the non-exempted reand partly of a religious character (a majority ceive from seventy to eighty lashes, and are of the so-called Old Russian party, whose influ- branded, in addition. Fourth degree: For tæe ence, for the time being, has become para- exempted, transportation to Siberia, hard labor mount in Russia, being opposed to radical re- for from ten to twelve years in a fortress and forms in the domestic laws of the country till colonization for life; for the non-exempted the Russification of the border provinces has sixty to seventy lashes, and branding, in addbeen fully carried into effect), caused the Gov- tion. Fifth degree: For the exempted, traasernment of the Czar to content itself for the portation to Siberia, hard labor for from eigts present with this half measure; and, unless to ten years in a fortress, and colonization fr revolutionary convulsions should supervene, a life; for the non-exempted, fifty to sisty lashes considerable time will elapse, in all probability, and branding, in addition. Sixth degree: Fer before the criminal laws of Russia will be the exempted, transportation to Siberia hari changed so as to be more in keeping with the labor for from eight to ten years in a facery
, spirit of the age and the codes now in force in and colonization for life; for the non-exemptech other civilized countries.
forty to fifty lashes, and branding, in addition The criminal code of Russia, as revised in Seventh degree: For the exempted, transporte1868, contains upward of twenty-two hundred tion to Siberia, hard labor for from four to su paragraphs, or nearly five times as many as years in a factory, and colonization for life: the French code pénal, which contains 484 ar- for the non-exempted, thirty to forty lashes ticles, and nearly seven times as many as the and branding, in addition. Russian criminal code of April 14, 1851, which 3. Penal penalties of the third class. First has only 349 paragraphs. This extraordinary degree: For the exempted, transportation te extent of the Russian code is owing partly to the Eastern districts of Siberia, and coloniathe fact that it embraces, besides felonies, the tion for life; for the non-exempted, twent; te whole series of infractions of the laws regard. thirty lashes, in addition.
Second denne ing police matters, censorship, the construction for the exempted, transportation to the la of buildings, street and road improvements, remote districts of Siberia, and colonizat post-offices
, etc.—paragraphs which, in reality, for life ; for the non-exempted, ten to tchy should not have been incorporated with a lashes, in addition. criminal code, but, at the most, with a police 4. Penal penalties of the fourth c: code; and partly to the fact that the low state the criminals are transported beyond the Cutof culture and morality prevailing among a very casus, and col ized there for life. large portion of the population as yet stamps The seven classes of the correctional persib many acts as crimes which more enlightened ties are subdivided into twenty-five dem times would no longer regard and punish as and the whole classification is so illega such. Another peculiarity of the criminal and arbitrary that few Russian judges Eram code of Russia is, the large number and arbi- by heart what penalty is to be improve trary classification of penalties, of which there upon crimes of secondary importance and are no fewer than thirty-seven. They are di- printed tables of the various penalties sty vided into penal and correctional ones; of the generally consulted before sentence is position former, there are four classes, and of the lat- upon a prisoner. Both with the penal sb
. ter, seven, which are subdivided into a num- correctional penalties, there is coupled, in eo ber of “degrees;” namely:
tain cases, an ecclesiastical penance, the chose 1. Penal penalty of the first class: The acter and duration of which are fired by the criminal is divested of all the privileges of his Church authorities ; and some correctica rank, and suffers death.
penalties are rendered more serere bribe 2.' Penal penalty of the second class, first publication of the sentence in the Senate Go
zette, and in the newspapers of the two capi. Christianity, the union will be declared null and tals, and of the district seats; and by an order void, and the Mohammedan or Jewish husband, of the court, forbidding the offender to live at after being divested of all the rights and the capitals, at certain other places, or on his privileges of his rank, will be transported own estates, which are placed under the man- to a more or less remote district of Siberia agement of an official administrator, or to carry and colonized there for life." $ 193: “A on his former trade or profession. Special Jew who, without special legal permission, penalties, besides those enumerated in the code, keeps at his house a Christian to perform are imposed upon public functionaries who household duties for him, even though he does commit penal offences; in addition to the ordi- not incite him to defection from Christianity, nary penal and correctional penalties, they are shall be fined five rubles for every day which punished with permanent exclusion from the the Christian has passed at his house; and, in civil service, and cannot be elected to an office case of a repetition of the offence, imprisonby any noble corporation or town and village ment for from three weeks to three months authorities; or they are removed, and lose the will be added to the fine.” Even when Jews right of holding office for three years; they are are permitted to employ Christian domestics, reduced to a lower rank; sharp reprimands a fine of from one to two hundred rubles will are the mildest additional penalty inflicted upon be imposed upon them for causing female them.
Christian servants to live in the same house As regards the crimes enumerated in the with them. $195 says: "He who induces any Russian code, “ offences against religion and one to leave the Orthodox national Church infractions of the regulations established for and to join any other Christian denomination, the protection of religion” are treated of in will suffer the correctional penalty of the first the first chapter (s$ 182–263). “Blasphemy class, fifth degree ;” that is to say, a man who and disparaging expressions about religious converts somebody in the aforesaid manner matters declared to be terrible crimes, will, if exempted, be exiled for life to the disand heavy penalties are imposed upon defec- tricts of Tomsk or Tobolsk; if non-exempted, tion from the national faith, heresy, schismati- he will receive fifty to sixty lashes, be put for cal movements, and disregard of ecclesiastical one or two years into a convict-gang, and regulations. $ 182 says: “He who purposely finally be placed for one or two years under and publicly utters, in a church, a blasphemy the surveillance of the police. As for the conagainst the Triune God, or against the Holy vict, he is treated as a lunatic who must be Mother of God, and eternal Virgin Mary, cured by the ecclesiastical authorities, or, as against the cross of our Lord and Saviour Je- the code has it, “be brought to see his errors; sus Christ, against the incorporeal heavenly for this purpose a “tutelary administration of powers, or against the saints of the Lord and his whole property," and, above all, of the their images, shall suffer the penal penalty of “estates, on which orthodox peasants live,” is the second class, third degree. If this crime to be decreed by the courts. He is even foris committed outside the church, at a public bidden to live on his estates, “Jest the peasplace, or before a concourse of people, the ants and their servants should be exposed to penal penalty of the second class, sixth degree, temptation” ($196). On the other hand," he will be inflicted on the criminal.” Transporta- who prevents any one from voluntarily joining tion to Siberia will be inflicted on all who the orthodox Church will be imprisoned for make “blasphemous, heretical, or schismatical from three to six months” (s 199).
“He remarks," as specified in $ 182, in the presence who knows that his wife, his children, and of other persons, neither publicly, nor before a other persons intrusted to his care intend to concourse of people, but with the intention of leave the Orthodox Church, and does not emreviling the faith of his hearers, or producing ploy all means at his command to prevent it, a scandal.—$ 188 says: “He who utters irre- will be imprisoned for from three days to three ligious remarks, not with the intention of pro- months, and, in case he belongs himself to the ducing a scandal or giving vent to his contempt Orthodox Church, will be subjected to a church of religion, but from stupidity, ignorance, or penance" ($ 200). Most Draconic are the penwhile in a state of intoxication, will be im- alties imposed upon “heresy and schismatical prisoned for from three weeks to three months." movements.” $ 206 says in regard to them: No less rigorous penalties are imposed upon “He who disseminates the heretical and schispersons convicted of a defection from the na- matical teachings of those who have left the tional faith, heresy, and schismatical move- Orthodox Church, or founds a new sect inments. $192 says: “If a Mohammedan or jurious to religion, forfeits all the rights and Jew is married with a woman of the Lutheran privileges of his rank, and will be transported or Reformed creed, and, contrary to his written and colonized for life; if living in European promise, does not allow the children, issuing Russia, he will be sent to Transcaucasia; if from such a union, to be brought up in the domiciled in the Caucasian and Caspian provChristian religion, prevents his wife or children inc or in the Grusian-Imeretian district, he from worshipping God according to the rites will be sent to Siberia ; and, if a resident of of Christianity, or incites them, by dint of Siberia, he will be sent to the more remote threats or seductive arts, to defection from districts of that country. Those, for whom
this penalty is transformed into military ser- or killing or wounding them in the execution of vice, will not be furloughed nor dismissed un- some unlawful scheme. All attempts and plots til they have returned into the bosom of the to dethrone the Emperor, to deprive him of his Orthodox Church. The same penalty will be liberty, to limit his sovereignty, to do violence imposed on sectarians who, in fanatical infatu. to his person, are punished with death. The ation, venture to revile the Orthodox Church same penalty will be imposed upon all those or its ministers." $ 214: “He who issues old who attempt “to commit crimes against the religious books (that is to say, works on ortho- Emperor's honor," and even on "those who dox theology), in any other way than through know of the intentions of the criminals to the Moscow Synodal printing-office, sells such make such attempts, and fail to inform the sabooks, or disseminates them, or uses schismat- thorities thereof ($ 285). $267 says: "He ical books at church, will be fined, in the first who gets up and circulates written or printed instance, from 100 to 200 rubles; in the compositions or pictures, for the purpose of second and third instance, twice as much; reviling the Government or the person of the and, in the third instance, imprisonment for Emperor, will suffer the penal penalty of the from three to six ont will be added to the second class, fourth degree. The same punish fine. The books will be confiscated and de- ment will be inflicted on those who assist in livered to the ecclesiastical authorities." $ 215: getting up or circulating writings or picturas “He who establishes convents or retreats for of this description.” Imprisonment for from schismatics, erects or repairs a building de- seven days to three months will be imposed voted to schismatic worship, constructs altars upon those who possess such writings or pie in such buildings, or makes a prayer-house of tures without the permission of the authori a peasant's house, will be imprisoned for from ties, and they will, moreover, be placed under one to two years. All such buildings will be the surveillance of the police. $268 : * He demolished, and the materials will be delivered who dares to utter impertinent and insulting to the local committee of general welfare." words against the Emperor, even in his abFinally, § 217 says: “If the owner or manager sence, or intentionally injures, disfigures, or of a private estate or the tenant of a crown- destroys his statues or pictures in official buildestate receives into his house a Jew in a place ings or on public places, will be sentenced to infected with Jewish heresy, and which he suffer the penal penalty of the second class has been ordered to leave, he will be fined, in sixth degree. He who permits himself such the first two instances from fifty to one hun- impudent words or actions, while in a state of dred rubles: in the third instance, however, intoxication, without premeditation, will be the private estate is placed in the hands of á sent to the house of.correction for from sir to public administrator during the lifetime of the twelve months.” Imprisonment for from the guilty owner, or the manager is declared in- weeks to three months will be inflicted of capable of taking charge of any estate. If those who witness these words or actions, and peasants or commoners aid and abet such & neither hinder them nor bring them to the Jew in the aforesaid manner, they will be im- notice of the authorities. The same penalties prisoned, for the first and second time, for will be imposed upon those who violate the from three weeks to three months; or, if they majesty of the Empress, the Grand-duke Lt are not exempt from corporal punishment, reditary, or any other member of the imperiai they will receive from twenty to thirty lashes; house. for the third time, however, they will be im- No less Draconic are the paragraphs relating prisoned for from six months to one year." to "sedition, riots, and resistance to the
The retention of these Draconic paragraphs preme power of the Government." 22" in the penal code excited much dissatisfaction seq. begin with the following words: * on the part of the more enlightened opponents who gets up and circulates written or prind of the Old Russian party, especially the so- proclamations, manifestoes, or pictures
, for the called German wing of the Liberals and even purpose of exciting riots, sedition, or resistan a large part of the Conservative nobility, while to the supreme power of the Government
, 2 the extreme wing of the Old Russian or Na- be transported to Siberia for from eight wo la tional party was rather delighted with it; the years, imprisoned at hard labor in a forensi latter, on the other hand, was somewhat dis- and colonized for life. The same punishment appointed at the reappearance, in the revised will be inflicted on him who maliciouslyer penal code, of all the rigorous paragraphs of the culates such writings and pictures wide code of the Emperor Nicholas in regard to the having got them up himself
, or who assisz a so-called "state crimes.” At the head of this the perpetration of this crime in any mars part of the code stand the “crimes against the whatever, and, likewise, on him who deliver sacred person of the Emperor and against the public speeches for the same criminal purpose members of the imperial house." Capital pun. Even those who do not directly incite otis ishment will be inflicted upon all who attack to sedition and riot, but only deny and quote the lives of the Emperor, the Empress, the tion the authority of the Government, or if Grand-duke hereditary, and the other mem- to contest the existing form of Government < bers of the imperial family, or enter into crim- the order of possession, do not escape trasto inal plots for the purpose of murdering them, portation to Siberia, and the same punisimet